Final year ECE, Kings College of Engineering, India1,2
email@example.com , firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT: The problem of clearing minefields in post-war zones has received much attention lately. According to the International Committee of the Red Cross about 100 million landmines are buried in 62 Countries around the world. There have been numerous approaches to solve this problem. Mine bomb detection seems to be a great challenge in Army field. Mostly our soldiers enter the enemy camp at night time, during which the mine bomb cannot be detected easily and it stand against them as an issue. In spite of various technological developments, mine bomb detection and mapping is quite an obstacle ahead. The main theme of our project is to find and locate the mine bombs thereby ensuring a safe and secured path for the soldiers in an unknown enemy camp. The Ultrasonic sensors and an electronic nose circuitry mounted on the robotic kit are used to enable 2D mapping of the mines on the path thus avoiding the death toll due to land mines.
Around every 22 minutes 1 person somewhere in the world is killed or injured by a landmine. One hundred million un cleared landmines lie in the fields and alongside the roads and footpaths of one-third of the countries in the developing world. Claiming over 500 victims a week, landmines are weapons of mass destruction in slow motion.
Electronic noses are used for detection of landmines and IEDs. Electronic noses are nano wire, nano tube and nano mechanical devices are nano sensor concepts with the strong-est potential to form viable technological platforms for trace Explosive detection. An electronic nose device is usually com-posed of a chemical sensing system, sampling system and a pattern‐recognition system, such as an artificial neural net-work
Ultrasonic sensors are to locate obstacle distribution. Ultrasonic sensor is featured by lower cost, simple structure, small volume, which is widely applied in anti-collision system of automobile, path planning of robot, industrial ranging, water level measurement and fault detection of concrete construction. The main advantage of using Ultrasonic sensor is that it can be effectively used at night times than any other type of sensors such as cameras, IR sensors and laser scanners. Ultrasonic sensors have been used for obstacle detection and map building. The methods for 2D detection of an obstacle distribution using ultrasonic sensor and a mapping the safe path by identifying land mines is the ultimate aim of this project.
The proposed system shows a novel approach. It avoids human loss, produces immediate result, reduces manual power, avoids manual error, and locates the exact placement of bomb and identification of mine free path.
The main feature is its reduced number of usage of ultrasonic sensors to effectively map the obstacles and an e-nose system that locates both land mines and IEDs.
These are the devices which played their corresponding role according to the program designed. The program can be done using Keil version software or any other IDE software which works for the compatibility of microcontrollers.
Fig.1 Transmitter side
Fig.2 Receiver side
Three pairs of ultrasonic sensors (Fig.3) containing ultrasonic transmitter and receiver are used. It is entirely utilized for obstacle detection and 2D mapping. The mine bomb detector located below the ultrasonic sensor projected towards ground, detects the mine bomb and sends its details to Microcontroller.
The Ultrasonic transmitter transmits the ultrasonic waves which fall on obstacles ahead and the reflected echoes are received by receiver. The ultrasonic angles are shown in fig.4
The master Microcontroller is the heart of the system. It is powered by battery. It controls RF transmitter, ultrasonic transceiver, motor and mine bomb detection circuitry. The driver circuit LM293D is used to drive the Microcontroller. L293D is a dual H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (16 pin IC). Motor drivers act as current amplifiers since they take a low-current control signal and provide a higher-current signal. This higher current signal is used to drive the motors.
The sensing system consists of an array of sensors, with each sensor in the array giving a different electrical response for a particular target vapour introduced into the sensing chamber. The combined output from the sensor array forms a finger print, or signature, that is unique for a particular odour. Pattern recognition techniques based on principal component analysis and artificial neural networks were developed for learning different chemical signatures.
The electrical conductivity of CNT varies in accordance with the explosive content.
CNTs(Fig 8) are hexagonal networks of carbon atoms of ap-proximately 1nm diameter and 1 to 100 microns of length. They can essentially be thought of as a layer of graphite rolled-up into a cylinder. CNT based sensors can be potentially applied in de-fense and homeland security. They can be deployed in un-manned defense systems such as unmanned aerial vehicles. The meaning of security here is security from bombs and weapons at the ports of entry.
4.WORK FLOW OF THE MODEL:
The RF transmitter transmits the details collected by sensors and detector to receiver to enable accurate mapping and to find out safer path for soldiers. At the receiver side, there is a RF receiver and graphic LCD display. It can be at a distance of 1km from RF transmitter.
6.CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK:
This project is not only utilized in army fields but also can be effectively used for saving lives of common people in various war & terrorist prone zones.
Mine bombs that are buried under the ground couple of decades ago still prove to be an ignited issue to be considered, since it affects the innocent people and passers-by. Hence its clearance has been put up in light to ensure safety to people. Our project will provide a supreme and economic conclusion for those issues.
Our future work is to develop 3D image mapping of obstacles and mines to improve the accuracy of tracking and to integrate GPS to find latitude and longitude of the area to be demined.
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Vaishnavi.N is pursuing her final year of B.E Electronics and Communication Engineering at Kings college of engineering, affiliated to Anna university ,Tiruchirappalli.(2010-2014). Her current field of interest and her ambitious pursuit is Nanotechnology.
Rashmi ghoael.M is pursuing her final year of B.E Electronics and Communication Engineering at Kings college of engineering, affiliated to Anna university ,Tiruchirappalli.(2010-2014). Her current interest includes mobile robotics and embedded systems.