Design and development of touristic products Main author: Gábor Michalkó Szilvia Boros, János Csapó, Éva Happ, Pál Horváth, Anikó Husz, Mónika Jónás-Beri, Katalin Lőrinc, Andrea Máté, Gábor Michalkó, Erzsébet Printz-Markó, Krisztina Priszinger, Tamara



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Medical hotels

 

2007

2007/2006

2008

2008/2007

2009

2009/2008

Domestic

 

 

 

number of guests (in thousand persons)

447

+10.0 %

456

+2.1 %

397

-13.0 %

number of guest nights (in thousands)

1 341

+7.7 %

1 339

-0.2 %

1 179

-12.0 %

average duration of stay (in nights)

3.0

-2.1 %

2.9

-2.3 %

3.0

+1.2 %

Foreign

 

 

 

 

number of guests (in thousand persons)

317

-2.0 %

310

-2.2 %

285

-7.8 %

number of guest nights (in thousands)

1 392

-1.2 %

1 356

-2.6 %

1 274

-6.1 %

average duration of stay (in nights)

4.4

+0.8 %

4.4

-0.4 %

4.5

+1.9 %

Total

 

 

 

 

number of guests (in thousand persons)

763

+4.7 %

766

+0.3 %

682

-10.9 %

number of guest nights (in thousands)

2 733

+3.0 %

2 695

-1.4 %

2 452

-9.0 %

average duration of stay (in nights)

3.6

-1.6 %

3.5

-1.7 %

3.6

+2.2 %

Source: By the author, 2010, based on Turizmus Magyarországon 2007, 2008, 2009

Table 5: Turnover of wellness hotels in 2007, 2008, and 2009




 

Wellness-hotels

 

2007

2007/2006

2008

2008/2007

2009

2009/2008

Domestic

 

 

 

number of guests (in thousand persons)

469

+17.4 %

554

+18.2 %

559

+0.8 %

number of guest nights (in thousands)

1 047

+18.6 %

1 208

+15.4 %

1 241

+2.8 %

average duration of stay (in nights)

2.2

+1.0 %

2.2

-2.4 %

2.2

+2.0 %

Foreign

 

 

 

 

 

number of guests (in thousand persons)

133

+22.3 %

161

+21.1 %

152

-5.8 %

number of guest nights (in thousands)

400

+7.5 %

452

+12.9 %

423

-6.4 %

average duration of stay (in nights)

3.0

-12.1 %

2.8

-6.8 %

2.8

-0.6 %

Total

 

 

 

 

 

number of guests (in thousand persons)

602

+18.4 %

715

+18.9 %

710

-0.7 %

number of guest nights (in thousands)

1 447

+15.3 %

1 660

+14.7 %

1 664

+0.3 %

average duration of stay (in nights)

2.4

-2.6 %

2.3

-3.5 %

2.3

+1.0 %

Source: By the author, 2010, based on Turizmus Magyarországon 2007, 2008, 2009

4. Trends and operation of the health tourism market

More aesthetic appearance and striving for healthy living are recently gaining on importance. Based on the publications of Cash and Pruzinsky in 2004, the number of references on body and body image in medical and psychological scientific databases increased by 2500 from 1951 to 2000. Our consumer society is characterised by a special duality: on the one hand it always tempts us for shopping, joys, permanent seeking for enjoyment, on the other hand it establishes a strong self-control in the way of living. “Let us eat conscious, move every day if it is possible, evade harmful passions, mainly smoking and unrestricted alcohol consumption, and let us strive for emotional balance” – it suggests. Passing away, death, and sickness became unspoken concepts that are not gladly accepted by the society. It is not accidental that the messages of society induce new trends in tourism that are centred around health conservation, beauty and agelessness. The modern approach is thinking in complexities, thus new waves emerge in tourism industry that shed light on the individual in a holistic approach i.e. in the triple unity of body, spirit and soul. Due to this, a dual transformation is taking place in health tourism: on the one hand the meanings of old definitions are changing, on the other hand, a new system of definitions starts to evolve.

4.1. New trends in health tourism

The requirements of consumer society also include body attractiveness and durable conservation of workability. Performance oriented company policy can be typical not only for middle- or large companies, but also for smaller firms employing only a few people. The ordinary days of competitive situations are rich in tension, and stress situations. In the accelerated speed of living, individuals are eager to spend their leisure time effectively, striving for full relaxation, cognitive, spiritual and physical recreation and refreshment. Consequently, new trends of health tourism emphasize individuality. Their aim is that everyone finds the chance of full relaxation in the given place, by using the available services.

4.1.1. Trends of supply

The spa-culture of our age is composed as follows:

-            striving for naturalness (using architectural solutions that integrate artificial spaces into the environment in the most natural way). They achieve this aim with simple forms, natural construction materials and colour compositions;

-            providing experience: trying to establish internal and external spaces that provide a special experience for the guests even without the given service. This is created by the unique lightning technique, and harmony of colours, plants and visual elements.

-            uniqueness: uniqueness is typical not only for architectural solutions, but also in the composition of services, and the image of the spa;

-            role of the individual/selfness: the taste, value system and expectations of the guests visiting spas varies along a broad scale. The diverging needs can only be served by simple forms, colours, equipments, basic services and by perfect quality and high-qualified personnel. This attracts simple architectural forms, clear walls (without paintings) and appearance of unique colours. The so designed/constructed spas adjust to the individual characteristics and style of their guests;

-            establishment of unique supply adjusted to local peculiarities: uniqueness also includes the adjustment of spa services to the environment’s features and complex service packages. Such is for example the vinotherapy in one of the hotels of Bordeaux, where grape plays the main role. The famous French wine producing area incorporates the establishment of grape- and wine related image http://decouvertes.ebizproduction.com/content/make-it-vinotherapy-bordeaux. Besides vine tasting and gastronomy, red grape body treatment and viticulture also play a role. This latter is used as main component of cleansing cures combined with other wellness services;

-            combination of eastern and western trends: western medicine-based treatments can be found among the services of several European and American spas (e.g. Swedish massage, Buchinger cure) and also services based on far-eastern traditions and sometimes tracing back to several thousand years (e.g. Thai massage, panchakarma). The aim is always the same (e.g. detoxification of the body), only the methods are different;

-            creation of complex services: to find and establish connections to other tourism products to increase complexity (see Chapter 6).

4.1.2. Trends of demand

Related to demand trends it is arguable that there are significant differences among the West- and North-European, just as North-American guests, and also the needs of the Central-East-European guests. Analysing wellness-oriented articles of lifestyle magazines it is clear that the new meta-trends are as follows:

Balance – wellness appears in magazines as a lifestyle rather than a short, few-day holiday. Based on the articles, wellness lifestyle is a tool for coping with everyday problems, for finding balance between the different aspects of life.

balance between work/private life – many believe that in the management of the challenges of the two spheres wellness oriented travels, even the short ones, give help (the example of product development on the supply side: package developed for tired, stressed working women http://www.blumau.com/womans-job-offer-facial-massage.html)

body balance – in the 21st century, acceptance of our body, emphasis of unique peculiarities, at the same time the desire to achieve perfect body image is still present (the example of product development on the supply side: package helping the shift to healthy nutrition http://www.mountaintrek.com/our-program/weight-loss; detoxification/cleansing cures, weight loss programmes)

living in pairs – it is a well-known and more and more accepted fact that the basis of well-being is well-balanced private life. The demand for non-specific, but jointly enjoyable, consumable services is increasing (example of product development on the supply side: packages offered for pairs http://www.blumau.com/romantic-offer-couple-bath-wine.html)

Masculine emancipation – demonstration of toughness, power and masculinity towards women (and other men) is not a permanent expectation anymore. It is a more and more accepted fact that also men are dealing with their appearance, they take care about their look and not least, their health condition. It is clearly traceable in the magazines that service providers try to reach the male target group through female readers.

men beauty – men ideals of the 21st century use cosmetics, and beauty treatments to become more attractive and preserve their youth (the example of product development on the supply side: “for him” packages http://www.wahanda.com/product/815-executive-mens-package-at-dove-spa/)

men health – the demand for treatment of smaller or larger male-specific problems is increasing, just as for hair-loss or shaving related skin problems or even prostatic problems (the example of product development on the supply side: “for him” packages http://www.wahanda.com/product/815-executive-mens-package-at-dove-spa/)

Age equality – in contrast to the youth-idealizing worldview of the 20th century, men of the 21st century strive to discover the beauty and joys of all ages.

kids spa – during travelling, parents try to consider the special needs and requirements of their children, to choose a kid/family friendly service provider, even in the rather adult customized health tourism products (the example of product development on the supply side: kid friendly baths http://www.sonnentherme.com/index.php?id=41&L=2)

children health – it is well known that our health and problems in children age have a significant effect on our health condition in the adult age. One of the most threatening problems for the developed world’s society is the obesity of children, a popular topic of lifestyle magazines (example of product development on the supply side: packages offered for chubby children http://www.spa-resorts.cz/eng/kaleidoskop/children-overweight-obesity-1160.html)

seniors: people above 60 always have been a primary target group of health tourism, mainly in the medical field. However, today also preventive, mainly medical-wellness types of treatments are demanded by people above 60 (example of product development on the supply side: http://www.purespauk.com/spa_package.htm; anti-aging treatment)

A large part of the above described demand trends is, however, not presented among the Hungarian consumers, and it appears only restricted in the supply of domestic service providers. Based on a research among Hungarian tourists it can be argued that the followings of the mentioned trends can be discovered: children friendly baths, healthy nutrition, finding balance between work and private life, and the demand of elderly people for preventive treatments.

Future trends seem to hold the increase of day spas popularity. The broadening group of guest are consider day spas it not only as a weekend relaxation, but also likes to spend a few hours in them in the hectic weekdays, for example between two meetings. Since in case of day spas one cannot calculate with room prices, one has to strive for the implementation of for-profit services, complex programmes, unique machines, products. The majority of guests is searching for an affordable quality, but they are also ready to pay a higher price for pleasant, clean environment, perfect professionalism, reliability and exclusivity. This inevitably necessitates permanent internal quality control and the regular training of staff.

5. Operational environment of health tourism market

5.1. Social environments

Accelerated lifestyle of the 20th and 21st centuries, increasing pressure at workplaces and increasing societal expectations result in serious health problems. The most common illnesses rooted in stress are heart- and cardiovascular complaints, digestive disorders, skin problems, immune system disorders, and also kidney and suprarenal capsule complaints. Beside typical “manager diseases”, the certain demand base for health tourism are problems of old age related to the increasing expected life span at birth, among which we can highlight locomotive complaints, and also digestive, heart- and cardiovascular diseases different from the above mentioned.

Our lifestyle – besides other factors – has a significant impact on our health condition. The most important risk factors include smoking, exaggerated alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, overweight, drug consumption and stressful lifestyle. Based on the estimations of the WHO, these factors are responsible for 75% of death cases in the developed countries.

Knowing the health condition of citizens in the European Union (http://www.antsz.hu/portal/portal/euegeszsegiallapota_16.html) and in Hungary (http://hvg.hu/karrier/00000000005598DC) we can say that the demand for health services and health tourism will not decrease in the following years, decades.

5.2. Natural environment

Hungary has excellent geothermic endowments. Hungary is a large power in medicinal water, since after Japan, Iceland, Italy and France it has the fifth best geothermic features. This excellence is due to the fact that the value of the geothermic gradient is one and a half larger than that of the world average. It is important to mention that in the Pannon basin including also Hungary, the earth’s crust is 10 kilometres thinner than the world average. Due to the thin, only 24–26 km thick earth’s crust, the hot magma is closer to the surface, thus thermal waters of Hungary hiding in the crust are also of higher temperature.

In addition to Hungary’s geothermic endowments, we also have to highlight the country’s other natural elements that are useable in curing: special climatic endowments used in therapy, medicinal caves, medical muds, and a dry bath (mofetta) are supporting the healing of patients (Chapter 2, The elements of supply).

5.3. Technological environment

Next to the above mentioned basic features, the modern spa architecture adapted the structural units of the ancient Roman and the Turkish baths. There are almost no Hungarian baths or spas without the three types from the Roman times: tepidarium – frigidarium – caldarium. One of the most dófascinating domestic examples of this is the mosaic decorated, round sauna park of the Thermál Hotel Visegrád, where the dry sauna, steam and infra cabin, and an ice feeder is complemented by aroma cabin and relaxing room that has a thermal fountain, and oriental atmosphere. Sound of the water flowing from the fountain, the pleasant gloom, the smells spilling in from the aroma cabin and the convenient relax beds provide an unforgettable experience besides ensuring abandoning relaxation http://www.thv.hu/.

Most of the modern spas recall the oriental atmosphere of Turkish baths http://www.ramadaresortbudapest.hu/hu/oriental_spa_and_fitnesz?sid=, which in many cases is incorporated not only in the atmosphere, but also in the elements of supply. One of the newly discovered and slightly modified services is the hamam treatment that is basically nothing else than a peculiarity of the middle aged Turkish baths. A special, mosaic decorated room is needed where there is gloom, high temperature and humidity, and is dominated by peace and quiet music. The person making the therapy rubs in the guest with an intensively bubbling, special oily soap, and then s/he flushes the foam with lukewarm water, and repeats the manoeuvre several times. Meanwhile, the guest is lying naked on a mosaic plate that is usually octagonal or round.

The international categorization of baths was made by the International Spa Association (further categories: http://itthon.hu/site/upload/mtrt/Turizmus_Bulletin/01_12/Sz2.htm).

The modern spas are eager to offer also services that are labelled by the name of one or other countries and are wide-spread all around the world. A selection, edited by Bodecker and Cohen, was published in 2008, with the title of “international spa language”.

5.4. Political environment

The development of health tourism, as one of the strategic segments of domestic tourism, plays a major role in Hungarian national and regional tourism development strategies.

In the National Tourism Development Strategy 2005–2013, health tourism is listed among the national priorities of touristic product development. The Strategy treats health tourism as a prioritized product until 2013, aiming to improve the national and international competitive position of the product by the end of the strategic period. It should be achieved by complex product and infrastructural developments in accordance with the recent trends, and with the clear division of medical and wellness branches. In addition to these, health tourism plays a role among other priorities of the Strategy, such as the development of human resources meeting the special needs of the product. (The National Tourism Development Strategy is available under: http://itthon.hu/szakmai-oldalak/strategiai-dokumentumok/nemzeti-100112.)

As we have already seen in Chapter 1.1, further development of health tourism plays an emphasized role in the New Széchenyi Plan (just as it did in the first one) that is in force since the January of 2011. At the time of writing this chapter, we do not have detailed information on the New Széchenyi Plan, but most likely it can be found under http://www.kim.gov.hu/ by the publication of the electronic draft.

In addition to tourism development, other strategies also contain health tourism. In the 2nd National Development Plan – more commonly known as New Hungary Development Plan – (that is also for the period 2007-2013), the operational programmes of all administrative regions contain health tourism as a development field. In the latest 2009–2010 development period, tendering opportunities were opened under the name “Development of tourism investments with selected economic impact” and “Activities related to the improvement of the framework conditions and competiveness of health tourism in places of international attractiveness determined by the National Health Tourism Strategy”. Except the second call in the Central-Transdanubian Region and the first call in the Central-Hungarian Region, prioritized tenders were opened in every region for both calls. (Operational Programmes of the regions are available here: http://www.nfu.hu/uj_magyarorszag_fejlesztesi_terv_2.)         

On the commission of the Secretariat for Tourism of the Ministry of Municipalities and Spatial Development, with the inclusion of academic and business tourism professionals, the National Health Tourism Strategy was developed in 2007 (downloadable from http://www.oib.gov.hu/docs/egeszsegturizmus_strategia.pdf). The strategy enlists seven priorities and the related tasks. The priorities are in keywords: conscious product development of medical places, harmonization of health care and tourism, development of wellness services, development of engaged hotels, effective marketing activity, development of educational-training system, and the creation of operational frameworks.

6. Cooperation with other products, synergy

This branch of tourism has several advantages compared to other, traditional branches. The most important ones are as follows:

-          practically no or minimum negative effect of seasonality;

-          longer average stay due to the consistency required by the related treatments;

-          the specific touristic spending is 30–35% higher on the average than in other fields of tourism. This can be explained by the longer stay, by the treatments received, and with the higher willingness to pay that is due to the aim of preserving/regaining health;

-          it dissolves spatial concentration. Thermal water can be found under 80% of Hungary’s territory, so there are opportunities to establish health tourism services on several locations;

-          every HUF 100 spent by guests in health tourism induce HUF 167 additional production;

-          every 100 workplaces created in this tourism branch create 214 additional new jobs in the national economy.

Besides the use of health tourism services, different programme packages – including for example beauty cures, manager cures, active- and sport tourism, and the inclusion of the given destination’s values in the field of family tourism – must be offered to the tourist, with the possibility of quality (longer) stay and for the aim of real capacity utilization and creation, and the preservation of competitiveness.

Health tourism can be connected to further products:

-          conference and wellness (see the chapter of Business tourism)

-          village tourism and health tourism (best practice: Turizmus Panoráma Bulletin, 2010/150.: 2010.08.04: SPA Falu a mátraaljai Sirokon)

-          ecotourism and health tourism (best practice: Napi Turizmus 2010/78.:2010.04.26.

Termálvizes ökoszálloda épül a Lázár Lovasparkban)

-          equestrian tourism and health tourism (best practice: Napi Turizmus 2010/63.: 2010.04.02.: Nyitott Lovardák-Lovaglás az egészségért)

-          religious tourism and health tourism ~ tradition, faith, healing (e.g. relation between the Mary Route in North Hungary and baths)

-          beauty cures and health tourism (e.g. vinotherapy): http://www.kelownaspa.ca/vinotherapy.html.

-          gastronomy and health tourism (bio-kitchen and bio-foods, menu card showing also calories, reform cooking book)

7. Practice of product development

As we have seen at the introduction of the political environment of health tourism (Chapter 4.4), calls for tenders supporting health tourism are opened in every region. The topic of tender calls is different year by year, as a prioritized area for example in 2007, tenders for the development of competitive touristic products and attractions could be submitted which primarily aimed at bath development related to health tourism (calls for tenders downloadable from http://www.nfu.hu/doc/890 – by rolling down the operational programme of the regions, and searching for prioritized projects). In the 2010 calls, tenders for the prioritized products introduced in Chapter 4.4 could be submitted. Among the not prioritized products we can find calls for the establishment of accommodations, and tenders for quantitative and qualitative development of already existing accommodations (see by surfing among the operational programmes of the individual regions).

Also, the numerous health tourism developments related to the first Széchenyi Plan have to be mentioned here. Due to the supports, the number of wellness hotels significantly increased, so far that from 2004 onwards, next to medical hotels, also wellness hotels appeared as a distinct type of accommodations in the statistics of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Due to the support of the Széchenyi Plan, several baths have been reconstructed (http://www.sarvarfurdo.hu), and also new investments were also realized (http://www.varkertfurdo.hu/).

It is typical in the Hungarian practice that the baths do not diversify their support; they develop services instead to several target groups that often have different needs. However, as it is also included in the health tourism development strategy, it would be desirable to separate the services provided to the target groups with different needs (see the differentiations “healing water”, “regenerative water”, “entertaining water” on page 61 http://www.oib.gov.hu/docs/egeszsegturizmus_strategia.pdf).

Excellent examples of supply diversification are three Austrian spas which follow the thematic above. We find a product development in Bad Gleichenberg, designed primarily to seniors based on “healing water” (http://www.thermenland.at/2177_DE-Steirisches-Thermenland-Thermen-Bad-Gleichenberg.123). Related to the medicinal bath, the main keywords are the following: relaxed life, health, silence, relaxation, reliability. A copybook example of “regenerative water” can also be found in Bad Blumau in Styria (http://www.blumau.com/). In this case the words attractive, rich, novel, trendy, successful and luxurius can be highlighted. Also in the family friendly “entertaining water” category, one of the baths of the Steirisches Thermenland, Sonnentherme bath in Lutzmann has to be mentioned (http://www.sonnentherme.com/index.php?id=41&L=2), and keywords as family, programmes, entertainment, safety, child friendly, price sensible can be determined.

There are establishments that are excellent examples of the diversification of services based on target groups also among the medical and wellness hotels. A Hungarian example among the medical hotels is the Danubius Hotel Gellért****, which is a classic hotel based/building on traditional supply elements offering numerous services based on medical water (http://www.danubiushotels.hu/hu/szallodak/magyarorszag/budapest/danubius_hotel_gellert/gyogyszolgaltatasok). One of the newest hotels in Hungary is the Hotel Spirit***** in Sárvár, which was awarded the Best Destination Spa title in 2010. As the prize shows, the hotel is among the best wellness hotels, and it bases its services mainly on the medical water of Sárvár, however, extending its supply with broad wellness supply (http://www.spirithotel.hu/hu/hotel). The only really children/family friendly hotel of Hungary is also located in the countryside – the Kolping Hotel Spa&Family Resort**** in Alsópáhok, that fully bears in mind the needs of smaller or bigger children and families as well (http://www.kolping.hotel.hu/).

8. Research peculiarities of health tourism

Most of the researches related to health tourism are mainly carried out in the field of tourism and health care. Unfortunately, permeability between the research fields is not perfect. Priority 2 of National Health Tourism Development Strategy is the harmonisation of health care and medicine. As it is argued in the strategy, active participation of the medical professionals is inevitable both in medical and wellness tourism (page 79).

Balneotherapy is a special supply element of Hungary; however, to enhance international demand, it is important that balneotherapy should also meet the requirements of evidence based medicine as well.

Health tourism is a thoroughly researched area also in international comparison, several professional books and journals are published in the field. It has to be mentioned that in English terminology the term called “health tourism” is less frequently used, “spa tourism” is preferred in the professional literature.

It is important to mention that the expression ‘spa’ is increasingly spreading in the world; however, it does not always mean the same:


  • ·         North-Europe (Finland, Iceland): pleasure bath with warm water

  • ·         Central-Europe: thermal bath offering medical services

  • ·         USA, Asia: service provider offering physical and mental refreshment, it is imaginable in baths even without thermal water (OEFS, 2007)

Different comprehension of the expression can cause research difficulties.

A further problem is that health tourism related statistical data can diverge to a smaller or larger extent in different sources, since updates of Internet databases differ in their frequency. Unfortunately it causes problems for example in the case of trend and supply research.

The investigations of baths are also exacerbated by the fact that the supply of statistical data was not compulsory for these establishments even until recently, which can be an obstacle at the analysis of demand for the baths. Also, it relates to the research of demand that capacity analysis of baths is extremely complex and requires consideration of several factors (for example size of open/indoor surfaces, water surface etc.).

Main data sources available for investigation related to health tourism (without striving for complexity) include:



  • ·         database of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (available on-line and printed as well);

  • ·         database of the Board of National Medicinal Places and Medicinal Baths on the domestic healing factors;

  • ·         data of medical and wellness hotels (directly from the hotel or from the HCSO database);

  • ·         number of pools (at this time available on the websites of the baths, or based on personal contacts/);

  • ·         number of National Healthcare Fund treatments required;

  • ·         database of the Hungarian Tourism Inc. (summarized by the yearly publication titled Tourism of Hungary).

Bibliography

Bender, T. (2008) Gyógyfürdőzés és egyéb fizioterápiás gyógymódok (Medical spas and other physiotherapy treatments), SpringMed Kiadó Kft., Budapest, 139 p.

Boros, Sz., Wallace, M. (2009) Wellness és egészség (Wellness and health) – Springmed Kiadó, Budapest (manuscript)

Cash, T., Pruzinsky, T. (2004) Body Image: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice, Guilford Press

Cooper, K.H. (1990) A tökéletes közérzet programja (The programme of feeling perfect). Sport Kiadó, Bp.19-26.p.

Dobos, I. (2006) A fürdővíz beszerzése, a hévíz hasznosítása (Acquisition of bathing water, the utilisation of thermal water). – In: Ákoshegyi, Gy. –Németh, I.(eds): Fürdők kézikönyve, Tervezés-építés-üzemeltetés (Handbook of spas. Planning, construction and operation), a Magyar Fürdőszövetség kiadásában, Budapest. pp. 23-28.

>Gerry Bodeker (Editor), Marc Cohen (Editor) (2008) Understanding the Global Spa Industry: Spa Management, Butterworth-Heinemann

Kiss, V. – Nagy, Z. (Eds.) (2006) Magyar Fürdőalmanach (Hungarian Spa Almanac), a Magyar Fürdőszövetség és az Országos Széchenyi Könyvtár gondozásában, Budapest, 195 p.

Kopp, M. (2003) Stressz és megbirkózás: a közép-kelet-európai egészség paradoxon – Lélekben otthon (Stress and coping: the Central-East European health paradox – at home in spirit

Leawy, H.R., Bergel, R.R. (2003) The spa encyclopaedia, Thomson learning, USA

Peralta Miguel Angel (2004) Gyógyfürdőink múltja és jelene (Past and present of the Hungarian medical spas). – In: Peralta Miguel Angel: Magyarország gyógyító vizei (Healing waters of Hungary), CARITA Bt., Budapest. pp. 17-49

Priszinger, K., Mayer, P., Formádi, K. (2010) Conscious or trendy? How do fashions and trends influence consumer’s selection criteria in health-related tourism? In Health, Wellness and Tourism: healthy tourists, healthy business? Proceedings of the TTRA Europe 2010 Annual Conference, p. 207-280

Tubergen-Linden (2002) A brief history of spa therapy, Ann Rheum Dis.; 61:273–275.

Várhelyi, T. (Eds.) (2009) Világtrendek az egészségturizmusban: vállalkozói kultúra és a tudás fejlesztése (World trends in health tourism: entrepreneurial culture and the development of knowledge) – Szolnoki Főiskola

Laws and government regulations Decree No. 74/1999.(XII. 25.) of the Ministry of Health on natural medicinal factors Decree No. 54/2003 (VIII.29). of the Ministry of Economy and Transport on the amendment of the Decree 45/1998. (VI.24.) of the Ministry of Transport, Construction and Tourism on the classification of public and private accommodations and the qualification of rural accommodations Decree No. 5/2004. (XI. 19.) of the Ministry of Health on medical treatments available with health insurance fund support for medical regeneration Decree No. 23/2007. (V. 18.) of the Ministry of Health on the support of medical treatments prescribable with health insurance fund support

Internet sources

On the http://itthon.hu/gyogy-wellness [03.09.2010] website to the introduction of supply: http://itthon.hu/gyogy-wellness?title=&zip=&district=0&lor0%5B%5D=58&submitbutton=Keres%C3%A9s&detailed=0 [03.09.2010]

http://itthon.hu/gyogy-wellness?title=&zip=&district=0&lor0%5B%5D=6291&submitbutton=Keres%C3%A9s&detailed=0 [03.09.2010]

http://itthon.hu/szakmai-oldalak/statisztikai-adatok/statisztikai-adatok [03.09.2010]http://wellness.itthon.hu [03.09.2010]

http://wellness.itthon.hu/aquaparkok [03.09.2010]http://wellness.itthon.hu/furdok/elmenyfurdok [03.09.2010]

http://wellness.itthon.hu/furdok/gyogyfurdok [03.09.2010]http://wellness.itthon.hu/furdok/termalfurdok [03.09.2010]

http://wellness.itthon.hu/gyogybarlangok [03.09.2010]

http://wellness.itthon.hu/gyogyszallodak [03.09.2010]

http://wellness.itthon.hu/wellness-szallodak [03.09.2010]

http://bukfurdo.hu/hu/arak_nyitvatartas/gyogy_es_strandfurdo/nyomtatas/ [03.09.2010]

http://decouvertes.ebizproduction.com/content/make-it-vinotherapy-bordeaux [03.09.2010]

http://itthon.hu/site/upload/mtrt/Turizmus_Bulletin/01_12/Sz2.htm [03.09.2010]http://itthon.hu/szakmai-oldalak/strategiai-dokumentumok/nemzeti-100112

http://www.antsz.hu/portal/portal/euegeszsegiallapota_16.html [03.09.2010]

http://www.antsz.hu/portal/portal/euegeszsegiallapota_16.html [03.09.2010]

http://www.aquaticum.hu/ [03.09.2010]

http://www.blumau.com/ [03.09.2010]

http://www.blumau.com/romantic-offer-couple-bath-wine.html [03.09.2010]

http://www.blumau.com/womans-job-offer-facial-massage.html [03.09.2010]

http://www.danubiushotels.hu/hu/szallodak/magyarorszag/budapest/danubius_hotel_gellert/gyogyszolgaltatasok [03.09.2010]

http://www.kelownaspa.ca/vinotherapy.html [03.09.201]

http://www.kim.gov.hu/ [03.09.2010]

http://www.kolping.hotel.hu/ [03.09.2010]

http://www.mountaintrek.com/our-program/weight-loss [03.09.2010]

http://www.nfu.hu/doc/6 [03.09.2010]

http://www.nfu.hu/doc/890 [03.09.2010]

http://www.nfu.hu/uj_magyarorszag_fejlesztesi_terv_2 [03.09.2010]

http://www.oib.gov.hu/docs/egeszsegturizmus_strategia.pdf [03.09.2010]

http://www.purespauk.com/spa_package.htm [03.09.2010]

http://www.ramadaresortbudapest.hu/hu/oriental_spa_and_fitnesz?sid= [03.09.2010]

http://www.sarvarfurdo.hu [03.09.2010]

http://www.sonnentherme.com/index.php?id=41&L=2 [03.09.2010]

http://www.spa-resorts.cz/eng/kaleidoskop/children-overweight-obesity-1160.html [03.09.2010]

http://www.spirithotel.hu/hu/hotel [03.09.2010]

http://www.thermenland.at/2177_DE-Steirisches-Thermenland-Thermen-Bad-Gleichenberg.123 [03.09.2010]

http://www.thv.hu/ [03.09.2010]

http://www.varkertfurdo.hu/ [03.09.2010]

http://www.wahanda.com/product/815-executive-mens-package-at-dove-spa/ [03.09.2010]

http://www.wahanda.com/product/815-executive-mens-package-at-dove-spa/ [03.09.2010]

http://www.antsz.hu/portal/portal/ogyfi.html [03.09.2010] website to introduce the supply based on the registration of the National Directory of Cure Places and Medicinal bathPlaces: National register of Hungarian medicinal caves

http://www.antsz.hu/portal/down/kulso/ogyfi/Gyogybarlangok_20071128.htm [03.09.2010]

National register of Hungarian medicinal spas

http://www.antsz.hu/portal/down/kulso/ogyfi/gyogyfurdok_20090829.pdf [03.09.2010]

National register of Hungarian medicinal gases http://www.antsz.hu/portal/down/kulso/ogyfi/Gyogygaz_20071128.htm [03.09.2010]

National register of Hungarian medicinal resorts http://www.antsz.hu/portal/down/kulso/ogyfi/gyogyhelyek_20071128.htm [03.09.2010]

National register of Hungarian natural medicinal muds http://www.antsz.hu/portal/down/kulso/ogyfi/gyogyiszapok_20071128.htm [03.09.2010]

National register of Hungarian natural medical hotels http://www.antsz.hu/portal/down/kulso/ogyfi/gyogyszallok_20090602.htm [03.09.2010]

National register of mineral waters acknowledged by the Board of National Medicinal Places and Medicinal Baths http://efrirb.antsz.hu:7778/ogyfi/asvanyviz.jsp [03.09.2010]

National register of mineral waters acknowledged by the Board of National Medicinal Places and Medicinal Baths http://efrirb.antsz.hu:7778/ogyfi/gyogyviz.jsp [03.09.2010]

Teaching materials:

Gellai I. – Ruszinkó Á. (2006) Fürdőtörténelem (The history of spas). – In: Ruszinkó, Á. (ed): Medical tourism I., material for the health tourism specialisation students of the Heller Farkas Főiskola Egészségturizmus Szakirány, Budapest. pp. 11-14.

Professional studies Borbély, A. –Müller, A. (2008) A testi-lelki harmónia összefüggései és módszertana (Correlations and methodology of physical and mental harmony),

Professzorok az Európai Magyarországért Egyesület, PEM-Tanulmányok VII. Gárdos, É. (1996)

Magyarország egészségi állapota (Health condition of the population of Hungary) Professional strategic papers National Health Tourism Development Strategy: Aquaprofit Műszaki, Tanácsadási és Befektetési Rt., 2007.

Interview 100 interviewees between the age of 18 and 22 years, who were full time students of the Professional catering manager specialization of the NYME-AK in the autumn semester of the school year 2009/2010

Pictures 1.  picture: Cross-section of a Roman bath: Source: http://www.balneologia.hu/upload/balneologia/document/balneologiai_emlekek.htm, 6th of September 2010

5. fejezet - Tamara Rátz: Cultural tourism

1. The concept of cultural tourism

Cultural tourism in the broader sense is a touristic product the central element of which is attraction satisfying the intellectual needs of the tourists, in the most comprehensive sense of the word. From product development and product management aspect, however, this approach is hard to handle, because on this ground practically any leisure travel can be fitted into the concept of cultural tourism, because the new experiences will inevitably give tourists new skills and knowledge.




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