This excerpt is from a telegram sent to the Soviet Ambassador to the United States from the Acting
Secretary of State in September 1948. A copy of this telegram was sent to President Harry Truman on September 27, 1948.
1. The Governments of the United States, France and the United Kingdom, conscious of their
obligations under the charter of the United Nations to settle disputes by peaceful means, took the
initiative on July 30, 1948, in approaching the Soviet Government for informal discussions in Moscow in order to explore every possibility of adjusting a dangerous situation which had arisen by reason of measures taken by the Soviet Government directly challenging the rights of the other occupying powers in Berlin. These measures, persistently pursued, amounted to a blockade of land and water transport and communication between the Western Zones of Germany and Berlin which not only endangered the maintenance of the forces of occupation of the United States, France and the United Kingdom in that city but also jeopardized the discharge by those governments of their duties as occupying powers through the threat of starvation, disease and economic ruin for the population of Berlin. . . .
2According to this passage, what action taken by the Soviet Union created tensions between the Soviet government and the governments of the United States and its Allies?
Initial newspaper stories concerning Senator McCarthy’s speech in Wheeling, West Virginia, reported that the Senator said he knew of 205 communists in the State Department. Senator McCarthy later told the Senate he had used the number 57 in Wheeling. He placed this account of his Wheeling speech in the Congression lRecord.
. . . This, ladies and gentlemen, gives you somewhat of a picture of the type of individuals who
have been helping to shape our foreign policy. In my opinion the State Department, which is
one of the most important government departments, is thoroughly infested with Communists.
I have in my hand 57 cases of individuals who would appear to be either card carrying
members or certainly loyal to the Communist Party, but who nevertheless are still helping to
shape our foreign policy. One thing to remember in discussing the Communists in our government is that we are not dealing with spies who get 30 pieces of silver to steal the blueprints of a new weapon. We are dealing with a far more sinister type of activity because it permits the enemy to guide and shape our policy. . . .
4 According to this document, what did Senator McCarthy suggest about communist influence in the United States government? 
information about the military capabilities of other powerful nations, especially those that make
a fetish [obsessive habit] of secrecy. This involves many techniques and methods. In these times
of vast military machines and nuclear-tipped missiles, the ferreting [finding] out of this
information is indispensable to free world security. This has long been one of my most serious preoccupations. It is part of my grave responsibility ,within the over-all problem of protecting the American people, to guard ourselves and our allies against surprise attack. During the period leading up to World War II we learned from bitter experience the imperative [absolute] necessity of a continuous gathering of intelligence information, the maintenance of military communications and contact, and alertness of command. An additional word seems appropriate about this matter of communications and command. While the Secretary of Defense and I were in Paris, we were, of course, away from our normal command posts. He recommended that under the circumstances we test the continuing readiness of our military communications. I personally approved. Such tests are valuable and will be frequently repeated in the future. Moreover, as President, charged by the Constitution with the conduct of America’s foreign relations, and as Commander-in-Chief, charged with the direction of the operations and activities of our Armed Forces and their supporting services, I take full responsibility for approving all the various programs undertaken by our government to secure and evaluate military intelligence. It was in the prosecution [carrying out] of one of these intelligence programs that the widely publicized U-2 incident occurred. Aerial photography has been one of many methods we have used to keep ourselves and the free world abreast of major Soviet military developments. The usefulness of this work has been well established through four years of effort. The Soviets were well aware of it. Chairman Khrushchev has stated that he became aware of these flights several years ago. Only last week, in his Paris press conference, Chairman Khrushchev confirmed that he knew of these flights when he visited the United States last September. . . .
Source: President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Address, May 25, 1960,
Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Dwight D. Eisenhower 1960–1961
8 Based on this document, state two reasons given by President Eisenhower for gathering information about the Soviet military.