Discourse and Truth: The Problematization of Parrhesia.


The Practices of Parrhesia



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The Practices of Parrhesia
In this session and next week--in the last seminar meeting--I would like to analyze philosophical parrhesia from the standpoint of its practices. By the " practice " of parrhesia I mean two things :first, the use of parrhesia in specific types of human relationships (which I shall address this evening) ; and secondly, the procedures and techniques employed in such relationships (which will be the topic of our last session).

Because of the lack of time, and to assist on the clarity of the presentation, I would like to distinguish three kinds of human relationships which are implied in the use of this new philosophical parrhesia. But, of course, this is only a general schema, for there are several intermediate forms.

First, parrhesia occurs as an activity in the framework of small groups of people, or in the context of community life. Secondly, parrhesia can be see in human relationships occurring in the framework of public life. And finally, parrhesia occurs in the context of individual personal relationships. More specifically, we can say that parrhesia as a feature of community life was highly regarded by the Epicureans ; parrhesia as a public activity or public demonstration was a significant aspect of Cynicism, as well as that type of philosophy that was a mixture of Cynicism and Stoicism ; and parrhesia as an aspect of personal relationships is found more frequently either in Stoicism or in a generalized or common Stoicism characteristic of such writers as Plutarch.


  1. Socratic Parrhesia

  2. Parrhesia and Community Life

  3. Parrhesia and Public Life

  4. Parrhesia and Personal Relationships





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