Dictator Mohammed Siad Barre flees. Mahdi Mohammed declared President for 2 months before state descends into chaos. Power struggle between Mohammed Farah Aideed and Ali Mahdi Mohamed ensues. Thousands killed/wounde



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First Somali Pirate Attack Occurs when a refugee vessel is held hostage en route to Kenya

1991

Dictator Mohammed Siad Barre flees. Mahdi Mohammed declared President for 2 months before state descends into chaos. Power struggle between Mohammed Farah Aideed and Ali Mahdi Mohamed ensues. Thousands killed/wounded.





2005

TFG returns from exile; violence ensues. World Food Program shipments suspended due to hijackings.



2003

Interim Government in Exile founded in Kenya; 14th iteration of government since 1991. Col. Abdullahi Yusuf elected leader.



1993

‘Blackhawk Down’ incident occurs. 18 US Soldiers killed in Mogadishu.



1995

Mohammed Farah Aideed declares himself President in June. Fighting between Warlords intensifies.



2001

UN withdraws staff from Somalia due to security concerns.



1996

Mohammed Farah Aideed dies and is replaced by his son, Hussein Farah Aideed. Fighting continues.



1994

US end operations in Somalia at a total cost of $1.7 billon, 43 dead and 153 wounded.



1992 
Famine strikes Somalia; 350,000 die. US Government provide emergency aid. UNSC approves US led ‘Operation Restore Hope’ in order to protect food shipments from Warlords.



2004

Transitional Federal Government founded.



Pirate attacks rise above 50 per year for the first time.

2002

US Govt reports Al Qaeda presence in Somalia, begins counter terror operations.





1999 
Ethiopian forces invade and capture the regional capital of Garba Harre, which lies 250 miles northwest of Mogadishu, in order to suppress fighting among rebel groups.



Attacks increase again to 219 per year

Pirate attacks jump again to 210 per year.

Further increase to 237 attacks.

2012

UNISOM expanded to 17,000 troops in the face of successes against Al-Shabaab. Rebels reported to be migrating to Arabian Peninsula.



2011

TFG and AMISOM troops clear Mogadishu of Al Shabaab. Fighting migrates to Puntland and Kenyan border areas.



2010

Hizb Ul Islam and Al-Shabaab clash. Hizb Ul Islam defeated and subsumed into Al-Shabaab.



Pirate attacks double to 110 per year.

2009

Hizb Ul Islam and Al-Shabaab mount major offensive, recapturing Baidoa and Jowhar but failing to take Moghadishu. Government declares state of emergency and requests further foreign troops.



Pirate attacks rise above 50 per year again as Sharia law diminishes

Pirate attacks drop by over 50% due to effect of Sharia law.

2007

African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM)founded and approved by UNSCR. Led by Uganda with contributions from Burundi. Initial mandate for peacekeeping, with 12,000 troops deployed.



2006

TFG meets in Baidoa. Warlords contest control of Mogadishu. Rival Islamic Courts Union (ICU) seizes control of Mogadishu and most of Southern Somalia. Ethiopian forces, backed by US invade Somalia. ICU declare Jihad against Christian invaders.

Combination of drought, famine and fighting causes massive migration to Kenya. Refugees now total 1 million (11% of population)

2008

UNSC approves deployment of Foreign Warships to Somali Territorial Waters.



Head of UN Development Program in Somalia killed.



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