Design and development of touristic products Main author: Gábor Michalkó Szilvia Boros, János Csapó, Éva Happ, Pál Horváth, Anikó Husz, Mónika Jónás-Beri, Katalin Lőrinc, Andrea Máté, Gábor Michalkó, Erzsébet Printz-Markó, Krisztina Priszinger, Tamara



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In the narrower sense cultural tourism is a touristic product where the motivation of the tourists is definitely a cultural one, and the services on the supply side of the products satisfy the needs of culture-motivated travellers. Definitely cultural motivations can be e.g. the visiting of monuments and heritage sites, participation in festivals, visiting exhibitions, museums, attendance of theatre performances or concerts, or a study tour or pilgrimage. In this approach the essential attractions of cultural tourism are dominantly programmes, events and sights of interest belonging to the so-called “high culture” or “elite culture”, such as classical music, opera, ballet or classical fine and performing arts. We also have to take into consideration on the definition of the concept, however, the growing role of the so-called “popular” or “mass culture” in today’s cultural tourism (significant masses of visitors are attracted e.g. by the popular music festivals or sites and sights of interests related to commercially successful Hollywood films). In addition, in the last decades we could see that it is more and more difficult to categorise an event or an establishment strictly to one class: artists and facilities traditionally targeting the cultural elite – for example operas, classical music festivals, museums – are trying to address a growing range of visitors with their programmes (e.g. the concerts by the Three Tenors or the performance of Luciano Pavarotti at the football world cup of 1990 popularised opera for masses of people). It is due, on the one hand, to the fact that in the widening interests of the postmodern tourists both Beethoven and Madonna find their place, i.e. elite and popular culture well supplement each other instead of the exclusive presence of either type. On the other hand, formerly elitist cultural institutions, partly parallel to the changes in the consumers’ demands, are placing more and more emphasis on communication with their visitors and the integration of the broadest possible audience into this communication process – partly inspired by their mission and partly due to economic constraints.

Melting the two approaches above one can come to the comprehensive definition of cultural tourism: it is a tourism product in which the motivation of the tourists representing the demand is getting to know new cultures, the participation in cultural events and the visiting of cultural attractions, and the attraction making the central element in the supply is the specific and unique culture of the visited destination.

The appearance of culture in tourism

The culture of the destination appears in three major forms during the development of tourism. The category of non-living culture contains e.g. buildings (like the Eiffel Tower), architectural styles (such as the European Route of Brick Gothic), and pieces of art (e.g. Vigeland Statue Park in Oslo) or the tools used in everyday life (like glass factories and the process of glass manufacturing in Iittala in Finland). Built environment shows up as a background for the other activities of the tourists, on the one hand, influencing the total of the experience: a cup of coffee tastes much better on the terrace of the main square of a Renaissance small town than in a modern buffet in a building of socialist architectural style, but the perceived quality of a hotel service is also influenced by the view (Photo 1). On the other hand, milieu, atmosphere palpable in the built heritage of a destination can be a significant attraction for tourists with cultural motivations: according to a 2009 survey of Cultural Budapest e.g. foreign visitors travelling to Budapest were most interested in the panorama, architecture and cultural programmes.

Photo 1

View over Sagrada Familia from the terrace of a hotel in Barcelona

Foto1_Barcelona.jpg

Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2011

Elements of non-living culture can be utilised in tourism without human contribution, too, although these constituents were of course made by creative human activity. For most tourists “sightseeing” is a dominant programme, during which the historical centre, churches, fortresses, castles, museums etc. of the given destination are seen. Although opening times and the programmes offered by the respective establishments considerably influence the experience of the tourists, the built environment of a settlement, i.e. the streets, buildings, street furniture, with their entire atmosphere, are visible, liveable and experiencable in 24 hours a day.

The concept of culture manifested in everyday life includes e.g. different leisure activities, the lifestyle of the inhabitants of the destination, their behavioural and clothing habits, their gastronomy or popular leisure time activities. In Finland a sauna session is a must-have experience also from a cultural perspective, a holiday in Egypt or Tunisia is incomplete without trying camelback riding, in Argentina tango dance schools expect foreign guests, whereas in England several elegant restaurants have fish & chips on their menus (Photo 2). Although this aspect of culture is hardly influenceable by the tourism sector, it is just the moments of everyday life that make the deepest impression on visitors.

Photo 2

Fish & chips – culture in everyday life as a touristic experience

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Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2010

The concept of animated culture covers, on the one hand, activities – such as festivals, carnivals, traditionalist programmes, replay of historical events or the animation of times gone by – which have been created primarily for tourism purposes in order to increase the attraction of, and the number of visitors to a destination or a touristic site (like the Historical Equestrian Games organised in the castle of Sümeg). On the other hand, this category includes several events which, in addition to their relevance for tourism, contribute to the preservation of the cultural identity of the local population: the Busó Festival of Mohács e.g., on the intellectual world heritage list of UNESCO, is a very good example for the synchronicity and mutual interdependence of a cultural tourism event and a living folk tradition. This category also involves personal interpretation techniques during which the interpreter animates the given sight of interest in a costume fitting the theme of the attraction, as a fictional or real person of the past (Photo 3).

Photo 3


Guide in the costume from the time of Henry VIII in the Hampton Court castle in England

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Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2008

2. History of the development of cultural tourism

The history of cultural and heritage tourism goes back thousands of years in time: the ancient Greeks or Romans had travels with this motivation, already, but the medieval pilgrimages can also be categorised here, as can the Grand Tour starting in the 18th century. Today it is one of the most rapidly developing branches of tourism.

Although the ancient travels were primarily motivated by reasons of internal or external urge like religion or state administration (where the travellers either followed their inner or external forces when making decisions on the destination of the travel, the route leading there and the services applied), in the Roman Empire we could see examples with similar motivations like today, i.e. leisure and culture-oriented tours. In history it was actually the Romans who first developed tourism into an industry, as they were the first to leave their place of residence in larger numbers in order to have fun, learn culture and see the world. Visiting the Egyptian pyramids or the Greek cities meant a similar heritage experience for the antique Roman traveller to the experience of a culture-oriented traveller of the 21st century. The Great Journey becoming popular in the ancient Roman Empire, with Hellas, Asia Minor and Egypt as the main destinations, was very much similar to the later Grand Tour. The original list of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World can be taken as a preliminary of today’s cultural routes (Photo 4). Cultural motivation during the ancient travels was often related to religion too, so the contemporary tourism services were usually established in the vicinity of holy places; also, several sites of mythology became important touristic destinations.

Photo 4

It is only the Pyramids of Giza from the seven wonders of the ancient world that still exist

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Photo by Michalkó, Gábor 2005

In the centuries following the fall of the Roman Empire the political and social relations transformed. As a consequence of the disintegration of centralised state power, the security taken almost for granted in Europe in the time of the so-called ‘Pax Romana’ ceased to exist, and a few centuries later only fragments of the very well built Roman road network of approximately 200,000 kilometres could be found, the rest perished (Photo 5).

Photo 5


Remains of the Via Appia Antica in Rome

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Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2009

In the centuries of the Middle Ages travelling became definitely dangerous, and the majority of the population lost their rights of free movement after the establishment of the feudal system. Although the interest in the heritage of the old days remained – as it is demonstrated by Viking graffiti in the Hagia Sophia cathedral in Istanbul from the 9th century (Photo 6) –, in the absence of security, travels with entertainment, cultural or educational motivations almost completely disappeared.

(Photo 6)

Viking graffiti from the 9th century on the southern window sill of the Hagia Sophia cathedral

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Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2010

As a result of the strengthening of Christianity, religious tourism aiming at pilgrimage places became the most important touristic activity: already in the ancient times Rome was a significant pilgrimage place, as was Santiago de Compostela (the El Camino pilgrimage leading to the tomb of Saint James is walked by 130-140 thousand annually), a destination that is becoming very popular again these days. The penetration of Christianity had a considerable impact on city architecture too: medieval gothic cathedrals still attract millions of tourists to e.g. Chartres or Canterbury. Examining the relationship of tourism and culture, travels of the guild apprentices and of the students and professors should also be mentioned: they were catalysts for the development of culture in Europe, because these wonderers returned to their places of origin, taking back the habits and culture that they had learnt elsewhere.

Arts, architectural, arts history and educational tours similar to the present forms of cultural tourism first appeared in Italy in the 14th century, after the birth of Renaissance, and then they spread to other countries of Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries. The Renaissance time was characterised by the discovery and rebirth of the Antique civilisation, receding from the Church, the spread of secular thinking, realistic attitude to life, the desire for knowledge and the joy of life and love of beauty. All these ideals appeared in arts and architecture but also in everyday life. The values of Renaissance culture are still among the most important attractions of cultural tourism today (Photo 7).

Photo 7

Villa Capra (“La Rotonda”) – an important work of the Italian renaissance architect, Andrea Palladio, near Vicenza

(The architecture of Palladio – “Palladian villas in the city of Vicenza and the province of Veneto” – is now on the UNESCO world heritage list)

Foto7_La_Rotonda.jpg

Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2007

From the 16th century, the start of the new era, bourgeois development and the rearrangement of the social class relations, the increase of leisure time end discretionary income led to a process that allowed the democratisation of tourism and resulted in the birth of the Grand Tour (“Great European Journey”) which was extremely important for the development of cultural tourism. The original objective of the Grand Tour, especially popular in the 17th and 18th centuries, was the visit of places of cultural and historical relevance: mainly young English aristocrats spent some two years with the visiting of the major cultural centres of Europe. The classic route of the Grand Tour included destinations like Paris, Florence, Venice, Rome, and after the mid-1700s – the exploration of Pompeii and Herculaneum – Naples also became a destination that could not be missed. The list of destinations visited contained locations that well represented certain phases of the cultural development of Europe and which are also among the most important destinations of cultural and heritage tourism today.

The first package tour centred on cultural heritage was organised at the end of 19th century by Thomas Cook, the “father of tour operators”, for the visit of the antique Egyptian sights of interest, but a significant number of English guests arrived at that time at Italy (Photo 8) and Greece, too. In the field of cultural and heritage tourism, the organisation of the tourism services into packages can be especially important. The tourists take a serious risk, anyway, by buying an intangible service, and without knowing the space they visit they are rarely able to put together on their own a complex product that they want to enjoy. In the area of cultural tourism, in addition, it frequently happens that visitors travel to destinations with foreign and exotic culture where the maker of the tourism package does not only carry out practical organisation tasks but also has a key role in making smoother the encounter of different cultures.

Photo 8


The Babington’s Tea Rooms operating by the Spanish Steps in Rome since 1893 was originally established to serve the English travellers arriving at the city

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Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2009

In the development of cultural and heritage tourism a significant boom took place in the second half of the 20th century. This was partly due to the same reasons that resulted in the explosive development of the tourism sector as a whole (increased leisure time, growing discretionary income, growing mobility, development and expansion of the services supply of the tourism sector) but there were also specific reasons in the background:

·         The growing schooling level of the population in the advanced economies – because the higher the school education of a person, the more s/he is interested in culture and heritage values, both in the leisure time in his/her everyday life and as a tourist.

·         The more and more active participation of media in the promotion and propaganda of cultural programmes and attractions – in addition to the weekly or monthly periodicals and TV and radio programmes specialised on culture and/or tourism, almost all lifestyle magazines edited for either men or women feature cultural programme offers and/or tourism section, thus the average consumers get much more information, they are exposed to much more promotional stimuli triggering consumption.

·         The creation of new, exciting heritage tourism – heritage centres using the latest technical devices, offering an interactive experience, like e.g. the Jorvik Viking Centre in York in England are definitely more attractive for visitors interested in culture but having no in-depth classical education than heritage sites left in their original conditions and thereby almost incomprehensible without additional information. A similar role is played by different cultural events which make past a liveable experience (Photo 9).

Photo 9


Reminiscing of a popular feast called Floralia in Aquincum

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Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2009

·         The increase of the individual and social recognition and support of heritage tourism – in the history of the mankind, the nostalgic appreciation of the tangible elements of the past is a relatively new phenomenon, as a result of which values that have been preserved from the past are now protected much more strictly. Activities and hobbies done for getting to know the past and the identity of the individual and the narrow or wider community – from family history research through the systematic visit of World Heritage sites to participating in the replay of historical battles – have become a pastime enjoying the recognition of the society.

·         An increased demand for new forms of travelling, programmes and activities – parallel to the growing number of “experienced tourists” (i.e. the ones who have been regularly travelling for decades, have had a very large number of experiences and now posses a significant basis for comparison, and are able to clearly state their demands and preferences), the number of visitors on the tourism market longing for real experiences is constantly growing.

3. The supply of cultural tourism

The core, the central element of cultural tourism as a tourism product is the attraction which triggers interest of the demand and on which touristic infrastructure is built: on the one hand, directly – infrastructure allowing the exploration and marketing of the attraction –, on the other hand, indirectly – this is the touristic suprastructure allowing the stay and the consumption of the tourists. A complex touristic product is created, actually, in the lucky case when the infrastructure and suprastructure services supplementing the attraction of cultural value, in the centre of the product, also have strong cultural character (of course the experience of tourists can be satisfactory if the tiring act of the visit to cultural sites and events is followed by a rest not in a theme hotel but “only” in a high quality accommodation).

3.1. Attractions of cultural tourism

The attractions of cultural tourism have become definitely versatile, because, as we could see in Chapter 1, culture itself is a complex notion. Accordingly, cultural attractions can be categorised on many different grounds. On the basis of the character of the attraction we can distinguish events and places or locations. The duration and consequently the visitability of events is restricted, they are one-off events or ones recurring with a certain frequency (the Sziget – Island – festival is organised annually, the WAMP Budapest artist market every month). Space-type attractions can be found all the time, and although their visitability may be restricted by opening hours or the limits of capacity, they can offer some kind of experience in 24 hours a day and in 365 day a year to visitors (Photo 10).

Photo 10


The Matthias Church in Budapest is a sight of interest of the Hungarian capital city even out of opening hours

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Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2006

Looking at the attractions of cultural tourism from another aspect, we can talk about attractions of materialised, tangible and intellectual, intangible character. The former category involves e.g. architectural values and pieces of art, while the latter may be music, performing arts and traditions, or lifestyle. Of course intangible values are very often demonstrated through tangible objects (e.g. playing a symphony inevitably takes musical instruments, but the milieu made by the physical constituents of the music hall also influence the experience to a large extent), also, they jointly create the value to be preserved, attractive for tourists. The attraction of the Taj Mahal in India for example, now listed among the seven new wonders of the world, is due not only to the astonishing building itself but also to the connected wonderful love story (Photo 11).

Photo 11

Taj Mahal was built in the 17th century by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan as a memory of his loved wife, Mumtaz Mahal

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Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2007

On the basis of the birth of touristic attractions we can differentiate between natural and man-made ones. In cultural tourism it is obviously man-made attractions that are in the centre, but the popularity of the cultural attractions may be complemented and reinforced by natural factors. On the island of Crete for example the basis of cultural tourism is the historical heritage of the Minoan civilisation in the first place, but even for the most dedicated cultural tourists, sunshine and seaside are attractive factors as well. It may as well happen that the natural heritage serves as the foundation of the cultural identity of the destination, like e.g. the Hortobágy National Park, i.e. the “Puszta” in Hungary.

A significant part of the attractions in cultural tourism are multifunctional, i.e. guests are received while also maintaining the original operation. Such are e.g. religious locations (like the St. Stephen Basilica or the Benedictian Abbey of Pannonhalma) or operating production plants – some of them operate exhibition centres or museums definitely for the reception of visitors (Photo 12) –, but this category also includes settlements of cultural or historical character (like Szentendre or Cambridge) as well, where the whole of the historical settlement centre can be seen as an attraction. A common feature of multifunctional attractions is that they originally were created for non-touristic purposes, so the presence of visitors may raise many problems in connection, among other things, with capacity, accessibility or security.

Photo 12

The Guinness Storehouse in Dublin is meant to make visitors see how Guinness beer is made

Foto12_Guinness.jpg

Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2007

From a touristic aspect it is worth looking at the spatial location of cultural attractions in the broader sense, where we can distinguish linear, nodal or cluster-like attractions. The first category contains attractions which can only be visited along a route or route network, such as the Great Wall of China (Photo 13) or Road 66 between Chicago and Los Angeles. The latter sub-group involves attractions relatively easy to spatially designate; they may be single attractions like the Parliament in Budapest or the MODEM Centre of Modern and Contemporary Arts in Debrecen, or cultural landscapes covering larger areas and including significant cultural values.

Photo 13


The Great Wall of China

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Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2002

The concept of cultural landscape means natural areas shaped by human activity, with cultural relevance where the co-existence of man and nature, the interaction of civilisation and nature is represented. During the examination of cultural landscapes we can distinguish among the following types:

·         Cultural landscape designed and implemented by man, clearly designable – this category involves parks and gardens built with aesthetic, social and recreational purposes (for example the Dessau-Wörlitz Gardens in Germany).

·         Organically emerging cultural landscape, created with social, economic, administrative and/or religious purposes, functions and tasks.

o   Cultural landscape from the past where the evolutionary process finished in the historical past but its materialised remnants can still be seen (like Stonehenge and its area).

o   Still developing cultural landscape that has materialised values from the past and utilises them in its present socio-economic life (for example the historical wine region of Tokaj).

·         Cultural landscape related to the natural environment, built on strong religious, artistic or cultural associations, where the significance of the tangible cultural heritage values can be relatively modest or even completely absent. An example for this is the Tongariro National Park in New Zealand, whose mountain peaks are considered as sacred by the native Maori population but the outsider visitors cannot see religious buildings, so they can only get to know the spiritual significance of the place by an adequate information service.

The heritage values on the UNESCO World Heritage list are especially important cultural attractions. On the basis of the World Heritage Convention the concept “cultural heritage” comprises of monuments (including among other things architectural masterpieces, gigantic statues and paintings or archaeological values), groups of buildings and locations. The concept of “natural heritage” covers natural factors (physical and biological systems and their groups), geological formations, the habitats of endangered species and other natural areas. In the spring of 2011 the list contained 911 locations, of which 704 were cultural heritage items, 108 belonged to the natural heritage category and 27 were “mixed” heritages. All locations represent the national heritage and the culture of the respective country, and the most renowned ones have become the symbols of their countries and of the national/cultural identity on the global market of cultural tourism (the most popular sights of interest in Egypt e.g. include both the Pyramids of Giza and the tombs of the Valley of the Kings). Heritage attractions of this kind are of outstanding importance from a touristic perspective, because they operate as image-making factors, “flagships”, so they can actually generate tourism both for themselves and for their whole countries. Until the spring of 2011 eight locations of Hungary had been given the world heritage status. Although cultural tourism is usually the tourism product of urban spaces, all world heritage sites in Hungary, with the exception of the ones in Budapest and Pécs, are situated in rural areas, and thereby they can contribute to the strengthening of the attraction of the rural Hungary and the decrease of the spatial concentration of touristic demand in Hungary.

3.2. Elements of the infrastructure of cultural tourism

Looking from a tourism theory aspect, the concept of touristic infrastructure means establishment and services promoting the exploration and marketing of the attraction which is the core of the product. The static elements of the infrastructure of cultural tourism are establishments which are fixed in space, such as museums, visitor centres, theatres, opera houses and concert halls. We can often see overlaps when looking at the concepts of attraction and infrastructure: although in the case of a museum it is basically the collection, the pieces of arts exhibited that are the main attraction for visitors, in several cases the building that serves as the exhibition place is just as exciting as the exhibition itself (Photo 14), in fact, e.g. the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao has become a symbol of the Basque city mainly because of its architectural solutions.

Photo 14

In the palaces of the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg it is the combined effect of the halls and the beauty of the pieces of art that determines the experience of the visitors

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Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2010

The main task of transport vehicles categorised as parts of the dynamic infrastructure is the provision of access to the sights of interests and locations in the destinations of cultural tourism. Sightseeing buses for example allow visiting the main cultural attractions in a destination, and their routes assist the spatial orientation of the tourists by marking the most important, “must see” attractions. It is possible, however, in the field of transportation services as well to put culture in the foreground, for example by the touristic use of vehicles with cultural value (examples for such a solution are the sightseeing tours in Vienna with oldtimer cars or the Trabant Tour in Budapest). Even public transportation can be used for the propaganda of cultural tourism: in Essen for example, a German city that was one of the European Capitals of Culture in 2010, tram line 107 was converted into a cultural line. Along the route of the tram that can be used with an ordinary tram ticket, 61 cultural attractions can be seen, including two operas, a cathedral, a concert hall, two significant museums and the world heritage site of the Ruhr District, the Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex (Photo 15).

Photo 15


The “Kulturlinie”, i.e. the „Culture Line“ in Essen

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Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2010

3.3. Touristic suprastructure in cultural tourism

The goal of services categorised to the touristic suprastructure is to satisfy the demand of guests related to their stay, accommodation, catering and other needs. Primary suprastructure includes accommodation and catering facilities, whereas secondary suprastructure is the retail trade sector. Although tourists travelling with cultural motivation do not necessarily have special requirements regarding accommodation and restaurants, they may find services with cultural USP more attractive (USP = Unique Selling Proposition, a unique characteristics of a product that guarantees a competitive edge on the touristic market). The tourism development trends of the last years include the creation of thematic services, which is also manifested in the field of touristic suprastructure. In the accommodation sector, a cultural theme is the central element of the Library Hotel in New York, in which, following the categorisation system of Dewey, there are 10 storeys with 60 rooms and over 6,000 books for the guests: the theme of 9th floor for example is “history”, within that, Room 5 has a sub-topic called “Geography and Travel”. Another thematic hotel of cultural character is the Shakespeare Boutique Hotel in Vilnius, in which each room is named after a famous writer or a topic related to a piece of literature, and the decoration is motifs from the given work (Photo 16). Especially attractive accommodations from a cultural perspective are those that used to serve as accommodations for famous writers, poets or artists, such as Hotel Gritti Palace in Venice, where Ernest Hemingway was a recurring guest in the 1940s and 1950s.

Photo 16


Bathroom of the Verona Room in Shakespeare Boutique Hotel in Vilnius

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Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2009

Culture as a theme can appear in various form in catering industry as well, contributing thereby to the creation of a complex cultural tourism product. There are several restaurants, cafés, beer bars etc. all around the world that were haunts of important artists and this is partly the reason for their popularity among guests with cultural interest. In the Centrál Café in Budapest for example frequent guests were Endre Ady, Frigyes Karinthy, Zsigmond Móricz or Mihály Babits. Similarly attractive are catering facilities appearing in literature or films, like the U Kalicha beer bar in Prague, the favourite pub of the good soldier Švejk. A special combination of culture and catering is provided by cafés in bookstores, like for example the Magda Szabó Bookshop and Café in Debrecen (Photo 17), or the galleries, exhibitions and arts programmes located in cafés or restaurants.

Photo 17

Magda Szabó Bookshop and Café, Debrecen

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Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2009

A special position is occupied in the field of cultural tourism related catering by the restaurants, cafés and buffets of museums, theatres and churches, which – besides their income generating function – partly complement the cultural experience, allowing visitors to have a rest and refresh themselves (Photo 18), but they can also appear as attractions in their own rights on the tourism and leisure time market: the KOGART Restaurant in Budapest for example is attractive not only for visitors of the arts exhibitions.

Photo 18


Café in the cathedral of Turku, Finland

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Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2010

A special example for the integration of culture and catering is the compilation of menus with cultural themes or the special names given to certain meals, either by the use of the cultural heritage of a given destination or attraction – the café of the Royal Castle of Gödöllő e.g. has Sisi coffee on its menu – or perhaps connected to a topical cultural programme (Photo 19).

Photo 19

“European Capital of Culture” cake in Overbeck Café in Essen

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Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2010

The secondary touristic suprastructure in cultural tourism is the retail sector services, with special regard to the souvenir shops of the cultural facilities, for example museums, theatres and heritage centres – which have, in addition to their income generating functions, significant promotional roles –, or the thematic elements of the souvenir supply of the destination. It is important that the souvenir shops of the cultural attractions should be available without entry tickets, and on planning the flow of visitors, the route of leaving the attraction should be designed in a way that the direction to the exit would in all cases lead through the souvenir shop. The range of souvenirs of cultural thematic is almost endless: in addition to richly illustrated photo albums, catalogues, books, posters, CD-s we can also find subjects bearing the motifs of the attraction (ballpoint pen, mug, glass coaster, refrigerator magnet, jewellery, lighter, key ring, umbrella, scarf, tie, serviette, notebook, statue, jigsaw puzzle, deck of cards, bag, T-shirt, kitchen towel, thimble, chocolate, tea, coffee, biscuit – or even the canned air of the destination (Photo 20).

Photo 20


Souvenirs in the souvenir shop of the Aya Sophia in Istanbul

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Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2010

It is important, however, that only tasteful, good quality souvenirs, matching the cultural heritage of the visited destination or attraction in theme, form and material, should be in the retail stock of the souvenir shops of cultural tourism, as the goods manufactured in mass production are definitely disillusioning (Photo 21).

Photo 21

Souvenirs of Balaton and Hollókő at the exhibition called “Prey: subjects and desires at Lake Balaton” in the Balaton Museum, Keszthely (2008)

Foto21_Szuvenir2.jpg

Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2008

4. The demand for cultural tourism

Starting from the approaches of cultural tourism in Chapter 1 we can state that culture in general has a strong impact on the demand of tourists, because it is the intellectual and aesthetic development of the individuals that determines what activities they find pleasure in, what pastimes they choose and what they spend their discretionary income on, and it also impacts what destinations tourists visit. The schooling and educational level of the individual also influences the extent to which s/he can appreciate as a tourist the attractions visited: where the antique Rome comes alive to visitors possessing in-depth historical knowledge, the less informed guests will sooner or later grow tired of the view of the ruins. Of course the different cultural background will also influence the perception of the respective elements of culture by tourists: Indian dances for example can only be enjoyed to a limited extent by the outsider European spectators, in absence of the necessary background information (Photo 22).

Photo 22

Dance presenting the story of Rama and Sita in Jaipur, India

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Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2008

Tourists making the demand of cultural tourism can be categorised from several different aspects. Looking at the interests and the activities of the visitors, and the visited attractions for example the following types can be distinguished:

·         Heritage tourists – they are interested in for example castles, fortresses, archaeological sites, monuments, architecture, religious sites, the locations of historical events.

·         Creative tourists – their favourite activities include e.g. handicrafts activities, photography, painting, cooking, language learning, i.e. they seek cultural programmes in which they can actively participate.

·         Artistic tourists – the ones especially interested in festivals, concerts, theatre performances and locations of literature relevance.

·         Urban cultural tourists – their primary destinations are historical cities and recognised cultural centres, they are interested, among other things, in the cultural use of industrial heritage, and also in shopping and nightlife.

·         Rural cultural tourists – they are attracted by wine regions, wine tours, cultural landscapes, national park, eco-museums, open air museums, picturesque villages, folk traditions; the happily participate in rural tourism or agrotourism.

·         Popular cultural tourists – attractions definitely motivating for them include theme parks, sport events, locations of film shootings and other film-related sights of interest, exhibitions on fashion and design, and shopping centres.

Another possible approach during the analysis of the demand is to look at what role cultural tourism plays in the travel decision and what depth the cultural experience reaches. On this ground five different groups of cultural tourists can be identified:

·         Conscious cultural tourists in whose decisions a significant role is played by cultural motivations, and the personal experience of culture has a dominant attraction.

·         Consumers unexpectedly becoming cultural tourists – who for example get information in a destination visited on a festival that grabs their attention, and the experienced lived will be definitely memorable for them.

·         Urban sightseeing tourists, for whom culture is an important motivation but the cultural experience itself is not very deep.

·         Occasional cultural tourists for whom culture is a motivation of medium importance and the cultural experience is also only medium deep.

·         Accidental cultural tourists who participate in cultural programmes by chance and the impact of culture is insignificant in the travel experience as a whole.

In Europe culture is one of the major motivations of touristic mobility. Although travellers participating in cultural tourism have heterogeneous features, in general it is true that cultural tourists are relatively highly schooled, have above average discretionary income and women are represented somewhat above the average among them. As regards their age, we find both younger and older generations among them, but there is a difference between the interests of visitors at different age: elderly visitors are more interested in cultural heritage attractions, while the younger ones are more attracted by events and popular culture. The proportion of those cultural tourists whose profession is connected to the cultural sector is relatively high.    

5. The market for cultural tourism

As we could see earlier, during the development of tourism culture appears both as an environmental factor and an attraction. The cultural environment mainly impacts on the touristic motivations: the cultural level of the countries or origin considerably influences the travel motivations of the potential tourists and thereby also the characteristics of the touristic demand in the destination. Those persons who can be considered as regular consumers of culture in their everyday lives and during their pastime activities – e.g. attend theatre performances, visit exhibitions and go to concerts – will be more likely to travel with cultural motivations and during their travels they will be more interested in cultural sites and programmes.

Because tourism provides a demand for cultural services, the two sectors play a mutually important role in each other’s lives. For example, almost 30% of the buyers of tickets at the Budapest Spring Festival are foreign tourists, which is similar to the breakdown of the visitors to the Museum of Fine Arts. The supply of cultural tourism is determined to a large extent by the general cultural richness of the destination, the development level of arts and creative industries, the recognition and appreciation of the political, economic and social role of culture, and the volume of the support of the cultural sector by the state and the non-governmental sector.

5.1. International trends affecting cultural tourism

Among the international trends impacting on the leisure time activities and touristic mobility, the following are of decisive importance on the market of cultural tourism too:

·                    “Rich poverty” – high discretionary income is coupled with relatively little leisure time, making tourists look for rapidly liveable, intensive experiences.

·                    The desire to step out of long working hours and the daily routine – visitors would like to forget their “everyday lives”, so they expect even cultural attractions to relax and entertain them.

·                    There is a growth in the number of “experienced tourists” who have already lived many kinds of experiences, are able to compare competing cultural programmes, establishments and destinations, so they are demanding in their tourism decisions.

·                    Visitors mainly look for experiences and memories; they are less attracted by objects exhibited on their own (Photo 23).

Photo 23


In the Thunderbird Park of Australia, visitors buying entry tickets get a pickax and a bucket to search for geodes hiding semi-precious stones

Foto23_Thunderbird.jpg

Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2008

·                    Personal, individual need and expectations are becoming more and more important for tourists; accordingly the importance of tailor-made supply is increasing.

·                    In connection with the experiences received, a more and more definite expectation is interactivity, the active involvement of the consumer in the – knowledge mediation and entertainment – process, especially by the utilisation of modern technology devices.

·                    A constant growth of the importance of hyper-reality, virtual world and virtual communities can be seen, in which the younger visitors feel comfortable. Related to this phenomenon, we can also see the attraction of devices and experiences built on simulation in cultural tourism too.

Another – very important – international trend impacting on the development of cultural tourism is globalisation, having an effect on, among other things, the development of the phenomenon of culture, the practice of the consumption of culture and the development of touristic demand and supply. A specific manifestation of globalisation is the creation of the UNESCO World Heritage concept, as the idea itself suggests that there is supranational universal heritage which is of outstanding importance for all communities, and that there are global criteria on the basis of which the values worth awarding the World Heritage status can be selected. Although in each country we find heritage values meaningful for the domestic visitors and important at national level, the concept of the world heritage is unique inasmuch as the World Heritage sites are universal values belonging to all peoples on Earth, irrespective of exactly what country has them in its territory. Coming from the universal character of the values admitted to the World Heritage list, countries that have joined the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, accept, besides keeping their national sovereignty, that the protection of the locations admitted to the list is the joint responsibility and task of the international community.

 

In practice the picture is somewhat controversial: on the one hand, the list of sites admitted shows what the applicant countries find the most serious values of their own national heritage. There are relatively few sites which can be undoubtedly considered as the common heritage of the whole mankind: it is maybe only the natural values representing the geological or ecological development of the planet that can be put into this category, like the Grand Canyon, the Great Barrier Reef or the Galapagos Islands; or the prehistoric sites from the times before the cultural diversification of humanity started, or Ironbridge Gorge, the birthplace of industrial revolution. On the other hand, it is a very important step from the aspect of culture to recognise that heritage values remote from each other geographically and culturally have universal value for all communities, as they together make the richness of human civilisation. Openness and flexibility manifested in the acceptance of the concept of World Heritage and connected to the recognition of foreign, exotic, remote cultural values is a companion to globalisation, which has a considerable impact on the development of the market of cultural tourism.



A little bit contradictory to the global character of the idea of World Heritage is the fact that the separation of the concepts of cultural and natural heritage in the classification of the World Heritage sites is the reflection of the European philosophy from the times of the Enlightenment. Presently more than three-quarters of the sites on the list are cultural heritage, which may be the consequence of the fact that there are bigger differences in the types and characteristics of the cultures of various societies than in the natural environment of the human kind (there are “mixed” heritage sites on the list meeting both cultural and natural criteria, such as Kakadu National Park national park in Australia or the Meteoras in Greece). Because the World Heritage concept is basically of material character, in certain cases – especially when it comes to non-material cultures built on oral history – this approach makes it hard to recognise the value of some locations. The Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park in Australia for example was admitted ot the list as a natural heritage in 1987, but it was re-qualified as a mixed heritage in 1994, taking into consideration that the area has been inhabited for some 30,000 years, and the natural environment had social, spiritual and symbolic significance for the Anangu aboriginals.

6. Cultural tourism in Hungary

Cultural tourism has appeared among the selected touristic products in Hungary in the last few years, because besides medical tourism this is the sector where Hungary has significant, partly still unutilised touristic resources. For the domestic propaganda of cultural tourism, in the recent past the Hungarian Tourism Inc. announced two thematic years which in some form put Hungarian cultural experiences, sites and programmes into the centre: 2009 was the Year of Cultural Tourism, while 2010 the Year of the Festivals. Summarising the findings of the campaign years we can say that the Hungarian population interprets culture and culture-related travels rather broadly, i.e. we cannot talk about conscious consumption of cultural tourism experiences, in fact, culture appears in many different forms during the inland touristic activities. The assessment of the cultural endowments of Hungary by the population is definitely positive (which is especially true for folk traditions, rural heritage, events and festivals), in addition, the judgement of the supply of cultural tourism changed positively as an effect of the thematic year. At the same time, culture is basically a supplementary motivation during the travels of the Hungarian tourists; the primary motivations are still recreation, entertainment and visiting friends and relatives.

In 2010 Pécs was the European Capital of Culture, sharing the title with Essen and Istanbul. In the city, the number of domestic guest nights during the ECC year grew by almost 13%, that of foreign guest by near 75% at commercial accommodations, making a total of 28% growth in turnover. In Baranya county in the same year, the total growth in the number of guest nights was 8.6%, which indicates that the Pécs ECC 2010 project had an impact not only on the city but also its indirect and direct neighbourhood. On the list of Hungarian settlements most popular among foreign guests, Pécs ranked No. 12 in 2010 (which was a move 10 positions forward compared to its performance in 2009) (Photo 24).

Photo 24

Széchenyi Square, Pécs

Foto24_Pecs.jpg

Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2010

6.1. The Hungarian environment of cultural tourism

The development of cultural tourism is significantly determined by the economic, political, social and technological environment in which the tourism sector operates. A factor of outstanding significance in this environment is the state support given to cultural tourism, so it is worth taking a look at the presence of this tourism product in the Hungarian tourism strategy plans. In the Hungarian National Tourism Development Strategy made for the 2005-2013 period the utilisation of culture and heritage in tourism is mentioned as a selected priority. The NTDS says that the diverse and unique culture of Hungary is one of the special values of the country that are underutilised for the time being.

The Cultural Tourism Development Strategy made in 2009 also states that Hungary has good endowments in the field of cultural tourism, but the assets of this sector are underutilised. The general Hungarian problems of cultural tourism featured in this document include, among other things, the lack of presentation that offers a real experience and the absence of complex cultural products, the complicated system of owners and operators which sets back developments and market-based marketing activity, the relatively low level of the acknowledgement of the cultural supply and the unpredictability of the financing of cultural events. Further unfavourable phenomena include the inadequate schooling level of the employees in cultural tourism and the deficient cooperations among the cultural and touristic sectors. The development priorities defined in the Cultural Tourism Development Strategy until 2015 are as follows: establishment of the organisational and operational system of cultural tourism, creation of the legal frameworks, securing the economic foundations of product development, development of attractions built on cultural values, development of the related infrastructure and provision of the human resources background.

7. Cooperation of cultural tourism with other products, synergy effects

Cultural tourism is actually related to all other tourism products, because culture manifested in the everyday life is the foundation of any human activity, including tourism product development. If we take the narrower definition of culture into consideration, the relationship is especially strong to urban tourism and medical tourism, while wine and gastronomic tourism are actually elements within cultural tourism. The particular cultural endowments can significantly influence the characteristics and thereby the competitiveness of other tourism products. For example, the built environment of a destination or legends related to the location may make other tourism activities more attractive for visitors. Although city or road running races are organised in several countries, the most special experience is to run the distance of 42,195 metres on the classic ancient road linking Marathon and Athens in Greece.

7.1. The relationship of urban tourism and cultural tourism

A worldwide trend is that cultural tourism is created dominantly in urban spaces (Photo 25). This usually is the consequence of the concentration of touristic services in towns and cities, which is partly a historical heritage: today’s towns and cities were built around fortresses and cathedrals for centuries, and these cities gradually built museums, theatres and concert halls. The geographically concentrated location of cultural events is explained by better accessibility (railway and coach stations, airports and motorways) and the higher level and larger capacity accommodation supply available.

Photo 25


Vienna is one of the most important centres of cultural tourism in Europe

Foto25_Becs_Opera.jpg

Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2006

The cities outstanding from cultural tourism aspects include capital cities and their historical centres, on the one hand: Paris, London or Berlin are all among the most significant cultural destinations in the world, for example. The second group contains cities which are not capital cities but acknowledged cultural destinations, like St. Petersburg, Krakow or Istanbul, which in certain cases may have an attraction exceeding that of the administrative capital for tourists with cultural interest. The third group is basically made by those smaller cultural centres which are recognised at regional level, mainly. Exceptions in the third category may be settlements awarded the European Capital of Culture of World Heritage rank, in which the award of the title resulted in considerable change in the number of visitors and the acknowledgement: examples for this category are Nagyszeben (Sibiu) in Romania (Photo 26) of the medieval downtown of Zamosc in Poland.

Photo 26

In 2007 Sibiu – ands Luxemburg – were the European Capitals of Culture

Foto26_Nagyszeben.jpg

Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2007

7.2. Relationship of health tourism and cultural tourism

Another worldwide trend is that habits, procedures and rituals related to the preservation of health, and also the elements of the built environment of health preservation – like spas, sanctuaries, hospitals – are closely related to the social and cultural characteristics of the respective community. The integration of health tourism and cultural tourism is thus visible in several dimensions. The comparison of the international practice of health preservation shows that during the development of the human civilisation many traditions on the same foundations but with cultural differences have evolved: for example the Turkish hamam (Photo 27), the Finnish sauna or the Japanese onsen all contain a combination of hot air and steam for the refreshment of the body and the soul. Coming from the cultural differences, however, such establishments in the respective countries – besides satisfying the recreational needs of the local inhabitants – have become partly cultural attractions for international tourism, which is well illustrated by Çemberlitaş Hamam in Istanbul, Kotiharjun Sauna in Helsinki or Oedo Onsen Monogatari in Tokyo.

Photo 27

The Europa Nostra prize holder Omeriye Hamam in Cyprus

Foto27_Omeriye.jpg

Photo by Rátz, Tamara 2008

The materialised elements, the architectural solutions of health tourism are also closely related to cultural tourism. The atmosphere and the architectural heritage of the historical baths of Budapest, including the Rudas Medical Spa built during the Ottoman rule or the secessionist style Gellért Medical Spa are attractions for many tourists from a cultural aspect in the first place. The significant international health tourism destinations include settlements which owe their cultural touristic attractions primarily to their bathing resort milieu – in which architecture, parks, gardens or the climate all play their roles. Such locations include Karlovy Vary in the Czech Republic or Baden Baden in Germany.

8. Product development in cultural tourism

In the field of cultural tourism product development can take place at the level of individual attractions, and also at the level of larger territorial units such as cultural landscapes or historical cities. As the tasks of attraction management are discussed in detail in the study material called “Attraction and visitor management”, from now on we only focus on the latter issue.

As we could see earlier, cultural landscapes play a significant role in the development of cultural tourism. Form a touristic aspect, a specific challenge for the management of cultural landscape destinations is the fact that these areas are complex spatial units located in relatively large geographical space, with an above-average number of stakeholders and complex systems of interests. Consequently cultural landscapes, similarly to historical cities that are also significant cultural attractions, are suitable for complex tourism product development, as they can integrate practically all touristic functions that not one single attraction could integrate on its own. The Pyramids of Giza cannot accommodate or cater tourists visiting there, but the wine cellars of the Portuguese region Alto Douro that are engaged with the provision of accommodation and catering are parts of the cultural landscape, and this way vertical integration of the material conditions of cultural tourism is realised.

In cultural landscapes and historical cities the spatial distribution of touristic demand is usually much less concentrated than in the case of cultural tourism attraction located in a well designable single spot. It is key issue, however, in the relatively large geographical space to plan and manage the flow of the visitors so that as big as possible proportion of the stakeholders in the cultural landscape – both at community and business level – should enjoy the positive impacts of the increased touristic demand in a way that the negative impacts concomitant with the increased traffic concern them at a minimum level. The optimising of traffic planning is a key issue, anyway, among other things because cultural landscapes usually involve small settlements which, as opposed to the rapidly changing urbanised world, can preserve heritage of the rural lifestyle to a certain extent. In historical cities, other urban functions must be harmonised with the cultural functions.

During the foreign development of cultural tourism, it is important to feature cultural landscapes as single destinations on the tourism market. The integration of attractions that are less popular in themselves, and their presentation in an adequate cultural and historical context can increase the demand for both the area as a whole and the constituent attractions and service providers. It must be taken into consideration, however, that one component of the attraction of cultural landscapes is usually way of life, lifestyle typical of the locality, so the development of tourism can only be seen as positive in a form and to an extent that does not endanger the preservation of the original economic and social function of the landscape and the authenticity of the heritage values.

9. The research of cultural tourism

The topic of cultural tourism is an extremely complex research field, because, as we could see in Chapter 1, both the concept of culture and the range of activities and services categorised as cultural tourism can be interpreted relatively broadly.

In cultural tourism researches, one of the most frequently studied issues is traditional demand and supply analysis, using a predominantly marketing-based approach, because cultural tourism in an economic activity, in the framework of which consumer demands must be explored, understood and satisfied in a sustainable way – i.e. with profit or at least without a deficit – on the one hand; on the other hand, the development of cultural tourism has a significant impact on the quality of life of both the participating tourists and the inhabitants of the destination. Accordingly, the aspects of social, cultural and ecological sustainability must be taken into consideration on making development decisions, so these issues also appear as research topics when studying the phenomenon of cultural tourism.

Beyond the statistical analysis of demand and supply, in the forefront of the Hungarian and international surveys we find, among other things, the complicated system of relations of culture and tourism; the impacts of the progress of tourism on the cultural features of the destination concerned; the challenges of the interpretation and representation of cultural heritage; the relationship of arts, creative industries and tourism; the development and effects of festival tourism; culture as an urban development tool; the impact of globalisation on the trends of cultural and heritage tourism; cultural tourism as an integration factor; democratisation of the cultural consumption; the role of cultural tourism in shaping individual and community identity; the appearance of multiculturality in tourism … and the list is practically endless.

Among the databases available, an especially useful one is the website of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee providing complex information of the sites on the world heritage list, the criteria of the award of the recognition the World Heritage Convention, and also giving topical news on world heritage locations and on relevant events. Several different UNESCO publications deal with the issue of the World Heritage values, including the World Heritage Review, a richly illustrated periodical released every third month in English, French and Spanish languages, or the World Heritage Paper Series launched in 2002 which discusses, at an academic level, issues related to the management, preservation and development of World Heritages.

In the topic of cultural routes as special touristic products, detailed information is provided by the European Institute of Cultural Routes on the network of cultural routes in Europe and on events and projects related to the establishment, development and propaganda of cultural routes as well as the academic research of the topic serving as the foundation of the routes.

Active researches are carried out in the field of cultural and heritage tourism by the research groups of ATLAS (European Association for Tourism and Leisure Education), especially by the tasks forces of Cultural Tourism, Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage, Gastronomy and Tourism, Tourism and Socio-Cultural Identity and Urban and Capital City Tourism. The majority of the studies and books summarising the findings of the researches can be purchased online at the webshop ATLAS.

The CCP (Cultural Contact Point) provides information on several issues related to cultural cooperations in Europe. This office is also responsible for the national coordination of the current cultural framework programme of the European Union.

Although the website of the European Travel Commission does not contain statistical data on cultural tourism per se, still statistical data available on the site on European tourism trends and forecasts are a useful source of information for the research of cultural tourism too, as cultural and heritage tourism plays a role of selected importance in the tourism industry of Europe.

Bibliography

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Ébli, G. 2005: Az antropologizált múzeum (The anthropogenic museum). – Typotex Kiadó, Budapest, 338 p.

Koch, A. 2009: Harmincéves a Budapesti Tavaszi Fesztivál (Thirty years of the Budapest Spring Festival). – Turizmus Bulletin. 13. 3. pp. 20-22.

McKenna Schmidt, S. – Rendon, J. 2008: Regényes úti célok. Irodalmi emlékhelyek világszerte (Romantic destinations. Literature-related memorial places in the world) – Geographia Kiadó, Budapest, 383 p.

Michalkó, G. 2007: A turizmuselmélet alapjai (Foundations of tourism theory). – Kodolányi János Főiskola, Székesfehérvár, 224 p.

Minorics, T. 2009: Attrakció és misztérium (Attraction and myths). – In: Aubert, A. – Berki, M. (eds.): Örökség és Turizmus (Heritage and tourism). PTE TTK Földrajzi Intézet, Pécs, pp. 267-272.

Ördög, Á. 2010: Budapesti kulturális kutatás. A Kulturális Munkacsoport 2009. évi kutatása (A cultural research in Budapest. The 2009 survey of the Task Force for Culture). – Turizmus Bulletin 14. 1-2. pp. 31-36.

Perrottet, T. 2004: Ókori vakáció (An ancient vacation). – Tericum Kiadó, Budapest, 507 p.

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Puczkó, L. – Rátz, T. 2003: Turizmus történelmi városokban. Tervezés és menedzsment (Tourism in historical cities. Planning and management). – Turisztikai Oktató és Kutató Kkt., Budapest, 111 p.

Smith, M.K. 2003: Issues in Cultural Tourism Studies. – Routledge, London, 188 p.

Sulyok, J. 2005: Kulturális turizmus az európai városokban (Cultural tourism in the European cities). – Turizmus Bulletin 9. 3. pp. 18-29.

Sulyok, J. – Polgár, J. 2010: A Kulturális Turizmus Éve 2009 témaév legfontosabb eredményei (Main results of the theme year 2009 called ‘The year of cultural tourism’). – Turizmus Bulletin 14. 3. pp. 33-39.

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6. fejezet - János Csapó - Bulcsú Remenyik: Active tourism

1. Definition and historical preliminaries of active tourism

When looking for a definition of active tourism we find the following one in the Hungarian literature: “active tourism is a form of tourism where the motivation of the travel by the tourist is the pursuing of some leisure or sport activity requiring physical efforts” (Magyar Turizmus Rt., 2003). According to Michalkó, g. “active tourism is a sort of travel during which the tourist carries out intensive movement other than the usual movements that s/he makes, besides purchasing some goods or services” (Michalkó G. 2002). Following this concept and taking Michalkó’s other thoughts into consideration we give the following definition of active tourism: “…active tourism covers all those touristic activities that are realised as a pleasure-driven, non-routine movement of the tourists outside of their regular spatial tracks, together with their spending” (Michalkó G. 2002).

It is rather difficult, however, to deal with this touristic product when international literature seems to neglect the concept of active tourism, and even if it is dealt with, it is usually connected to leisure time activities. Nevertheless also in this approach active tourism is a pastime more intensive and more active than the traditional activities done by the tourists.



This way the range of active tourism typically involves hiking in nature, cycling tourism, water tourism, horse riding, golf, angling and hunting, and also other leisure time sport activities that include for example adventure tourism and extreme tourism, to name but a few new trends. The problematic nature of the definition of the concept comes, among other things, from the fact that active tourism naturally shows many similarities to sports tourism, which may be divided into two branches in this respect: amateur and professional sports tourism; they both have touristic content. The predominantly active tourism products and the related activities in the Hungarian and international literature are listed in Table 1.




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