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Respond to the Discussion

  • This unit contains one Discussion Board question.

  • Read this question carefully so that you can post a response that addresses all aspects of the question.

  • You should also respond to at least two classmate’s postings for each thread; each response should contain a minimum of 100 words.

  • The Discussion Board grading rubric in the course syllabus will help you understand how this assignment will be graded.

Question 1:

Women’s activism increased significantly from the 1960s to the 1980s. How did women’s roles in the American Indian movement (AIM), the Chicano movement, and the civil rights movement provide empowerment for women? Include a specific example from each of the three movements to indicate how each movement provided women with a voice.

Rights for all

Edward Jackson

12/22/2012 7:00:45 PM

During the 1960s, there were social fallouts over civil rights, war, and a growing counterculture…from the African Americans fighting for rights, the Vietnam War, and the Hippie movement respectively…but this wasn’t all that there was; there was a new form of Feminism emerging by the late 1960s.

Women were contributing to much of what was going on in the 1960s.  For example, not only did you have women involved in the Civil Rights Movement, you also had women participating in AIM (American Indian Movement), as well as the Latina/Chicana aligning their own movement with the Feminist Movement. 

As far as women being empowered

Civil Rights Movement
In the Civil Rights Movement, you had groups like the Black Women’s Liberation Committee formed in 1968 (Frances Beal being one of the committees founders).  You had important publications like “A Black Feminist Statement,” written by African American women from the Combahee River Collection (many of them were lesbians) (DuBois & Dumenil, 2012).

In AIM, you had Wilma Mankiller (later to become the first female principal chief of the Cherokee Nation) who was involved in the occupation of Alcatraz.  Another Native American was Ellen Moves Camp.  Moves Camp was an activist during the time that prompted a takeover of the Wounded Knee Trading Post where she served as a negotiator.

Even with the Civil Rights Movement and Native Americans fighting for common rights, equality, reducing work place discrimination, you had the Chicanas that still felt left out or frustrated with the white feminist movement.  You have Mirta Vidal who wrote the, “New Voice of La Raza: Chicanas Speak Out,” in 1971.  You also had the Brown Berets where Chicana women demonstrated at the California state capital (DuBois & Dumenil, 2012).

Organizations and the times
Organizations like NOW (National Organization for Women) and WEAL (Women’s Equity Action League) were both very important in challenging the status quo in the workplace; meaning the obvious discrimination.

But if you really look at each of these movements…the energy in the 60s and 70s was the real driving factor.  Each of them kind of fed off one another, thus creating this massive movement towards citizen equality (no matter what race or sex you were) and movement against war.

Dubois, E.C. & Dumenil, L. (2012). Through women’s eyes (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s.


Eddie Jackson
GOK - Philosophy Major/Liberal Studies
http://eddiejackson.net/   university page

RE: A woman's voice

Edward Jackson

12/22/2012 7:18:01 PM

You are right when you say women seemed to have more of a voice…at least they started gaining ground on reducing workplace discrimination.  Organizations like NOW and WEAL really help elevate the whole Feminism Movement in the late 60s and 70s.  But what I really find fascinating is just how many movements there were---AIM, Civil Rights Movements, Chicanas, and Asian Americans. And there were many issues on the table as well.  You had equality in the work place, education, politics, women’s welfare, and of course war.  The times were definitely charged with activism fever.  I think one topic that may bring back this activism is gun control.  We can’t seem to go 2 weeks without a massacre.  It will be interesting to see how the U.S. deals with a modern issue.


Eddie Jackson
GOK - Philosophy Major/Liberal Studies
http://eddiejackson.net/   university page 

RE: unit 7

Edward Jackson

12/23/2012 4:02:52 PM

I completely agree that basically all the movements opened doors for women to gain rights.  The larger organizations like NOW and WEAL led the forefront of modern feminism, but there were groups like AIM, the Chicanas aligning their movement with the Feminism movement, the Asians own movement, as well as the Black Panthers and other African American groups.  The 1960s and 1970s were really the time to get something done…if you wanted to get it done.  And that’s where I believe each of the movements kind of fed off the energy of one another. 

Women activism went just beyond equality though…from our reading material…it was also about reducing war (as in the Vietnam War), and about women becoming a part of the Washington, D.C. solution to reduce greed and corruption in politics.  The era was about women being the masters of their sexuality; from birth control to the expression of one’s sexuality, it was about the freedom of choice.  Even though women seemingly took a more grass roots approach to gaining these rights, their participation and contributions to civil rights were significant.

DuBois, E.C. & Dumenil, L. (2012). Through Women’s Eyes: An American History. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s.

Eddie Jackson
GOK - Philosophy Major/Liberal Studies
http://eddiejackson.net/   university page

Directory: data -> college -> 12 American Women -> unit07
12 American Women -> Assignments
12 American Women -> Discussion Respond to the Discussion This unit contains one
unit07 -> In Unit 6 you examined how women’s gender roles, racial identity, and sexuality began to be redefined
12 American Women -> In Unit 1, you examined American women in early American history. You were also introduced to the goals and structures of this course
12 American Women -> Discussion Respond to the Discussion This unit contains one
12 American Women -> Discussion Respond to the Discussion This unit contains two
12 American Women -> Discussion
12 American Women -> In Unit 5 you examined how women took a more permanent place in the public sphere. Unit 6 evaluates how women’s entrance into the public sphere ultimately changed American society
12 American Women -> Unit 1 will help you to understand the goals and structure of American women

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