Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts Waste Technology and Innovation Study

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Thermal Treatment – To increase the proportion of building waste reused and increase the quality, a new concept called ‘Closed Cycle Construction’ is being piloted in the Netherlands. The original constituents of building waste (clay bricks, gravel, sand, cement stone) are recovered in thermal processes. The mixed C&D waste streams are separated and decontaminated using dry separation techniques. The quality of the stony fraction is improved so much, that this fraction can be reused as an aggregate in concrete. The new concept uses less energy, has lower carbon dioxide emission, produces less waste and saves on land use (for excavation and disposal sites). The thermal process steps are fuelled with the combustible fraction of the C&D waste itself. Economically the new process is more or less comparable with the current way of processing C&D waste.153,154

  • In-Place Recycling – Several ‘In Place’ recycling demonstration techniques are being used in the US. Highway projects in Florida, Louisiana, and Nevada are recycling bituminous materials and granular bases by pulverizing, mixing with cement and water, and compacting into new soil-cement bases. Airport projects in Georgia and Oklahoma crush old concrete for use in cement-treated bases for concrete pavement. Aggregates are conserved and haul costs reduced.155

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