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Document 9

Source: Papal Encyclical of Pope Benedict XIV, June 14, 1751 to the Primate,

Archbishops and Bishops, of the Kingdom of Poland
In regard to the matter of the Jews, We must express our concern. Our

credible experts in Polish affairs have informed Us that the number of

Jews in that country has greatly increased. The Jews have so replaced

the Christians that some parishes are about to lose their ministers

because their revenue has dwindled so drastically…

Because the Jews control businesses selling liquor and even wine, they

are therefore allowed to supervise the collection of public revenues…they

have subjugated poor Christian farmers…some households of the great

have employed a Jew as “Superintendent-of-the-Household”; in this

capacity they ceaselessly flaunt authority over the Christians they are

living with. It is now even commonplace for Christians and Jews to

intermingle anywhere. What is less comprehensible is that Jews fearlessly

keep Christians as their domestics, bound to their service. Furthermore,

by means of their particular practice of commerce, they amass a great

store of money and then by an exorbitant rate of interest utterly destroy

the wealth and inheritance of Christians.

Document 10

Source: Map showing ‘The Pale of Settlement’ 1795- 1917

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