Design and development of touristic products Main author: Gábor Michalkó Szilvia Boros, János Csapó, Éva Happ, Pál Horváth, Anikó Husz, Mónika Jónás-Beri, Katalin Lőrinc, Andrea Máté, Gábor Michalkó, Erzsébet Printz-Markó, Krisztina Priszinger, Tamara



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Design and development of touristic products

Main author: Gábor Michalkó

Szilvia Boros, János Csapó, Éva Happ, Pál Horváth, Anikó Husz, Mónika Jónás-Beri, Katalin Lőrinc, Andrea Máté, Gábor Michalkó, Erzsébet Printz-Markó, Krisztina Priszinger, Tamara Rátz, Bulcsú Remenyik, Géza Szabó

Design and development of touristic products

Main author: Gábor Michalkó

Szilvia Boros, János Csapó, Éva Happ, Pál Horváth, Anikó Husz, Mónika Jónás-Beri, Katalin Lőrinc, Andrea Máté, Gábor Michalkó, Erzsébet Printz-Markó, Krisztina Priszinger, Tamara Rátz, Bulcsú Remenyik, Géza Szabó

Szerzői jog © 2011 PTE

Publisher: University of Pécs

Editor: Gábor Michalkó

Language Editor: Zoltán Raffay

Technical Editor: Enikő Nagy

Length: 9 sheets

ISBN: 978-963-642-435-0



Tartalom

1. Gábor Michalkó: The tourism product 1

1. Conceptual preliminaries 1

2. Macro- and micro-level interpretation of tourism product 1

3. Categorisation of tourism products 2

3.1. Space-specific tourism products 2

3.2. Group-specific tourism products 2

3.3. Activity-specific tourism products 3

4. Topical trends in product development 3

5. Tourism features of niche products 3

6. Life cycle of the tourism product 4

2. Katalin Lőrinc - Gábor Michalkó: Urban tourism 5

1. From the Coliseum to the London Eye: historical preliminaries of urban tourism 5

1.1. The beginnings 5

1.2. The dawn of the Medieval Times and the New Era 5

1.3. The time of the industrial revolutions 5

1.4. 20th century 6

2. Supply of urban tourism 6

2.1. Attracted by the cities 6

2.2. Tourism infrastructure 7

2.3. Tourism suprastucture 7

3. Demand of city tourism 7

3.1. From cities to cities 8

3.2. A potpourri of motivations 8

3.3. Touristic behaviour of city tourists 8

4. The market of city tourism 9

4.1. Trends impacting urban tourism 9

4.2. An international outlook 9

4.3. An outlook in Hungary 10

5. The environment of urban tourism 11

5.1. The reflection of the environment of urban tourism: quality of life 11

5.2. A tourism policy approach 11

6. Cooperation of urban tourism with other tourism products, synergy effects 12

6.1. Central roles, individual products 12

6.2. Growing popularity of medical tourism and health industry in the cities 12

6.3. Cultural experiences 13

6.4. MICE tourism – the age of conferences and business meetings 13

7. Product development in urban tourism in practice 14

7.1. Accessibility, transport, parking 14

7.2. “Selling the city”: innovative solutions in settlement marketing 14

7.3. Tailor-made information 14

7.4. The role of community spaces and local inhabitants 15

7.5. Harmonised tourism management 15

8. Research on urban tourism 15

Bibliography 17

3. Géza Szabó: Products and product specialisations in rural tourism 19

1. Concept, legislation background and institutional system of rural tourism 19

1.1. Rural tourism – village tourism interpretations 19

1.2. The organisational system of village tourism 21

2. Attractions and supply of rural tourism 22

2.1. Attractions in rural tourism 22

2.2. Qualification system 22

3. The characteristics of demand in rural tourism 23

3.1. The situation of rural tourism 23

4. Trends in village tourism 26

4.1. Assessment of the demand trends of tourism for the products of rural tourism 26

5. Village tourism in development policies 27

5.1. Village tourism in the Hungarian National Tourism Development Strategy (NTDS 2005-2013) 27

5.2. Rural development programmes 27

6. Product specialisations in Hungary and abroad, synergies, cooperation with other products 29

6.1. Special products of village tourism and agrotourism in Hungary 29

7. The practice of product development: eco-accommodations and clusters 30

7.1. Eco-accommodations 31

7.2. Clusters 33

7.2.1. Clusters and touristic clusters 33

7.2.2. Development directions in rural tourism in South Transdanubia: cluster development 34

Bibliography 35

4. Szilvia Boros - Erzsébet Printz-Markó: Health tourism 36

1. Brief historical overview 36

2. Supply elements 37

2.1. Attractiveness of Hungarian health tourism 38

2.2. Infrastructure of health tourism 39

2.3. Suprastructure of health tourism 40

3. Characteristics of supply 40

4. Trends and operation of the health tourism market 42

4.1. New trends in health tourism 42

4.1.1. Trends of supply 43

4.1.2. Trends of demand 43

5. Operational environment of health tourism market 44

5.1. Social environments 44

5.2. Natural environment 45

5.3. Technological environment 45

5.4. Political environment 45

6. Cooperation with other products, synergy 46

7. Practice of product development 47

8. Research peculiarities of health tourism 48

Bibliography 49

5. Tamara Rátz: Cultural tourism 52

1. The concept of cultural tourism 52

2. History of the development of cultural tourism 53

3. The supply of cultural tourism 56

3.1. Attractions of cultural tourism 56

3.2. Elements of the infrastructure of cultural tourism 58

3.3. Touristic suprastructure in cultural tourism 59

4. The demand for cultural tourism 60

5. The market for cultural tourism 61

5.1. International trends affecting cultural tourism 62

6. Cultural tourism in Hungary 63

6.1. The Hungarian environment of cultural tourism 63

7. Cooperation of cultural tourism with other products, synergy effects 64

7.1. The relationship of urban tourism and cultural tourism 64

7.2. Relationship of health tourism and cultural tourism 65

8. Product development in cultural tourism 65

9. The research of cultural tourism 66

Bibliography 68

6. János Csapó - Bulcsú Remenyik: Active tourism 69

1. Definition and historical preliminaries of active tourism 69

2. Elements of the supply of active tourism 71

2.1. Attraction(s) 71

2.2. Tourism infrastructure 71

2.3. Tourism suprastructure 72

3. Characteristics of the demand of active tourism 72

3.1. Tourists’ motivations, socio-cultural background, touristic behaviour, the weight within travel habits 72

4. Operation of the market of active tourism products, trends 73

4.1. An international outlook 73

4.2. Active tourism in Hungary 74

5. Environmental conditions of the operation of the market 75

5.1. Features of the environmental elements 76

6. Cooperation with other products, synergy effects 77

7. Product development, the practice of product development 79

7.1. Active tourism products selected by the regions 80

7.1.1. Lake Balaton 80

7.1.2. Budapest – Central Hungary 80

7.1.3. North Hungary 80

7.1.4. North Great Plain 80

7.1.5. South Great Plain 80

7.1.6. South Transdanubia 81

7.1.7. Middle Transdanubia 81

7.1.8. West Transdanubia 81

7.1.9. Tisza Lake 81

7.2. Active tourism developments 81

8. Research characteristics related to the active tourism product, recommended databases 82

Bibliography 83

7. Pál Horváth: Ecotourism 86

1. The concept and history of ecotourism 86

2. Elements of supply 87

2.1. Attractions 87

2.2. The infrastructure of ecotourism in Hungary 89

2.3. Suprastructure 91

3. Features of the demand 91

3.1. International demand 91

3.2. Travel habits of the Hungarian population 91

3.3. The motivations, behaviour and socio-cultural background of tourists 92

4. The market and trends of ecotourism 94

4.1. The international market for ecotourism 94

4.1.1. The most renowned eco-destinations of the world 95

4.2. International trends 95

4.3. Hungarian trends 96

4.4. Spatial relevances of ecotourism 99

5. The connection of ecotourism to other tourism products 100

5.1. Active tourism 100

5.2. Rural and agrotourism, the marketing of local products 100

5.3. Health tourism 101

6. The practice of product development 102

7. Special features of ecotourism researches 104

Bibliography 105

Bibliography 107

8. Andrea Máté - Géza Szabó: Wine and gastronomy tourism 109

1. Tourism (travel) historical/social historical/cultural historical preliminaries of the product 109

1.1. Concepts of wine tourism and wine routes and their characteristics in Hungary 109

1.2. The foundations of Hungarian wine culture 111

1.3. The concept of gastronomy and its relevance in tourism 113

1.4. Birth of the Hungarian gastronomy 113

2. Elements of supply 114

2.1. Attractions 114

2.1.1. Wine growing areas and wine regions in Hungary 114

2.1.2. Hungarian gastronomic traditions 116

2.2. Related touristic infrastructure: the information system of wine routes 118

2.3. Related touristic suprastructure: catering facilities in Hungary 119

3. Characteristics of the demand 119

3.1. Popularity of the Hungarian wine producing areas 119

3.2. Popularity of the Pannon Wine Region 121

4. Operation of the market of the product, trends 123

4.1. Demand trends and target groups in wine tourism 123

5. Environmental conditions of the operation of the market 125

5.1. The position of wine and gastronomy in development strategies 125

5.2. Social, economic, technological and natural environment of the touristic product 126

6. Cooperation with other products, synergy effect 127

7. The practice of product development 128

7.1. The Pécs-Mecsek wine route of the Pannon Wine Region 128

7.2. Szekszárd Vintage Days 2009 129

8. Research characteristics of the product, difficulties and recommended databases 131

9. Apendices 132

Bibliography 147

9. Pál Horváth - Mónika Jónás-Berki - Bulcsú Remenyik: Theme parks and routes 151

1. I. Theme parks 151

2. Elements of supply 151

3. Characteristics of the demand 152

4. Operation of the market of the product, trends 153

5. Environmental conditions of the operation of the market 154

6. Cooperation with other products, synergy effect 154

7. The practice of product development 154

8. Product-related research characteristics, difficulties, and recommended databases 154

9. Preliminaries from tourism history 155

10. Operation of the market 156

10.1. Characteristics of the supply 156

10.2. Characteristics of the demand 158

11. Trends in Europe and Hungary 159

12. Environmental conditions of the operation of the market 160

13. Cooperation with other products, synergy effect 161

14. The practice of theme route development 161

15. Research on theme routes, databases 162

Bibliography 163

10. Éva Happ - Anikó Husz: MICE tourism 165

1. Preliminaries in history/social history/culture history 165

2. The supply side 166

3. Characteristics of demand 168

4. Functioning of the MICE tourism market, types of MICE tourism 170

4.1. Business travels 170

4.2. Incentive travels 171

4.3. Conference tourism 173

4.4. Exhibitions 175

5. Conditions of the market functioning 177

6. The effects of MICE tourism, synergy effect 179

6.1. The effects of MICE tourism 179

6.2. Cooperation with other tourism products 179

7. Factors influencing the development of MICE tourism, practice and trends of development 179

8. Peculiarities and difficulties of research, recommended data bases 181

Bibliography 183

1. fejezet - Gábor Michalkó: The tourism product

1. Conceptual preliminaries

For a successful orientation in the world of tourism it is indispensable to look at the definition of tourism product. The expression “travel industry product [1] is something that one could come across in the Hungarian language literature in the 1980s, already. (The quotation marks were there in the original source text, it indicates that the authors used this trick to make the concept, not compatible with the economic mechanisms of socialism, acceptable.) Already then the essence of the product, i.e. attraction, was recognised. The authors emphasised that tourism product was actually a supply set, containing services satisfying the demands. The expression tourism product in international literature was taken over by Stephen Smith from the Anglo-Saxon marketing approach represented by Philip Kotler, and the concept has become widely used by now. Its penetration in Hungary is mostly due to the marketing plans published annually by the Hungarian Tourism Inc. and its legal predecessor, the Hungarian Tourism Service, the basis of which is the National Medium Term Tourism Marketing Strategy (1996–2000) approved in 1996. The conceptual marketing plan published in 1997 clearly states that the year of the millecentenary (i.e. the 1100th anniversary of the Hungarian Conquest) is an overture of up-to-date tourism development and tourism management. It is the year 1996 thus that is the starting point of the product-orientation of the Hungarian tourism sector.

Tourism product was then seen as the primary category of the development of the tourism supply, it was considered as a set of services aiming at the full satisfaction of the needs of the tourists, and based on attractions for the visit of which tourists arrive at the region. Its content was believed to be in transport providing access to the attraction, in accommodation, catering, entertainment, health, security, banking, communication and other services. Despite the fact that the lack of product inventory was recognised, on the basis of the already mentioned National Medium Term Tourism Marketing Strategy, 36 products types were categorised into 4 groups of products (business trips, wellness, special interests and beach tourism). At the definition of the product categories and the product types, behind the concepts there was an evident lack of theoretical background built on single norms.

The old, and somewhat incorrectly still often used word in Hungarian language for tourism is ‘idegenforgalom’, a mirror translation of German ‘Fremdenverkehr’, ‘foreigners traffic’

2. Macro- and micro-level interpretation of tourism product

Alan Godsave, former Eastern Europe representative of WTTC, in his presentation held on the 1997 general assembly of the Hungarian Tourism Society pointed out that tourism product can most accurately described by four A-s, i.e. each tourism product has four basic constituents: attraction, access, accommodation and attitude. The Hungarian tourism sector, due to the specific development and the concomitant belatedness, has always tried to emphasise complexity about the tourism product, so, beyond Godsave’s approach it also tried to integrate into the concept as many elements as possible of tourism infrastructure and suprastructure, in fact, even some elements of the environment of tourism. Márton Lengyel warns us that if any service being part of a product is missing or is not of international quality, the region to be developed cannot be successful in tourism.




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