Department of the Army tradoc pamphlet 525-3-7

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TRADOC Pamphlet 525-7-4

Figure 2-1, Regions of the Earth’s Atmosphere and Orbital Space
(3) The region of orbital space is populated by an ever-increasing number of military, civil, and commercial systems competing for orbital position, bandwidth, and profit. The number of nations that have national space programs is rapidly increasing. Commercial space ventures funded by private organizations and consortiums enable nation states, political factions, US Army Space Reference Text, December 2004, pg. 15.
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TRADOC Pam 525-7-4 or individuals to purchase militarily significant space products or services at relatively low cost and without having to build extensive space infrastructures. Advances in space technology continue to expand the wide menu of readily available space products. There are competing military and commercial requirements for space capabilities, such as secure wide-band communications, enhanced multi-spectral imagery, small mobile downlink terminals, and improved launch capabilities. Governmental controls, designed to limit or deny distribution of space products and services, will be increasingly difficult to implement when multinational consortia provide these products and services.
(4) High Altitude Environment. a) The increased demand on DOD and national space systems has created a condition where requirements exceed capacity. Commanders require capabilities that are accessible, interoperable, persistent, and assured to provide freedom of action at all operational levels. Current US. space-based systems provide capabilities unmatched by our adversaries however, space superiority is not guaranteed. The high cost and long lead-time for multi-mission space systems, which are not easily replaced, have caused us to explore the high altitude region of the stratosphere and mesosphere to overcome both the high demand and vulnerability of current orbital space resources. In this concept, the high altitude region of the stratosphere and mesosphere is defined as that region between the tropopause and the region of orbital space, 18 to km above MSL. Figure 2-1, Regions of the Earth’s Atmosphere and Orbital Space, illustrates these regions. The high altitude region can supplement orbital space capabilities and integrate additional high altitude long-loiter capabilities to support the joint force commander in a theater with emphasis at the operational and tactical levels. Systems operating in the high altitude region have the potential to provide rapid, on demand, dedicated capabilities augmenting strategic space assets. Further, high altitude long-loiter systems maybe developed as part of the aerial layer, thus providing persistent, organic capabilities to the operational and tactical commander. These systems may provide effects such as robust communications, theater-centric intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), operational environment situational awareness, battle damage assessment, enhanced positioning, velocity, timing and navigation augmentation capabilities, and the capability to cross-cue intelligence and non-intelligence platforms leading to more responsive and comprehensive targeting information. b) The proximity of high altitude long-loiter systems over orbital space systems can provide improved performance in support of certain Army operations. A high altitude long-loiter system can provide long duration coverage of up to an mile diameter field of view. Operations in this region allow for flexibility, augmentation to existing air and space systems, and tailorable, recoverable packages that can be reconfigured to meet changing operational needs. In addition, high altitude long-loiter assets have the potential to reduce the operational tail and airspace management issues associated with the aerial layer. The combination of orbital space and high altitude long-loiter capabilities is a critical enabler for implementation of the fundamental principles of the future Modular Force concepts, particularly with respect to achieving information superiority, creating situational understanding, and operating within the high tempo, non-contiguous, simultaneous framework of distributed operations. c. Threat.
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TRADOC Pam 525-7-4
(1) Adversaries will attempt to use space for hostile purposes. Domestic and international commercial space organizations are expanding our capabilities, as well as those of our adversaries. The majority of new satellites will be communication systems, but new and increasingly more sophisticated imaging satellites are also proliferating. Nations that previously showed little interest in space ventures are now purchasing satellites and paying other nations to launch these satellites into orbit. As a result, states, transnational organizations, factions, or individuals are able to buy militarily significant space products or services. In fact, one-meter or better resolution imagery, sufficient for tactical targeting (if timely) is commercially available today. Other commercial products include radar imagery that penetrates clouds position, velocity, timing and navigation services and a multitude of highly mobile, highly capable communication systems. Adversaries will not restrict themselves to the use of military satellites, but will use a combination of both military and commercial satellites. Therefore, Army operations must assume an adversary will have at least limited access to overhead observation capabilities and telecommunications satellites, capable of supporting operations in remote or undeveloped areas, as well as in urban environments. Finally, just as the Army future Modular Force seeks space-enabled capabilities delivered directly to forces in the field, technology advances allow adversary forces to quickly receive space-enabled products in a mobile, tactical, or urban environment.
(2) Adversaries, enabled by the worldwide proliferation of space-based telecommunications and information technology, will attempt to undermine the national will to conduct operations, and dissolve the cohesion of coalitions and alliances. This undermining effort will evolve in new directions, stemming from reliance on computer systems for processing and storing sensitive information. Because information dominance is crucial to future Modular Force operations, the linkage between IO and space operations is paramount. Elements of space systems will be targets of information attack operations, to include computer network operations. Left unprotected, links will be jammed, spoofed, monitored, or pirated by adversaries. Protection of this friendly capability will be a major objective of space control operations. The information lines of communication (LOCs) must be protected if the Army is to succeed.
(3) Adversaries may alter the space operations environment by interfering with spacecraft, communication links, ground stations, terminals, or the associated information infrastructure. Adversaries may employ a variety of anti-satellite techniques. Enemy special or conventional forces, theater missiles, electronic warfare means, cyber-attack, and terrorists all pose a threat to vulnerable ground stations, control facilities, and terminals. Future adversaries will likely not be limited to today’s conventional munitions, but will likely develop both the intent and capability to employ WMDs or effects. Nuclear and nonnuclear electromagnetic pulse and directed energy weapons must also be considered. Adversaries may also attack spacecraft industrial facilities, launch sites, and even space vehicles during their ascent. The various bottlenecks associated with space systems will make unique space vehicle integration and launch facilities, and control and downlink facilities particularly valuable targets. Electronic attacks will aim to degrade satellite communications telemetry, tracking, and control links and ground stations. Low power signals, such as those emitted by the global positioning system GPS, are particularly susceptible to localized interference.
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TRADOC Pam 525-7-4
(4) Remote sensing capabilities may allow the enemy to seethe battlefield, as clearly as the US. forces commander. Imagery, provided in time to support the strategic, operational, or tactical decision (spectral and radar) will be available to potential adversaries through a number of commercial and foreign government-supplied vendors. Adversaries may already have access to direct down link imagery that is operationally equal to US. capabilities in terms of military utility. Commercial remote sensing has the potential of providing a potential adversary the information required to make timely and effective decisions which meet their requirements. An important consideration during stability operations is that an adversary can also exploit non- timely remote sensing products that depict existing US. or allied forces camps and installations. It is important to recognize governmental controls, designed to limit or deny distribution of space-enabled products and services, will be increasingly difficult to implement when multinational consortia provide these products and services.
(5) A proliferation of positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) jammers will give adversaries and terrorists the ability to block or degrade US. satellite signals that provide PNT data. The ability of such jammers to interfere with position and timing data has critical impacts. Military, civil and commercial networked computer and communication systems depend on timing signals. Commercial commerce, aviation and local emergency responders are similarly dependent, and this dependence will increase in the future. In addition, PNT data will be increasingly available to adversaries and by 2025 there will be three fully operational and independent satellite based navigation constellations with augmentation capabilities. Commercial and civil use of space-based PNT is increasing exponentially, and the trend is toward equal resolution for government (defense) and commercial users of these capabilities.
(6) Weather data collected from satellites is available to adversaries through any number of commercial and foreign government vendors. Moreover, the remote sensing systems mentioned previously will allow adversaries access to terrain and environmental reports and analyses. Often this information is provided without cost via the internet from governmental organizations like National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and commercial sources, such as CNN Headline News, and certain colleges and universities. Access to these types of reports and forecasts support the adversaries ability to plan and conduct more effective operations.

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