How did the variety of physical features in Europe affect the cultures of Europe? The physical features of Europe segment the continent in ways that groups people together into unique culture groups. People of the European Plains have similar lives and industry while people of the Scandinavian Peninsula live differently than those in the plains, but use the mountainous region of their area to their advantage.
How did the rivers of Europe influence what medieval Europeans did and where they settled? Medieval Europeans settled along the rivers so they would have land that was good for farming. Since these areas were difficult to defend, they built castles with large fortress walls to keep their communities safe.
What is Prince Henry the Navigator best known for? He was the first to circumnavigate the globe
What did the saying “the Sun never sets on the British Empire” refer to? The British Empire was so large because of its colonies. Colonies stretched from Africa to India and the Americas.
Africa’s west coast was mainly controlled by which European Empire? Portugal
South and Central American were mainly controlled by which European empire? Spain
North America was mainly controlled by which European empire? English/British
Why did the Spanish, English, and French all colonize in the Caribbean? Sugar
When Christopher Columbus reached the Caribbean he called the people he met there “Indians.” Why? He believed he was in India
In 1492 Christopher Columbus reached the Caribbean. Why is his voyage so important today? In other words, what is Columbus best known for? He discovered North America
How did each of the following features affect Europe’s colonization of the rest of the world?
location of Europe Europe could not grow into any other land because of all the countries that make up the European continent
coastlines/ rivers of Europe Coastlines and rivers enabled Europeans to easily sail wherever they needed to go
natural resources (wood, coal, etc…) of Europe Initially, Europe was looking for a new route to the spices and treasures of the Silk Road. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, they needed their colonies to give them access to natural resources
What is the Industrial Revolution? It was time of advancement through new inventions and the beginning of reliance on manufacturing How did it change European society? People moved off of the farms and moved to cities (urbanization) to work in factories
During what years was World War I fought? 1914-1918
Which weapons were introduced during World War I? the airplane, submarine, tank, machine gun and mustard gas
How did World War I end? With the signing of the Treaty of Versailles
What were the results of World War I? Germany was blamed for starting the war and asked to repay other European countries for the cost of the war, the Russian Revolution, and ultimately World War II
What was the Great Depression? A time of worldwide economic devastation What caused it? The New York Stock Exchange’s crash What did it lead to? Worldwide economic hardship which opened the door to fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany
Who dropped the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki? The US
How did World War II change the world? The Atomic Age began along with the Cold War
What was the Holocaust? Hitler’s attempt to annihilate the Jewish population
Who emerged as Superpowers at the end of World War II? The US and the USSR (Soviet Union)
Describe the Cold War. The Cold War was not a physical war; it was the US and USSR’s race to develop atomic technology What were the significant events of the Cold War? The Marshall Plan (1948), The Truman Doctrine, NATO organized, Warsaw Pact, Divided Berlin, Berlin Wall, Freedom in Berlin, Gorbachev reforms USSR, Communism Collapses
What is the significance of the Berlin Wall? The wall divided Berlin, but it was also nicknamed the Iron Curtain as it divided the democracy of Eastern Europe and the communism of Western Europe
What is reunification? After the Berlin Wall fell, the city was unified once again as well as all of Germany.