Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts Waste Technology and Innovation Study



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GHD Pty Ltd ABN 39 008 488 373

133 Castlereagh St Sydney NSW 2000
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T: 2 9239 7100 F: 2 9239 7199 E: sydmail@ghd.com.au

© GHD Pty Ltd 2010

This report was prepared by GHD Pty Limited for the Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. It may only be used and relied on by the Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts and must not be relied on by any person (other than Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts). Unauthorised use of this document in any form whatsoever is prohibited.



Document Status

Rev No.

Author

Reviewer

Approved for Issue

Name

Signature

Name

Signature

Date

01

L. Philpott, A. Quinn

D Gamble




Draft




17/7/09

02

A Quinn

D Gamble




Interim draft




6/8/09

03

A. Quinn

D Gamble




Final draft




12/8/09

04

A. Quinn

D Gamble




Revised Final draft




13/8/09

05

A. Quinn

D. Gamble




Document Number 150554




14/10/09



1 Technical Guidelines on Municipal Waste

2 Grants to which conditions are attached

3 http://www.veoliaes.com.au/commercial-services/waste-collection-and-recycling/electronic-waste-recycling.asp

4 Plants that improve the quality of recycled materials by removing contamination or separating into constituent materials that are more valuable than the mixed material

5 Page 6

6 Page 6

7 Page 10

8 Page 12

9 Page 16

10 Page 17

11 Page 20

12 Page 21

13 Data is for 2004-05

14 Extrapolated from municipal data

15 Includes cooking oil and fat, motor oil, and salvage and reuse

16 Municipal data only except for plastics recycling which covers all sectors

17 Darwin only

18 Municipal only

19 Data is for 2004-05

20 Extrapolated from municipal data

21 Includes cooking oil and fat, motor oil, and salvage and reuse

22 Not calculated due to limited data

23 Not calculated due to limited data

24 Data is for 2004-05

25 Extrapolated from municipal data

26 Includes cooking oil and fat, motor oil, and salvage and reuse

27 Only plastics recycling data available

28 Darwin municipal data only

29 A type of landfill in which only one material is deposited and often seen as a type of long-term storage. Materials deposited in a monofill are not contaminated by other waste and can potentially be ‘mined’ for recovery in the future.

30 Numbers are based on different LCA methods and take into account different assumptions. They should be considered indicative only.

31 Numbers are based on different LCA methods and take into account different assumptions. They should be considered indicative only.

32 Numbers are based on different LCA methods and take into account different assumptions. They should be considered indicative only.

33 Numbers are based on different LCA methods and take into account different assumptions. They should be considered indicative only.

34 Some cultures are uncomfortable with practices where human waste is handled or mixed with other material no matter how hygienically safe.

35 BioBin - http://www.biobin.net/

36 Department of Sustainability and Environment (Victoria) - Specification for Victorian Advanced Resource Recovery Initiative (VARRI) Engineering Services Advisor and Australian Council of Recyclers Submission to Department of Climate Change on the Proposed Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme

37 Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW) - http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/warr/AWT.htm

38 SITA Environmental Solutions’ ‘SAWT’ stands for Sita Advanced Waste Treatment (AWT)

39 Ritchie, Mike (President, Waste Management Association NSW Branch) 2008 Letter to Climate Change Group Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet dated 15 January


40 Turning Waste into Ethanol (2008) Science Daily August 14 - http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/080813164640.htm

41 Juniper Consultancy Services - http://www.juniper.co.uk/services/Our_services/what_is_MBT.html

42 This standard specifies the physical and chemical requirements for composts, soil conditioners, mulches and vermicast (the product of worm farms) that need to be met before a product can be labelled as a composted or pasteurised product. It also specifies the health warnings and other information to be supplied to the consumer. Guidance is also given on best practice for composting and vermicast systems designed to produce a quality product achieved by following an approved process.

43 Juniper Consultancy Services - www.juniper.co.uk

44 Masada Resources Group - http://masadaonline.com/_wsn/page2.html

45 Friends of the Earth New Technologies – what they are and what we think - http://www.foe.co.uk/resource/briefing_notes/acronyms_for_waste_technol.pdf

46 Reclaim Resources Limited - http://www.reclaimresources.com/index.html

47 Juniper Consultancy Services - www.juniper.co.uk

48 GM and Coskata to develop fuel from waste (2008) Waste Management World January 21 - http://www.waste-management-world.com/display_article/317661/123/ARTCL/none/WTENE/1/GM-and-Coskata-to-develop-fuel-from-waste/

49 Pacey, J., Augenstein D., Morck.R., Reinhart, D. and R Yazdani (1996) The Bioreactor - An Innovation in Solid Waste Management EMCOV, San Mateo, CA http://www.swana.org/pdf/swana_pdf_295.pdf

50 Global Renewables Limited - http://www.globalrenewables.com.au

51 Conporec - http://www.conporec.com

52 AnaeCo - http://www.anaeco.com/

53 ABB System 800xA helps AnaeCo deliver Alternative Waste Technology (2007) ABB in Australia 10 December - http://www.abbaustralia.com.au/cawp/seitp202/afccc27872d1927548257372000964cc.aspx

54 Valorga - http://www.valorgainternational.fr/

55 CiTEC - www.citec.fi

56 GvoA - www.pohlsche-heide.de

57 Orgaworld - http://www.orgaworld.nl/installations.html#biocel

58 Anaerobic Digestion - http://www.anaerobic-digestion.com/html/the_dranco_process.php

59 Juniper Consultancy Services - http://www.juniper.co.uk/services/Our_services/P&GFactsheet.html

60 WasteGen UK - http://wastegen.com

61 Manning, Paddy (2009) Burn, bury and bargain with it: biochar ticks the green boxes The Land June 1 - http://theland.farmonline.com.au/news/nationalrural/agribusiness-and-general/general/burn-bury-and-bargain-with-it-biochar-ticks-the-green-boxes/1527966.aspx

62 New York City Economic Development Corporation (2004) Evaluation of New and Emerging Solid Waste Management Technologies

63 Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority (NZ) - http://www.eeca.govt.nz

64 Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies - http://www.ankurscientific.com/

65 Biomass Gas and Electric - http://www.biggreenenergy.com/

66 Checkbiotech - http://www.checkbiotech.org/green_News_Biofuels.aspx?infoId=16491

67 Solid Waste Conversion; IWM-C0172 http://www.ebara.ch

68 Juniper Consultancy Services - www.juniper.co.uk

69 Plasco Energy Group - http://www.plascoenergygroup.com

70 Advanced Plasma Power - http://www.advancedplasmapower.com

71 Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) - http://www.tappi.org/s_tappi/doc.asp?CID=183&DID=557891

72 Recycled Organics Unit 2007

73 Cornell University College of Agricultural and Life Sciences - http://www.cals.cornell.edu/cals/public/comm/pubs/ecalsconnect/vol13-1/features/photo-page.cfm

74 City of Lismore - http://www.lismore.nsw.gov.au

75 High temperature and short residence time

76 Lower temperatures and longer residence time

77 Sohi, Saran; Lopez-Capel, Elisa; Krull, Evelyn and Bol, Roland (2008) Biochar, climate change and soil: A review to guide future research CSIRO Land and Water Science Report 05/09, 64 pp

78 Sohi et al 2008

79 Manning, Paddy 2009

80 Glass recycling information sheet Waste Online - http://www.wasteonline.org.uk/resources/InformationSheets/Glass.htm

81 Green Mountain Glass - http://www.greenmountainglass.com/

82 Novel Size Reduction and Classification of Recycled Glass Yields Profitable Products, Eliminates Landfill Costs Kason - http://www.kason.com/TechnicalLibrary/index.php?sType=1&ArticleID=648

83 TerraNova Wins Award for Crushed Glass Projects Terra Nova - http://www.terranova.org.nz/terranova/events/

84 ABC (US) News - http://abcnews.go.com

85 Plastic Bag Recycling - www.plasticbagrecycling.org/

86 China keen on paper and plastic waste: UK survey (2009) WME - http://www.environmentalmanagementnews.net/StoryView.asp?StoryID=1003031

87 Lamont, William J. and Garthe, James W. (2006) Recycling and Recovery of Energy Stored in Used Plastics The Vegetable & Small Fruit Gazette 10 (4) , published by Penn State University at the American Society for Plasticulture - http://www.plasticulture.org/history_recycling.htm

88 Oleszkiewicz, Agniezka (2008) Plastic Power – Waste management in Poland Waste Management World September-October - http://online.qmags.com/WMW0908/?sessionID=CB3167FCBECB094A74B6B03B3&cid=681583&eid=12960#

89 Local recycler ignites Euro fuel market (2009) WME - http://www.wme.com.au/categories/waste_managemt/feb6_05.php

90 Styrofoam converted into biodegradable plastic (2006) Sustainability Matters - http://www.sustainabilitymatters.net.au/news/3864-Styrofoam-converted-into-biodegradable-plastic

91 Titus Services - http://www.titusservices.com/media/gallery/photo

92 Paper Sorting - Alton, UK showing TITECH’s ability to work on single stream systems, sorting both plastics and paper – TITECH - http://www.titech.com/case-studies/paper-sorting-alton-uk-10926

93 Capel, Claudine (2009) Waste sorting - A look at the separation and sorting techniques in today’s European market Waste Management World 10, 5 May - http://www.waste-management-world.com/display_article/339838/123/ARCHI/none/none/1/Waste-sorting---A-look-at-the-separation-and-sorting-techniques-in-todayrsquo;s-European-market/

94 Pellenc Selective Technologies - MIR Technology - http://www.pellencst.com/en/21/54/mir-technology

95 Pellenc Selective Technologies – Near Infrared Technology http://www.pellencst.com/en/21/12/near-infrared-technolgy

96 Shawfloors - http://www.shawfloors.com/Environmental/RecyclingDetail

97 Tandus - http://www.tandus.com/sustainability/recycling.aspx

98 McNeil, Steven J., Sunderland, Matthew R. and Zaitseva, Larissa I. (2007) Closed-loop wool carpet recycling Resources, Conservation and Recycling 51 (1) pp 220-224

99 Textile recycling information sheet - Waste Online - http://www.wasteonline.org.uk/resources/InformationSheets/Textiles.htm

100 Textile recycling information sheet - Waste Online - http://www.wasteonline.org.uk/resources/InformationSheets/Textiles.htm

101 Teijin - http://www.teijin.co.jp

102 Sims Recycling Solutions - http://au.simsrs.com/au%5Ferecycling/home/

103 Kinver, Mark (2007) Mechanics of e-waste recycling BBC News 3 July - http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/6254816.stm

104 E-Cycle Recovery - http://www.ecyclerecovery.com.au/theprocess.htm

105 Xiu, Fu-Rong and Zhang, Fu-Shen (2009) Recovery of copper and lead from waste printed circuit boards by supercritical water oxidation combined with electrokinetic process Journal of Hazardous Materials
165 (1-3) pp 1002-1007

106 de Marco, I., Caballero, B.M., Chomón, M.J., Laresgoiti, M.F., Torres, A., Fernández, G. and Arnaiz, S. (2008) Pyrolysis of electrical and electronic wastes Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 82 (2) pp 179-183

107 Blassino, Monika; Solo-Gabriele, Helena and Townsend, Timothy (2002) Pilot scale evaluation of sorting technologies for CCA treated wood waste Waste Management & Research 20(3) 290-301 - http://wmr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/20/3/290

108 CSIRO - Joely Taylor

109 Clausen Carol A. (2004) Improving the two-step remediation process for CCA-treated wood: Part II. Evaluating bacterial nutrient sources Waste Management 24 (4) pp 407-411

110 Lansbury Hall, Nina and Beder, Sharon Treated Timber - http://homepage.mac.com/herinst/CCAtimber/waste/reuse.html

111 Patent Storm - http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/5320152-description.html

112 Kakitani, Tomo; Hata, Toshimitsu; Kajimoto, Takeshi and Imamura, Yuji (2006) A Novel Extractant for Removal of Hazardous Metals from Preservative-Treated Wood Waste Journal of Environmental Quality 35,912-917 Published online 26 April

113 Helsen, L., Van den Bulck, E., Mullens, S. and Mullens, J. (1999) Low-temperature pyrolysis of CCA-treated wood: thermogravimetric analysis Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 52 (1) pp 65-86

114 Thermya - http://www.thermya.com

115 RUF - http://www.briquetting.com/

116 Christensen, Iben V., Pedersen, Anne J., Ottosen, Lisbeth M. and Ribeiro, Alexandra B. (2006) Electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated waste wood in a 2 m3 pilot plant Science of The Total Environment 364 (1-3) pp 45-54

117 Sheridan John H. (1993) Catalytic extraction processing Industry Week December 20 http://www.industryweek.com/ReadArticle.aspx?ArticleID=267

118 Diaz, Eduardo (Editor) (2008) Microbial Biodegradation: Genomics and Molecular Biology Caister Academic Press http://www.horizonpress.com/gateway/biodegradation.html

119 Sydney Olympic Park Authority - http://www.sydneyolympicpark.com.au/education_and_learning/history/site_remediation/sticky_wicket

120 Missouri Botanic Gardens - http://www.mobot.org/jwcross/phytoremediation/

121 Plantstress - http://www.plantstress.com

122 The Great Plains/Rocky Mountain Hazardous Substance Research Centre - http://www.engg.ksu.edu/HSRC/phytorem/

123 Startech Environmental Corp - http://www.startech.net

124 Koerner Brendan I. (2008) Can We Turn Garbage Into Energy? The pros and cons of plasma incineration. Slate January 2 - http://www.slate.com/id/2181083/

125 PlascoEnergy - http://www.zerowasteottawa.com/

126 Pyrogenesis - http://www.pyrogenesis.com/index.asp

127 Advanced Plasma Power - http://www.advancedplasmapower.com/

128 Green Power Systems - http://www.greenpowersystems.com/

129 Plascon - http://www.plascon.com.au/

130 ‘Can we fix steel? Yes we can!’ (2009) WME Monday, 11 May - http://www.environmentalmanagementnews.net/StoryView.asp?StoryID=1002976

131 Lamb, Garth (2009) Bob the blender fires up waste recovery Inside Waste Weekly 12 May

132 Inside Waste Weekly May 12, 2009 - http://www.insidewaste.com.au/StoryView.asp?StoryID=1003001

133 Anaxiom - http://www.anaxiom.co.uk/contact.html

134 Tyre Crumb Australia - http://www.tyrecrumbaustralia.com/

135 Motor Vehicle Dismantlers Association (UK) - http://www.mvda.org.uk/recycling.aspx

136 US EPA to check shredded tyres safety (2000) WME Friday, 19 June - http://www.environmentalmanagementnews.net/StoryView.asp?StoryID=1003337

137 CleanTech company profile: Ecoflex Australia (2009) WME 12 March - http://www.environmentalmanagementnews.net/StoryView.asp?StoryID=980444

138 A National Approach to Waste Tyres Commonwealth Department of Environment, 2001 Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts - http://www.environment.gov.au/settlements/publications/waste/tyres/national-approach/tyres10.html

139 End of life vehicle and tyre recycling information sheet Waste Online - http://www.wasteonline.org.uk/resources/InformationSheets/Vehicle.htm

140 Lets Recycle.Com - http://www.letsrecycle.com/

141 Large industrial tyres to be recycled with water jets (2007) Lets recycle.Com Wednesday 04 July - http://www.letsrecycle.com/do/ecco.py/view_item?listid=37&listcatid=217&listitemid=8933

142 A National Approach to Waste Tyres Commonwealth Department of Environment, 2001 Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts - http://www.environment.gov.au/settlements/publications/waste/tyres/national-approach/tyres10.html

143 Resource Technology Inc - http://www.lampequipment.com/lss1.asp

144 AERC Recycling Solutions - http://www.aercrecycling.com/information/fluor_process.php

145 Hirajima, T., Sasaki, K., Bissombolo, A., Hirai, H., Hamada, M. and Tsunekawa, M. (2005) Feasibility of an efficient recovery of rare earth-activated phosphors from waste fluorescent lamps through dense-medium centrifugation Separation and Purification Technology 44 (3) pp 197-204

146 Toxco - http://www.toxco.com/processes.html

147 Nan, Junmin; Han, Dongmei and Zuo, Xiaoxi (2005) Recovery of metal values from spent lithium-ion batteries with chemical deposition and solvent extraction Journal of Power Sources 152, 1 December, pp 278-284

148 Rabah, M.A., Farghaly, F.E. and Abd-El Motaleb, M.A. (2008) Recovery of nickel, cobalt and some salts from spent Ni-MH batteries Waste Management 28 (7) pp 1159-1167

149 The Engitec Cx Process For The Complete Recycling Of Lead-Acid Batteries - http://www.engitec.com/PDF/MORECXSYSTEM.pdf

150 Kreusch, M.A., Ponte, M.J.J.S., Ponte, H.A. Kaminari, N.M.S., Marino, C.E.B. and Mymrin, V. (2007) Technological improvements in automotive battery recycling Resources, Conservation and Recycling
52 (2) pp 368-380

151 The Integrated Cx System From Scrap Acid Batteries To Soft Lead And Lead Alloys Engitec Technologies - http://www.chloride-technical.com/General%20brochures/Scrap%20reprocessing.pdf

152 Battery Recycling Technology Gravita Exim http://www.gravitaexim.com/Battery-Recycling/Battery-Recycling-Technology.html

153 Mulder, Evert; de Jong, Tako P.R. and Feenstra, Lourens (2007) Closed Cycle Construction: An integrated process for the separation and reuse of C&D waste Waste Management 27 (10) pp 1408-1415

154 To closed material cycles for concrete and masonry construction - http://www.kringbouw.nl/kringbouw/data/publiek/nieuws/bestand_Docublad%20Kringbouw%20engels.pdf

155 Kuhlman, Robert H. (1989) Soil-Cement from Recycled Pavement Bases and Surfaces Concrete International 11 (5) - http://www.concreteinternational.com/pages/featured_article.asp?FromSearch=True&keywords=recycling&srchtype=ALL&ID=3455

156 Electric Vehicle Developments (2009) Waste Management World 16 July - http://www.waste-management-world.com/display_article/366326/123/ONART/Display/none/1/Electric-Vehicle-Developments/?dcmp=WMW_NEWS

157 Bates, Malcolm (no date) Driving the future Waste Management World - http://www.waste-management-world.com/display_article/364854/123/CRTIS/none/none/1/Driving-the-future/?dcmp=WMW_NEWS

158 Stengler, Ella (2009) WTE and the law - Keeping track of WTE legislation Waste Management World - http://www.waste-management-world.com/display_article/348562/123/ARCHI/none/none/1/WTE-and-the-law---Keeping-track-of-WTE-legislation/

159 Davis, G. and Herat, S. (2008) Electronic waste: The local government perspective in Queensland, Australia Resources, Conservation and Recycling 52, pp 1031–1039

160 Billinghurst, Betsy M. (2005) E-Waste: A Comparative Analysis of Current and Contemplated Management Efforts by the European Union and the United States Colorado Journal of International Law and Policy 16 pp 399

161 Kahhat, Ramzy; Kim, Junbeum; Xu, Ming; Allenby, Braden; Williams, Eric and Zhang, Peng (2008) Exploring e-waste management systems in the United States Resources, Conservation and Recycling 52 pp 955–964

162 Indiana adopts WEEE recycling (2009) Waste Management World 19 May - http://www.waste-management-world.com/display_article/362665/123/ARTCL/none/RECYG/1/Indiana-adopts-WEEE-recycling/

163 RI Seeks to Limit Electronic Waste (2008) Recycling Magazine Number 7 - http://www.recyclingmagazin.de/epaper/rm0026/default.asp?ID=5

164 US EPA redefines waste to encourage recycling (2008) Waste Management World 8 October - http://www.waste-management-world.com/display_article/341941/123/ONART/Display/none/1/US-EPA-redefines-waste-to-encourage-recycling/

165 CEPI launch Recovered Paper Identification System (2008) Waste Management World 10 November - http://www.waste-management-world.com/display_article/344869/123/ONART/Display/none/1/CEPI-launch-Recovered-Paper-Identification-System/

166 Recovered Paper Identification System - www.recoveredpaper-id.eu

167 Tighter control on risk assessment (2008) Waste Management World 28 November - http://www.waste-management-world.com/display_article/346478/123/ONART/Display/none/1/Tighter-control-on-risk-assessment/

168 SEPA improves waste regulations (2009) Waste Management World 19 February - http://www.waste-management-world.com/display_article/353800/123/ONART/Display/none/1/SEPA-improves-waste-regulations/

169 Guidance on WTE and biomass facilities released in the UK (2008) Waste Mangement World 5 November - http://www.waste-management-world.com/display_article/344522/123/ONART/Display/none/1/Guidance-on-WTE-and-biomass-facilities-released-in-the-UK/

170 A group of 22 municipalities in the Vancouver region that provides services, utilities and planning - http://www.metrovancouver.org

171 Metro Vancouver cracks down on recycling and hazardous waste (2008) Recycling Magazine Number 1 - http://www.recyclingmagazin.de/epaper/rm0020/default.asp?ID=4

172 Plastic in China - Will Market Tools Change Old Habits? (2008) Recycling Magazine Number 5 -http://www.recyclingmagazin.de/epaper/rm0024/default.asp?ID=16




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