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Heritage from the Roman Times (Pannonia)

·         Emperor Probus supports the plantation of vines in Transdanubia ·         Viticulturist tools, grape seeds, and stone coffin with grapes motifs from archaeological excavations (for example Szekszárd), wall paintings with grapes motifs from ancient villas

Time of the great invasions, the Hungarian conquest

·         Hungarians, settling down in the territory of the Khazar Kaganate, get to know viticulture and wine production (around 600 A. D.) ·         Word of Turkish origin in Hungarian language: szőlő (grape), bor (wine), szűr (sieve), seprő (wine lees), ászok (skid). ·         The conquering Hungarian tribes took over and continued viticulture in the Carpathian Basin.

Time of the rulers from the Árpád Dynasty

·         King I. (Holy) Stephen integrated Hungary into Christian culture, promoting the spread of viticulture and wine culture. ·         Settlers coming from abroad, the so-called hospeses (Germans, Walloons, Italians) planted vines on forest clearings. ·         The role of the church (episcopacies and abbeys) in medieval viticulture and wine production (production of “wine for the masses”) ·         Literate priests arriving from the western and southern countries could disseminate knowledge on grapes and wine, especially on church and royal domains.

The Renaissance era

·         Hungarian students studying at foreign (Italian, Polish, French, German) universities brought new skills and practical experiences. ·         During the reign of King Matthias strong Italian impacts can be felt in raisin making; this is the time with evidence for the appearance of red wine grape sorts.

Time of the Ottoman Rule

·         Destructive impacts of the Ottoman occupation: vanished Szerémség wine region ·         In the Tokaj region the sort called Furmint appeared, and the making of aszú wine started ·         The spread of the red wine grape called Kadarka brought from the ‘Rác’ (Serb) refugees from the Balkans, and of red wine production in the area of the Ottoman Hungary

Baroque era

·         The settling down of Swabian people, with new sorts of grapes (Blue Franc, Zweigelt) and viticulturist methods (e.g. the use vine stakes). ·         Training of the practice of viticulture and wine production in the Georgikon of Keszthely founded in 1797. ·         On the influence of Sámuel Tessedik, the loose sand soils of the Great Hungarian Plain were fixed by the plantation of vine.

The Reform Era

·         Technical development: spread of pruning shears, picker and crusher ·         Bourgeois development: development of wine consumption habits ·         Soda water (Ányos Jedlik 1826), ‘fröccs’ (spritzer) (Mihály Vörösmarty 1842) ·         Champaign manufacturing: Törley family (Buda), Littke family (Pécs) ·         Elimination of serfdom, abolishment of grape-growers tax

Time of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy

·         1875: phylloxera (a small sap-sucking louse) appears in Hungary ·         Destruction of vineyards, disappearing of wine regions ·         1st reconstruction of vineyards: re-plantation of vineyards, plantation of vines in sandy areas ·         Technical progress: spraying, metal press, use of vine stakes and fertilising ·         Diversity of grape sorts decreased, direct-producer sorts, European sorts crossed with more resistant American sorts ·         1893: the first wine act: 22 wine producing areas

Source: edited by Máté, A. after Kozma P. 1995, Máté A. 2007a

Table 2. Main periods in the historical development of Hungarian wine culture after World War I

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