Document: Andrew G. Curtin to Abraham Lincoln, July 6, 1862 Harrisburg 6 July 1862

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Abraham Lincoln Papers


Document: Andrew G. Curtin to Abraham Lincoln, July 6, 1862

Harrisburg 6 July 1862.


I telegraphed you on my return from N. York recently asking for the appointment of J. J. Lewis Esq--1

1 Joseph J. Lewis

I am not only desirous to have Mr Lewis appointed for his own merrits and eminent qualifications, but that he is the choice of your friends in the State and all seem to unite on him--

It has so happened that since the commcemt of your administration not one important appointment has been made in Penna on my recomdation and now as there is no opposition to this appointment and my anxiety is well known it would give me the benefit in my support of your policy to be known and recognized as in friendly relations with you-- I believe I have given sufficient assurances of my disposition to support you, and surely it is not asking too much when I earnestly ask this appointment and assure you that a failure will cause me deep mortification--

Vy respectfuly

Your obt svt

A G. Curtin


Document: Andrew Johnson to Abraham Lincoln, July 6, 1862

Time Received 210 PM


Washington, D. C., July 6 1862.

Nashville July 6th

I see there is some contest in reference to the appointment of Judge for Tennessee. Rodgers is my personal friend but he will not do for Judge at this time. I hope he will not put upon us-- If I were permitted I could name the man who is eminently qualified for the position & adapted to the Present crisis & who would be acceptable to the union men, throughout the state.1

1 Connally F. Trigg received the appointment instead of Johnson’s friend, John B. Rodgers.

Andrew Johnson


Document: Samuel J. Kirkwood to Abraham Lincoln, July 5, 1862

Time Received 10 P.M.

Washington, D. C., July 6. 1862.

Davenport. Iowa -- July 5--

The 18 Iowa Infantry is rapidly organizing

Shall have it ready in about thirty days--

Our harvesting prevents rapid recruiting just now--

Iowa will do her duty--

She has furnished already seventeen 17 Regiments of Infantry-- Five 5 Regiments of Cavalry and three 3 batteries of artillery.

If you want a Regiment of three 3 months men they could easily be raised.1

1 Lincoln had issued a call for an additional 300,000 men on July 1.

Saml. J. Kirkwood



Document: Frederick L. Olmsted to Abraham Lincoln, July 6, 1862

Chesapeake Bay, July 6th 1862.

Mr President,

After having been for three months in the rear of the Army of the Potomac, superintending the business with it, of the Sanitary Commission, I have just spent a day in Washington, where I had the honor of conversing with several gentlemen who are your advisers, or in your confidence. What I learned of the calculations, views and feelings prevailing among them, causes with me great apprehension.

In the general gloom, there are two points of consolation and hope, which grow brighter and brighter, -- opening my eyes suddenly, as I seem to have done, in the point of view of Washington, I may see these and their value, more clearly than those about you. One, is the trustworthy, patriotic devotion of the solid, industrious, home-keeping people of the country; the other, the love and confidence constantly growing stronger between these people and their president.

Here is the key to a vast reserved strength, and in this rests our last hope for our country.

Appeal personally to the people, Mr. President, -- Abraham Lincoln to the men and women who will believe him, and the North will surge with a new strength against which the enemy will not dare advance. Then, can not fifty thousand men, now doing police and garrison duty, possibly be drawn off with safety, and sent within a month to McClellan? Add these to his present seven times tried force and he can strike a blow which will destroy all hope of organized armed resistance to the Law-- Without these, the best army the world ever saw must lie idle, and, in in discouragement and dejection, be wasted by disease.

I am, Mr. President,

Most Respectfully,

Your obt. servant,

Fred. Law Olmsted.

Gl. Sec’y

San. Com.

Document: William Sprague to Abraham Lincoln, July 6, 1862


July 6th 1862


To relieve our Army of its greatest weakness, I recommend for your consideration, the formation of a corps. similar to that established by the English in Crimea. “Navies.” These men would do the digging & quartermaster business with half the expense as now, & give you a fresh and larger Army, by one third, wherever they are used in connection with Army operations.

I am very respy

Your obdt svt

Wm Sprague

Document: Andrew G. Curtin to John G. Nicolay, July 7, 1862

410 PM

July 7 1862.

Harrisburg, Pa

Your dispatch rec”d & much obliged for your kindness Will not move in the matter until I recd Mr Chases Letter1

1 This telegram could pertain to Curtin’s desire to have Joseph J. Lewis appointed the commissioner of internal revenue. See Curtin to Lincoln, July 6, 1862 and Curtin to Nicolay, July 9, 1862.

A. G. Curtin


Document: George B. McClellan to John Pope, July 7, 1862

Head Quarters Army of the Potomac

Camp near Harrisons Bar Va

July 7. 1862


I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 4th inst. and to thank you for your offer of co-operation and assistance. I cordially approve your project of concentrating your troops. The departure from this wise principle has been the cause of all our troubles in front of Washington. I cannot too strongly represent to you the pressing necessity there is for the rapid concentration of your forces, for it is not yet determined which policy the enemy intend to pursue whether to attack Washington or to bestow his entire attention upon this army. I am in a very strong natural position, rendered stronger every day by the labor of the troops and which in a few days will be impregnable. I hope in the course of tomorrow to seize a position on the right bank of the James, which will enable me to use either bank of that river at will. I am pushing up supplies as rapidly as possible in order to be perfectly independent of the navigation of the river until strong reinforcements can reach me The army is in admirable spirit and discipline. It would fight better to morrow than it ever did before. I shall carefully watch for any fault committed by the enemy and take advantage of it. As soon as Burnside arrives, I will feel the force of the enemy and ascertain his exact position. If I learn that he has moved upon you I will move upon Richmond, do my best to take it and endeavor to cut off his retreat. If you are not molested, I would urge that you lose not a day in the concentration of your troops, and at least push your cavalry forward as to partially divert the attention of the enemy from this army. The Army of the Potomac has lost heavily in killed and wounded during the series of desperate battles which it has given during the past two weeks, but I repeat it is in no way disheartened. Its morale, discipline, and desire to fight are not only unimpaired but increased. Although to ensure success it is absolutely necessary that we promptly receive heavy reinforcements, the spirit of the army is such that I feel unable to restrain it from speedily resuming the offensive unless reconnoissances should develope so overwhelming a force of the enemy in front as to render it out of the question. Even in that event we will endeavor to find some weak point in the enemy’s line which we will attack in order to break it. I would be glad to be in daily communication with you, both by telegraph and by letter. I may say in conclusion that so far as my position is concerned, I feel abundantly able to repulse any attack-- I fear only for the other side of the river, and for my communications.

To preserve the morale of my men, I must maintain my present position as long as it is possible-- Therefore I shall not fall back unless absolutely forced to do so.

Again thanking you for your cordial offer of support

I am very sincerely yours.

sigd. G. B. McClellan

Maj Genl


Document: George B. McClellan to Abraham Lincoln, July 7, 1862


Head Quarters. Army of the Potomac

Camp near Harrisons Landing -- Va. July 7th 1862

Mr President.

You have been fully informed, that the rebel army is in our front, with the purpose of overwhelming us by attacking our positions or reducing us by blocking our river communications. I can not but regard our condition as critical and I earnestly desire, in view of possible contingencies, to lay before your Excellency, for your private consideration, my general views concerning the existing state of the rebellion; although they do not strictly relate to the situation of this army or strictly come within the scope of my official duties. These views amount to convictions and are deeply impressed upon my mind and heart.

Our cause must never be abandoned; it is the cause of free institutions and self government: The Constitution and the Union must be preserved, whatever may be the cost in time, treasure and blood: If Secession is successful, other dissolutions are clearly to be seen in the future: Let neither military disaster, political faction or foreign war shake your settled purpose to enforce the equal operation of the laws of the United States upon the people of every state.

The time has come when the Government must determine upon a civil and military policy, covering the whole ground of our national trouble: The responsibility of determining, declaring and supporting such civil and military policy and of directing the whole course of national affairs in regard to the rebellion, must now be assumed and exercised by you or our cause will be lost: The constitution gives you power sufficient even for the present terrible exigency.

This rebellion has assumed the character of a War; as such it should be regarded; and it should be conducted upon the highest principles known to Christian civilization. It should not be a War looking to the subjugation of the people of any state, in any event: It should not be, at all, a War upon population; but against armed forces and political organizations: Neither confiscation of property, political executions of persons, territorial organization of States or forcible abolition of slavery should be contemplated for a moment. In prosecuting the War, all private property and unarmed persons should be strictly protected; subject only to the necessities of military operations: All private property taken for military use should be paid or receipted for; pillage and waste should be treated as high crimes; all unnecessary trespass sternly prohibited; and offensive demeanor by the military towards citizens promptly rebuked. Military arrests should not be tolerated, except in places where active hostilities exist; and oaths not required by enactments -- Constitutionally made -- should be neither demanded or received. Military government should be confined to the preservation of public order and the protection of political rights.

Military power should not be allowed to interfere with the relation of servitude, either by supporting or impairing the authority of the master; except for repressing disorder as in other cases: Slaves contraband under the Act of Congress, seeking military protection, should receive it: The right of the Government to appropriate permanently to its own service claims to slave labor should be asserted and the right of the owner to compensation therefor should be recognized: This principle might be extended upon grounds of military necessity and security to all the slaves within a particular state; thus working manumission in such state -- and in Missouri, perhaps in Western Virginia also and possibly even in Maryland the expediency of such a military measure is only a question of time. A system of policy thus constitutional and conservative, and pervaded by the influences of Christianity and freedom, would receive the support of almost all truly loyal men, would deeply impress the rebel masses and all foreign nations, and it might be humbly hoped that it would commend itself to the favor of the Almighty. Unless the principles governing the further conduct of our struggle shall be made known and approved, the effort to obtain the requisite forces will be almost hopeless: A declaration of radical views, especially upon slavery, will rapidly disintegrate our present armies.

The civil policy of the Government must be supported by concentrations of military power. The national forces should not be dispersed in expeditions, posts of occupation and numerous armies; but should be mainly collected into masses and brought to bear upon the armies of the Confederate States; those armies thoroughly defeated, the political structure which they support would soon cease to exist.

In carrying out any system of policy which you may form, you will require a Commander in Chief of the Army; One who possesses your confidence, understands your views and who is competent to execute your orders by directing the military forces of the nation to the accomplishment of the objects by you proposed. I do not ask that place for myself: I am willing to serve you in such position as you may assign me and I will do so as faithfully as ever subordinate served superior.

I may be on the brink of eternity and as I hope forgiveness from my maker I have written this letter with sincerity towards you and from love for my country.

Very respectfully your obdt svt

Geo B McClellan

Maj Gnl Comdg

Document: Charles S. Olden to Abraham Lincoln, July 7, 1862

Trenton July 7th 1862


I have not received a reply to my enquiry whether we were authorized to pay recruits one months pay in advance on their enlisting, and before mustered-- But this is so essential to raising men that I intend to do it and take an assignment of their months pay--

I have not yet been informed what the quota of this state is -- but as it no doubt will be as many as four Regiments I shall call now for that number-- If we are required to raise more we will do that afterwards1

1 Lincoln had issued a call for an additional 300,000 men on July 1.

It would aid us in raising troops if this State could be assured that it would have a General from this State to command the Brigade we are about to raise-- This is no matter of foolish State pride with me but to my mind it has political bearings of importance in this State-- There is a loyal Douglass Democrat among us -- a gentleman of influence who graduated at West Point in the class with Genl McCall who I should like to state would be recommended to command the Brigade-- Please inform me whether the proposition to give the Brigade a N Jersy Genl would probably be favorably Entertained, by Telegraphing “Yes -- or no -- as the matter may or may not strike you favorably-- Very respectfully your

obt servt

Chs. S Olden

Document: Edward Stanly to Abraham Lincoln, July 7, 1862


New Bern No: Ca: July 7th 1862

Dr Sir,

I hope I may be pardoned for intruding upon your time, merely to thank you, as a gentleman, for the kind confidence you reposed in me, as reputed to me by Genl Burnside. It has made a deep impression on my feelings. I hope I shall do nothing to destroy it, & shall spare no effort to serve the country, and thus to give you the highest satisfaction you desire.

My whole conduct was entirely misunderstood and misrepresented: and Mr Stanton’s letter, -- especially when associated with the public declarations of Dr Tyng, -- was not calculated to have a soothing influence on the disposition of one, whose misfortune it is to be yoked with a lamb, that bears anger “as the flint bears fire.”

1 Stanly had received criticism for allegedly preventing the education of black children.

In the Counties I have visited, Carteret, Beaufort & Washington, I have been received with more than cordiality, -- with enthusiasm Secessionists of property -- all except young Scape-graces, of no business, or hope of profit by peace -- are heartily sick of the war A large majority of the people want the Union restored. I know the people of whom I speak and cannot be mistaken. I can have no motive to misrepresent. The only thing that represses decided & open manifestation of their opinions, is, the fear of the withdrawal of the Union forces & the consequent return of Secession ruffians. While the contest is uncertain -- to their view -- at Richmond, this fear will continue its influence over them

I believe to-day a majority of the people of this State, would, if allowed to vote peacably, express a preference for your plan of gradual emancipation, and return to the Union.

I will not intrude by writing more, I wish I could have an opportunity of conversing fully with you

If not incompatible with the public interest, I hope Mr Stanton will answer my letter relative to instructions asked. If proper he can give them, or decline, because it is inexpedient to do so, “at present:” but give me assurance of the confidence promised with authority to act, according to my own discretion.

My conduct has been so much misunderstood, and so many exaggerated reports have appeared in the newspapers, of the declarations of members of the Cabinet, that my influence is weakened. Reports are rife that I am soon to be removed. The personal unpleasantness of this Situation need not be commented on.

Allow me to add, that if because of any supposed mistake I have made, or for any other reason, it is deemed advisable that I should not remain here, as Military Governor; or, if another can be selected, in whom you have confidence, to take my place, I am ready, and without complaint to resign.

I should be very unhappy, if I thought any consideration of personal kindness, kept me as a Stumbling block, in the path of our country’s prosperity -- an object near and dear to the hearts of both of us. With the highest respect

vy truly your’s

Edw Stanly

Document: James W. White to Abraham Lincoln, July 7, 1862

New York 341 Fifth Avenue

July 7. 1862

Dear Sir,

Different bodies and organizations and in this city are preparing for an imposing Demonstration in support of the Government and of the energetic measures which the times demand. At a meeting of Citizens at the Mayor’s office today a committee was appointed to confer with the committees to be appointed, or already appointed by the Chamber of Commerce, The Union Defence Committee, and the Common Council, and by another meeting of Citizens to be held at the Fifth Avenue Hotel. I trust that we shall labor together to good purpose. The Committee to which I belong and of which I was named as Chairman is that appointed today at the Mayors office consisting of David Dudley Field, Francis Lieber, George D. Phelps, Isaac Sherman and myself--

I write now, dear Sir, to say, that the Herald is doing infinite mischief by its assaults upon the Administration -- especially the War Department. It is stirring up all the hatred and bitterness that it can in a manner the most malignant; and the impunity with which it is allowed to engender discord and partizan & personal enmities encourages it day by day to worse and worse efforts in the same diabolical spirit. Unless it is restrained by the Government it will be in vain that we try to create or cultivate the unity of purpose and the loyal devotion to the interests of the country which are so much needed, and of which will be unfailing at all times in its response to the call of the Government if it is not poisoned and debauched by the diabolical conspiracy that is now on foot to destroy the Government while treacherously affecting to love the Union.

Newpapers have been suppressed, and properly suppressed, which had not done and could not do a tithe of the mischief that the Herald is doing and has already done.-- It is a scandal that such a paper will be distributed along the railroads and through the mails of the Government which it is seeking to overturn. No act of stern justice would be hailed with more satisfaction by all the loyal people of New York than the suppression of the Herald. I have thought it, dear Sir, my duty to make this statement to you.

I am, dear Sir, yours

with great respect,

James W. White

Document: George A. Rowley, Copy of Proceedings, July 7, 1862 [With Endorsement by Lincoln]1

1 Lincoln’s uneasiness about the outcome of this court-martial is further reflected in his letter to George McClellan, August 12, 1863. Judge Advocate John F. Lee had responded further to Lincoln’s endorsement on that date, suggesting that Rowley and others similarly circumstanced could find relief through recommendations of clemency to Lincoln by their military commanders through the commanding officer in the field. (See Lee to John Hay, August 12, 1862). Lincoln requested such consideration by McClellan in his August 12 letter. Lieutenant Rowley was reappointed by Lincoln on January 31, 1863.

Official Copy for Lieut Rowley.

for J. F. Lee

Judge Advocate

James M Wright Clerk

Proceedings of a General Court Martial held at Camp near Harrisons Landing Va by virtue of the following, order;


Head Quarters, Syke’s Division

Camp near Harrison’s Landing

July 7, 1862.

Special Orders

No 58

A general Court Martial is hereby appointed to assemble in the camp of the 1st Brigade at 10, Oclock, A. M. to day, or as soon thereafter as practicable for the trial of Lieutenant, J. B. Williams 3d Inf’y, and such other officers and enlisted men, as may be brought before it

Detail for the Court.

1. Lieut Col. Wm Champman 3rd Infantry

2. Captain J. D O,Connell 14” Infantry

3 Captain S. H. Weed 5” Artillery

4 Captain B. F. Smith 6” Inf’y

5. Captain R P. H. Durkee 14” Inf’y

6. 1st Lieut Thomson P. McElrath 5” Arty

7. 1” Lieut W. W. Chamberlain 14” Infy

1” Lieut George. H. McLoughlin, Judge Advocate.

No other Officers than those named can be assembled without manifest injury to the service

The Court will sit without regard to hours.

By command of Brig Genl Sykes

(Signed) Saml. A. Foster

Lieut and A. A. G.

A. A. A. G.

Second day July 8. 1862

The Court met pursuant to the above order and postponement. Present.

1. Lieut’ Col’ William Chapman 3d Infantry

2. Capt. S. H. Weed 5” Arty

3. Capt B F. Smith 6” Infantry

4. Capt. J. D. O,Connell 14” Infantry

5. Capt R P. H Durkee 14” Infantry

6. 1 Lieut W. W Chamberlain 14” Infantry

7. 1 Lieut Thomson P. McElrath 5th Arty

1st Lieut George. H. McLoughlin 2nd Infantry

Judge Advocate

The Court then proceeded to the trial of 2 Lieut George A. Rowley of the 2d U. S. Infy, who, being called into court, and having heard the general order read, was asked if he had any objection to any of the members named in the General Order, to which he replied in the negative

The Court was then duly sworn by the Judge Advocate, and the Judge Advocate by the presiding officer, in presence of the accused, and 2 Lieutenant George A. Rowley, was arraigned on the following Charge and Specification. (Viz)

Charge. “Misbehavior before the enemy”

Specification: In this that 2d Lieutenant George A Rowley, Co “D” 2 Infantry did desert or leave his company and regiment, in the heat of the action, and on the field of battle, near Gain’s Mill, on the 27th day of June 1862, without permission of his battalion commander, Captain W. F. Bond 2 Infy and did remain absent from same, until or near 9 A. M. on the 28th.

To which the accused pleaded as follows:

Not Guilty to the Specification.

Not Guilty -- to the Charge

All persons required to give evidence were directed to withdraw, and remain in waiting until called for. Assistant Surgeon Alfred. W Woodhull, Medical Department, U S. A. a witness for the prosecution, being duly sworn in presence of the accused, says; about the middle of the afternoon, on the 27th June 1862, at the battle of Gain’s Mill, Va Lieut Rowley, came to the hospital, where I was. I asked him if he was wounded? he replied no: but said that he had fainted, or was near doing so; or an expression to that effect. I gave him a little brandy, and about ten, or fifteen minutes, I looked around, and did not see him.

Question by Accused. Was not Lieut Long and Freeman, 2 Inf’y, at this time in your Hospital wounded?

Answer. Yes -- about that time, I sent them to the General Hospital from where I was.

Question by the Accused. What was my appearance at the time; did I not appear sick, and exhausted?

Answer. Lieut Rowley, was exceedingly pale at the time, and appeared very much exhausted apparently, from excess of exercise.

Question by the Court. Was the action going on at this time, and were his regiment and company engaged?

Answer. The action was going on. I have no way of knowing whether his regiment or company was at the time engaged. The troops were all engaged, if I can judge by the number of wounded brought in from the different regiments.

First Sergeant Rudolph Theime of Co “D” 2 US. Infy, a witness for the prosecution being duly sworn, in presence of the accused, says: At the battle of Gains Mills, on the 27 of June 1862, I was 1 Sergt of the company, to which the accused belongs, Lieut Rowly. I did not see him with the company, from about 1/2 past 4 Oclock P. M, until about 9. Oclock, the following day; the Company, was partially divided, when we were ordered to advance. I cannot say, whether Lieut Rowley, was with them or not, previous to the hour mentioned. I was with the right wing of the company, during the early part of the engagement, and with the whole after the Company was reformed.

Question by the accused. Did you see me on the field of battle, when the order was given to charge?

Answer. I did not see the Lieutenant after we left the road.

Question by the accused. Did the whole of the company, when ordered to the front go there? was not the order given first to go by the left flank, and did not part of the men follow those companies who had gone by that flank?

Answer. I only heard the order given to march by the left flank, when the lines of the Regiment was broken by a forward movement by the 8 Penn Vols’, reserve, part of the Company had followed those companies which went by the left flank.

The testimony for the prosecution here closed, and Sergeant William Mitchell of Co “D” 2 U. S. Infantry, a witness for the defence being duly sworn, in presence of the accused makes the following statement.

I am Sergeant of the Company, to which the accused belongs. I dont know exactly what command was given, but part of the company went by the left flank; the remainder advanced in the open field in front. I was with that portion, which went to the left. I went a short distance, and then crossed the fence. I turned then to make for the right of the company. I could not find it; myself and several others formed on the 8 Penn Vols. I saw Lieutenant Rowley standing by the road, I sent a man back belonging to the company, to enquire from the Lieutenant, where our company and Regiment was; during the time, I moved off the party, towards where the Lieutenant was standing, and enquired where the company and regiment was. He answered that he did not know. I then asked what we should do; or where we should go to? He then said we had better move forward; we were then formed by him on the 8 Penn Vols. That Regiment advanced as far as a hill, where the enemy’s fire was very brisk -- the party joined on our own Regiment on the face of the hill, where it had been rallied, a portion of it under Captain Brindly then marched up and myself and Corporal Meyer formed on the left of the regiment, we being the only ones left.

Question by the prisoner: Did I not order you to form your detachment on the left of 8. Penn’ Vols.

Answer. Yes.

The Court adjourned at 7. O’clock P. M on the 8th, to meet again at 1/2 past 7 Oclo. A. M. on the 9th day of July 1862.

Third day

7 1/2 Oclock A. M Wednesday

July 9 1862.

The Court met pursuant to adjournment


1. Lt Col Wm Chapman 3d Infantry

2. Capt J. D. Oconnell 14” Infantry

3. Captain S. H. Weed 5th Arty

4 Captain B. F Smith 6. Infantry

5. Captain R. P. H. Durkee 14” Infantry

6. 1 Lieut Thomson P. McElrath 5. Arty

7. 1 Lieut W. W. Chamberlain 14. Infantry

1st Lieut George H McLoughlin, Judge Advocate.

Yesterdays proceedings were read over to the court by the Judge Advocate

Captain J. D Oconnell 2 Infy, a witness for the defence being duly sworn in presence of the accused, says: About a year ago, I was on the recruiting Service, at Saint Louis Missouri, when these troubles first broke out, along the North Missouri, and Pacific R. Road there was a great deal of trouble between the Rebels and Union parties; there was a force organized in the city, known as the Home Guard, and Captain Sweeny of the 2 Infy, was ordered from the arsenal to take charge of this orgainzation I used to meet Captain Sweeny, and have conversations with him daily, and all of his expeditions that he sent off he made me acquainted with. Lt Rowly the accused was Captain of one of the Companies of this command, and was stationed a portion of the time at the North Missouri Railroad Depot in the city, a point the captain (Sweeny) deemed a very important one on once occasion he had to send a company to Louisiana M’o, on the Mississippi Captain Rowleys company was the one selected to go there from all the Home Guard, and from what I heard the Captain say, after this company returned, I should judge, he was perfectly satisfied with the duty he had done

The accused having no farther evidence to offer, and no defence to make the Proceedings, having been read over to the court by the Judge Advocate

The Court then closed, and after mature deliberation on the testimony adduced find the accused as follows:

Of the Specification { Guilty, except the words without permission of the Battn commander, Capt W. F. Bond 2nd Infy

Of the Charge -- “Guilty”

And the Court does therefore sentence him, Second Lieutenant George A. Rowley of the Second Regiment, U. S Infantry, to be “cashiered”

George H. McLoughlin

1 Lieut 2 Infy

Judge Advocate

Wm Chapman Lt Colo

3 Infy



George Sykes

Brig Gen’l

Comdg Division

Head Quarters Army of Potomac

July 22, 1862

The Proceedings in the foregoing case are confirmed

Head Quarters, Army of the Potomac

Camp near Harrison’s Landing Va

July 21st 1862.

General Orders

No 141

I Before a General Court Martial, of which Lieut. Colonel William Chapman, 3d Infantry is President, convened at Camp near Harrisons Landing Va, by virtue of Special Orders No 58, from Head Quarters of Sykes Division, were arraigned and tried--

+ + +

3. 2 Lieutenant George A Rowley, 2d U. S Infantry:

Charge: -- “Misbehavior before the enemy.” Specification: -- In this; that 2d Lieutenant Charles A Rowley, Company “D” 2 Infantry did absent himself or leave his company or Regiment, in the heat of the action, and on the field of battle, near Gains Mills, on the 27th day of June, 1862, without permission of his battalion commander, Captain A F Bond, 2d Infantry, and did remain absent from the same until or near 9 A. M on the 28th.

Plea. Not Guilty

After mature deliberation on the testimony adduced, the court finds the accused as follows, viz:

Of the Specification -- Guilty except the words “without permission of the Battalion commander, Captain A. F. Bond, 2d U. S. Infantry.

Of the Charge -- “Guilty”

And the Court does therefore sentence him, 2d Lieutenant George A Rowley 2d U. S. Infantry, “To be cashiered”

II. The proceedings in the foregoing cases, having, in conformity with the act of Congress, approved December 24, 1861, been laid before the commanding General, he confirming the same. Accordingly 1st Lieut

+ + +

2 Lieutenant George A Rowley, 2d U S. Infantry, cease to be officers of the Army from this date.

By command of Major Genl McClellan

S. Williams

Assistant Adjutant General.

Official Copy for Lieut Rowley

for. J. F. Lee,

Judge Advocate

James M. Wright,


[Endorsed by Lincoln:]

NO. 180

Judge Advocate please examine this case--

The evidence appears slight; and the finding, it seems to me, is equivalent to saying Lieutent Rowly left “with permission of the Battalion commander, Captain A. F Bond 2nd U. S. Infantry”

A. Lincoln

Aug. 8, 1862

[Endorsed by John F. Lee:]

Judge Advocates Office

August 9. 1862

The President’s suggestion as to the construction to be, or that may be put on the finding, is in accordance with legal logic, I believe; and I suppose that view would be taken of it in a court of civil or common law judicature. But it is not according to the rule and usage of courts-martial. In court martials, the narrative or allegations of fact may be found as set out in the “specifications”, except as excepted. These excepted parts the court may merely omit, not necessarily negative or find otherwise. Then, if enough is left to sustain “the charge”, the court so find -- “guilty of the charge”. The specification then stands omitting the excepted parts; in this case, thus; “In this, that he, Lieut George A Rowley, Co. D. 2d infantry did desert or leave his company and regiment, in the heat of action, and on the field of battle near Gaines’ Mill on the 27th day of June 1862 and did remain absent from same until or near 9 a. m. on the 28th.

This would be bad pleading in a court of common law. It is good in a court martial.

The evidence is, as the President suggests, slight. It is not full; it does not bring out all the facts of the case occasion. There was no statement, on either side, and it was submitted without argument. But there is evidence to the main fact -- absent from his place in battle. This fact, undefended, satisfied the court and the reviewing authority. The Presidents authority over the case now, would be to restore or re-appoint, by consent of the Senate, not to vacate the sentence judgment, or annul an executed sentence

Respectfully submitted

J. F. Lee

Judge Advocate


Document: Samuel J. Kirkwood to Abraham Lincoln, July 8, 1862

Executive Office Iowa July 8 1862.

By reason of my absence from home the telegraphic despatch of Governor Morgan requesting my signature to the letter of the Governors of the loyal states to you requesting you to call for three hundred thousand more volunteers did not reach me until the 5th instant -- too late to permit me to attach my name to the letter. But for this my name would have accompanied those of the Governors of the other States and I now assure you that the State of Iowa will be found in the future as in the past prompt and ready to do her duty to the country in this time of sore trial-- Our harvest is just upon us and we have scarcely men enough to save our crops, but if need be our women can help. I am anxiously waiting the requisition of the Secretary of War. I will be in Washington next week & hope to have the pleasure of seeing you

Very Respectfully

Your obt svt

Samuel J Kirkwood

Document: Abraham Lincoln, Memorandum on Interviews with Officers of the Army of the Potomac, July 8-9, 18621

1 Subsequent to the Seven Days Battles (June 25-July 1, 1862), Lincoln visited General McClellan’s headquarters to review the Army of the Potomac. Never a total believer in McClellan’s peninsular strategy, Lincoln conducted the interviews recorded here with McClellan and his subordinates. What he learned doubtless confirmed his skepticism about the campaign. By the end of July, Lincoln and General Henry Halleck, who Lincoln the same month had named general in chief of the Union armies, determined to move the Army of the Potomac from the Peninsula to join General John Pope’s newly-created Army of Virginia, which stood between Washington and Richmond.

Gen. McClellan July 8. 1862

What amount of force have you now?

About 80-000-- Cant vary much-- Certainly 75-000--

What is likely to be your condition as to health in this camp?

Better than in any encampment since landing at Fort Monroe--

Where is the enemy now?

From four to 5. miles from us on all the roads -- I think nearly their whole Army-- Both Hills-- Longstreet, Jackson, Magruder, Huger,

If you desired, could you remove the army safely?

It would be a delicate & very difficult matter--

Cavalry about 5000--

Gen. Sumner2 -- July 9, 1862

2 Edwin V. Sumner

What is the whole amount of your corps with you know now?

About 16.000

What is the agregate of your killed, wounded, and missing from the attack on the 26th ult till now?

Directory: mss -> mal -> maltext -> rtf orig
rtf orig -> Document: Ohio and Illinois General Assemblies, Resolutions for Gradual Emancipation of Slaves, 1824 and 1825
rtf orig -> Document: Alexander K. McClure to Abraham Lincoln, June 30, 1863
rtf orig -> Document: Thomas Corwin to Abraham Lincoln, September 6, 1864
rtf orig -> Document: Harriet Chapman to Abraham Lincoln, January 17, 1865
rtf orig -> Document: Mary C. W. Wadsworth to Abraham Lincoln, July 4, 1864 [With Endorsement by Lincoln]
rtf orig -> Document: Isachar Zacharie to Abraham Lincoln, April 25, 1863
rtf orig -> Document: Abraham Lincoln to Mary Mann, April 5, 1864 [Draft]
rtf orig -> Document: Edwin M. Stanton to Abraham Lincoln, November 18, 1863
rtf orig -> Document: Jesse K. Dubois and Ozias M. Hatch to Abraham Lincoln, September 16, 1863 Springfield Sept 16. 1863
rtf orig -> Document: Joseph Butler to Abraham Lincoln, January 10, 1861

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