Design and development of touristic products Main author: Gábor Michalkó Szilvia Boros, János Csapó, Éva Happ, Pál Horváth, Anikó Husz, Mónika Jónás-Beri, Katalin Lőrinc, Andrea Máté, Gábor Michalkó, Erzsébet Printz-Markó, Krisztina Priszinger, Tamara



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Period

Events

Time of the great invasions and the conquest

·         Hungarians have a half-nomadic way of life: fishing, hunting, grazing animal husbandry ·         Impacts of Bulgarian and Turkish cuisine ·         Hungarian words from this period: hal (fish), őz (roe deer), vad (game), nyúl (hare), keszeg (bream), sügér (perch), fogoly (partridge), fajd (heath-cock) ·         Roasting on stone plates and grilling on the spit, use of outdoor pots for cooking ·         Drying and smoking of foods: dried pastry and meat ·         Spices: salt, honey, tarragon, savory, garlic, dill, sage ·         Cereals gown: barley, millet, wheat,

Time of the rulers from the Árpád Dynasty

·         Impacts of Byzantine, German and Italian cuisine ·         Cooking is a separate vocation on clerical and secular estates ·         First inns, drink bars and pubs ·         Increased role in catering by the church

Renaissance times

·         Italian impacts in the royal cuisine of King Matthias: ·         Spices mediated by Italy: ginger, nutmeg, cinnamon, peppermint, anis, cane sugar sweets for making roast dishes and sauces ·         Sweets made from cane sugar, anise candies, marzipan of Italian origin ·         Spread of two-branch fork

Time of the Ottoman rule

·         The split of Hungary into three parts brings an end to the unity of Hungarian cuisine ·         New products brought by the Turks: maize, coffee, paprika, tobacco

Baroque period

·         German and French impacts: tablecloths, china dishes, cutleries, drinking glasses ·         New raw materials: coffee, tea, chocolate, rice, maize, sunflower oil, potato, tomato, red pepper (around Szeged and Kalocsa)

The Reform Era

·         Development and strengthening of Hungarian catering industry: spread of confectionaries and cafés ·         Austrian impact: pork lard for frying meat, frying in breadcrumbs ·         Widespread penetration of stew base: pork lard, onion of Makó, red pepper

Time of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy

·         József Marchal Sr. (of French origin) renews Hungarian cuisine ·         Gundel dynasty: world famous restaurant and cookbook; József Dobos C.: Dobos Cake

Between the two world wars

·         During world wars catering industry declined, shortage of food, introduction of food coupons ·         World economic crisis: unemployment and inflation set back catering industry ·         During World War II buildings, equipment and tools annihilated

Socialist era

·         After World War II catering industry was nationalised in Hungary ·         County or city catering companies were founded ·         Hotels were used by governmental bodies or converted into homes ·         Catering in canteens was supported ·         Uniform catering facilities, lack of unique image ·         In the 1960s catering facilities were re-opened, especially for foreigners ·         1970s: drink bars, night clubs, self-service restaurants were opened ·         In the 1980s private restaurants and catering facilities were allowed to operate

Since the systemic change

·         Privatisation: by the 1990s most catering facilities are privately owned again ·         Opening and penetration of fast food restaurants, most of them foreign owned ·         In 1992 Gundel Restaurant started to operate again ·         Growing popularity of gastronomic, foundation of gastronomic theme routes

Source: edited by Máté, A., after Arabadzisz, I. – Oriskó, F. – Tomis, A. 2005, Bádonyi, M. 2009, Burkáné Szolnoki, Á. 1999 and Tusor, A. – Sahin-Tóth, Gy. 2006

2. Elements of supply

2.1. Attractions

2.1.1. Wine growing areas and wine regions in Hungary

Presently there are 22 wine producing areas in Hungary (Figure 1), whose names and the settlements belonging to them are regulated by decrees of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. According to a HCSO survey in 2009, Hungary now only has a total of 83,500 hectares of vineyards, which is a 9% decrease compared to the figure of 2001 (Appendix 3). The economic opportunities and market challenges of the last twenty years affected all wine producing areas in Hungary, but significant regional disparities evolved in how successful they were in using their endowments and meeting the domestic and international expectations. Some of the wine producing areas (Villány, Szekszárd, Eger, Tokaj) have become successful by now even in the international arena, their achievements are justified by the increase in their territory, the growing number of viticulturist businesses, the awards won in wine competitions and the market performance. The other part of the Hungarian wine producing areas (and they are the majority) are lagging behind, which is reflected by the decrease in their territory, and the problems of the quality, market performance and sales.

The organisation of wine regions was allowed by the Act No. XVIII of 2004, which called for the creation of wine regions as bottom-up organisations initiated by the wine producing areas. The wine regions that have officially been founded since then are the Danubian, the Balaton and the Pannon Wine Region (Figure 1). The birth of further wine regions is expected, but their territorial designations and names are quite uncertain now, which is also indicated by Figure 1 (Máté, A. 2009, 2007a, b).



Pannon Wine Region

Balaton Wine Region

North Transdanubian (Danubius) Wine Region

Upper Hungary Wine Region

Danubian Wine Region






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