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The Middle Ages (1066-1485) (pp. 72-88) Study Questions
Directions: Write your answers on separate sheets of paper.
ILLUMINATION (PP. 72-73)
1. What do you see in this illustration?

  1. Does the illustration represent your previous knowledge of culture and society in the Middle Ages (social activities,

lifestyles, roles of sexes, dress, and behavior)?

Explain.


  1. How does this scene suggest both violence and culture?

INTRODUCTION (pp. 75, 78)




  1. What event occurred in October, 1066?

  1. How did this event affect England?

  2. How were the Normans different from the Romans?

  1. Who was William the Conqueror?

  2. How did William's treatment of the Anglo-Saxons differ from the Roman's treatment of the Anglo-Saxons?

  1. How did this treatment affect English culture today?

  1. What did the Normans contribute?

  2. What was the Domesday Book?

  3. What was one way this new Anglo-Norman state brought England into "mainstream European civilization"?

FEUDALISM AND KNIGHTHOOD: PYRAMID POWER




  1. What four aspects of life did feudalism affect?

  2. On what concept was feudalism based?

  3. What is the difference in a caste system and a class system? (not in your book--look it up!)

  4. Under what circumstances might the feudal system not work?

  5. What was the primary duty of males above the serf class?

  1. How could a male become a member of the warrior caste?

  1. What was vital to the institution of knighthood?

**Be sure to read "A Terrible Worm in an Iron Cocoon (pp. 78-79).
WOMEN IN MEDIEVAL SOCIETY: NO VOICE, NO CHOICE


  1. What was a woman's position in medieval society?

  2. How did peasants differ from women in a higher caste?

CHIVALRY AND COURTLY LOVE: IDEAL BUT UNREAL




  1. In general, what was chivalry?

  2. What were some precepts (instructional guidelines)?

  3. What was courtly love?

  1. What made courtly love unrealistic?

  1. How did chivalry affect women?

**Note the changes that occurred during the Middle Ages (p. 82).
THE NEW CITY CLASSES: OUT FROM UNDER THE OVERLORDS


  1. What caused more and more people to live in towns and cities?

  1. What eventually caused the end of the feudal system?

  1. Which classes (note: classes, not castes) were developed through city life?

  2. How would you classify medieval art?

  1. Why?

THE GREAT HAPPENINGS


  1. What were five specific events that greatly changed English history (pp. 83-88)?

  2. What were the Crusades?

  1. What was the outcome of the Crusades?

  2. What were the benefits of the Crusades?

  1. What was Thomas a Becket's relationship to King Henry II?

  1. Describe the power of the pope (Roman Catholic Church).

  2. What was King Henry's relationship to the pope?

  3. To what position did King Henry II appoint his friend? Why?

  4. How was Henry's plan thwarted?

  5. What happened to Becket? Why?

  6. What were the results of the martyrdom on the church (positive and negative)?

  7. What was the result of the martyrdom to the crown?

  1. What event caused England to return to more democratic tendencies?

  1. When and where did this event happen?

  2. Who was involved?

  3. For whom was the signing a defeat?

  4. For whom was the signing a victory?

  5. For what did the Magna Carta become a basis?

  1. What could be called the first national war?

  1. Who were the two opponents?

  2. What was the issue?

  3. What was the outcome for England?

  4. By whom did England come to be represented?

28. What is another name for the Black Death?

a. Describe it.

b. What were the results of the plague?

29. What was the War of the Roses?

a. Who was Henry VII?
FLEAS, MONEY, AND GUNPOWDER: THE END OF AN ERA (p. 86)
30. Why did the Middle Ages end?

31. How did people purchase goods before the Crusades?

a. How did the Crusades affect the need for coins?

b. How did coinage help the peasants?

34. What changed hand-to-hand combat?

a. What happened at the battle of Crecy.

35. What revolutionized the country’s social and economic systems?
28. Time Line (pp. 76-77). Give the events for the following dates.


  1. 1066 m. 1455

  2. 1086 n.. 1455-14865

  3. 1095-1270 o. 1485

  4. 1170

  5. 1171

  6. 1215

  7. 1250

  8. 1296

  9. 1337

  10. 1381

  11. 1380

  12. 1387

**Note concurrent events in Zibabwe, Mexico, and Peru

The Middle Ages/Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
The following questions are based on your group presentations as they apply to the reading of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. You may use your notes as you construct your responses. For every response, you must provide evidence from the works of literature discussed and show the link between that litera-ture and your conclusion(s). ANSWER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING TWO QUESTIONS ON THIS SIDE AND ONE OF THE TWO ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THIS PAGE.


  1. How might it be said that Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (SGGK) points up the fragility of Medieval values?




  1. Compare the heroes of the two stories Beowulf and SGGK. How do the two stories differ most dramatically? What change/changes in those stories’ respective cultures/societies does that difference suggest to you?

The following questions are based on your group presentations as they apply to the reading of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. You may use your notes as you construct your responses. For every response, you must provide evidence from the works of literature discussed and show the link between that litera-ture and your conclusion(s). ANSWER ONE OF THE TWO QUESTIONS ON THIS PAGE.




  1. Some have said that the Middle Ages were a time of great cynicism/pessimism, of hopelessness, and of increasing questioning of faith. What factors/features of those times might have led to such negative attitudes, and what evidence do we see of that in SGGK?



  1. If you were to write your own story representing the current mood of your country today, how would you

  1. describe the mood of the country; and

  2. identify the factors that have created such a mood?


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