Directions: As you listen to the passage being read aloud annotate the text

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Directions: Read and annotate the Tables you have been assigned

Focus: What problems existed in the Roman Republic?

What can you infer about Roman ideas about gender and social class?

How did Roman law try to enforce civic virtue?

Why do you think the plebeians wanted these laws written down?

Be prepared to share one table with the class that answers one Focus Question

agnate relative on father’s side

arbiter person who decides outcome

of a dispute

chattel slave

comitium meeting place

cudgel short club

gens clan

hindrance problem

intestate without a will

magistrate judicial authority

majority age of maturity, when considered


proletariat lowest class in Rome (within

plebeians); don’t own land

usucapio ownership based on long use

or possession

Table I. 1. If anyone summons a man before the magistrate, he must go. If the man summoned

does not go, let the one summoning him call the bystanders to witness and then take him by force.

2. If he shirks or runs away, let the summoner lay hands on him.
3. If illness or old age is the hindrance, let the summoner provide a team. He need not provide a covered carriage with a pallet unless he chooses.
4. Let the protector of a landholder be a landholder; for one of the proletariat, let anyone that cares, be protector.
6-9. When the litigants settle their case by compromise, let the magistrate announce it. If they do not compromise, let them state each his own side of the case in the comitium of the forum before noon. Afterwards let them talk it out together, while both are present. After noon, in case either party has failed to appear, let the magistrate pronounce judgment in favor of the one who is present. If both are present the trial may last until sunset but no later.

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