Design and development of touristic products Main author: Gábor Michalkó Szilvia Boros, János Csapó, Éva Happ, Pál Horváth, Anikó Husz, Mónika Jónás-Beri, Katalin Lőrinc, Andrea Máté, Gábor Michalkó, Erzsébet Printz-Markó, Krisztina Priszinger, Tamara

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Between the two world wars

·         After the Trianon Peace Treaty, 2/3 of vineyards and only 1/3 of grapes and wine consumers remained in the country. ·         In the 1920s difficulties of wine sales, overproduction crisis

Socialist era

·         Expatriation of the Swabians after World War II ·         Wine trade nationalised, vineyards confiscated ·         Establishment of large holdings: state farms and agricultural cooperatives ·         Consequences: fallow lands, uncultivated and ageing vineyards, decrease of wine growing areas ·         2nd reconstruction of vineyards: transformation of the structure of species for large-scale farming, selection of intensive growing methods, increase of mechanisation ·         Quantitative growth was achieved at the cost of quality ·         Hungaricum sorts lost their significance: Kadarka, Ezerjó, Kéknyelű (“Blue Stem”) ·         Mass production: from Italian Riesling, Blue Francs, Zweigelt sorts ·         Production of uniform wines without character, artificially sweetened ·         Former wine consumption culture disappeared or distorted ·         The COMECON market bought wines of any quality

Since the systemic change

·         Loss of COMECON market, overproduction crisis ·         Lands given back to previous owners: compensation ·         Privatisation: state and cooperative large holdings ceased to exist ·         Appearance of foreign capital in the sector ·         Appearance of family wine productions facilities ·         Technological developments: steel containers, reductive technology, ripening in barrique barrels ·         EU-accession: legal harmonisation, maximisation of wine growing areas, tenderable development resources, wine reform. ·         Decrease of the size of wine growing areas, improvement in the quality of wines ·         Growing popularity of wine tourism, foundation of wine routes

Source: edited by Máté, A. after Kozma P. 1995, Máté A. 2007a

1.3. The concept of gastronomy and its relevance in tourism

Gastronomy is a word of Greek origin; it is a concept with a narrower and a broader interpretation. Its primary meaning is delicacy, the in-depth knowledge, the sophisticated joy of foods and beverages, and the art of eating. Also, it may mean chef arts, culinary arts, in a broader sense it also involves the art of laying the table and servicing guests, the culture of eating and actually everything that is related to eating (Tusor, A. – Sahin-Tóth, Gy. 2006).

Hungarian gastronomy is part of the country’s intellectual and cultural heritage. The Hungarian and ethnic gastronomic traditions which are diverse across the different regions may give the uniqueness and strength of the supply of the rural areas. Getting to know regional gastronomy promotes the touch of tourists and local inhabitants. Tourism built around Hungarian gastronomy is a possibility to strengthen the good will of the Hungarian catering industry, enhance the hospitality of the local population and revive the regional traditions, almost forgotten folk traditions, economic holidays and the making of region-specific foods. Programmes and events related to gastronomy are not limited to the main season; thereby they decrease the temporal and spatial concentration of touristic season and lengthen the duration of stay (Fehér, I. – Kóródi, M. 2008).

1.4. Birth of the Hungarian gastronomy

The Hungarian eating culture and gastronomy are closely related to the history of the Hungarian nation. Since the time of the great invasions, several impacts have made their marks on Hungarian cuisine. Hungarian cuisine developing over the centuries is known all over the world for the variety of ingredients and cooking methods, which makes it unique and popular with guests (Table 3) (Bádonyi, M. 2009). To the contrary of the stereotypes living in the tourists’ minds – such as goulash, spicy, hot and fat dishes, spicy paprika garlic, onion used as ingredients – the offer of Hungarian cuisine is much more varied, of which Hungarians are deservedly proud (Appendix 2).

Table 3. Main periods in the development of the Hungarian gastronomy

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