Department of the Army tradoc pamphlet 525-3-7

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TRADOC Pamphlet 525-7-4

1-2. Functional Area. The Army Space Operations CCP identifies capabilities required to execute Army operations in the 2015–2024 timeframe. This plan reaches across the Joint Functional Areas of Battlespace Awareness, Command and Control, Force Application, Focused Logistics, and Sustainment. Additionally, this plan is fully nested in the Army concept strategy documents from the Capstone Concept, The Army in Joint Operations, and through the six Army functional concepts.
1-3. Scope. The scope of Army space operations as depicted in this CCP is consistent with current joint and Army concepts, and focuses on the time frame 2015–2024. The primary basis for analysis are the Capstone Concept for Joint Operations, joint operating concepts (JOC) of
Major Combat Operations, Homeland Defense and Civil Support Operations, Stability and
Support Operations, and Deterrence Operations, the Army’s Future Force capstone concept, The
Army in Joint Operations 2015–2024, and the Army Operational Maneuver and Tactical Maneuver concepts.

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1-4. Relation to the Family of Army Functional Concepts and Role of the Army in Space.
a. TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-0, The Army in Joint Operations The Army’s Future Force
Capstone Concept, reinforces the fact that Army forces will conduct operations as an integrated component of a joint force and will depend on the capabilities from other Services to maximize effectiveness. It is within this context that the campaign is linked firmly to theater strategy and the operations must establish early, sustained control of the air, land, sea, space, and information domains. The capstone concept lays out seven key operational ideas across the spectrum of conflict to achieve full spectrum dominance. Space-based systems and capabilities are contributing enablers to each of the seven operational ideas and an integral component of network-enabled battle command. The concept describes the future Modular Force as a
“…space-empowered force that will routinely exploit the constellation of military and civilian space platforms for persistent surveillance, reconnaissance, communications, early warning, positioning, timing, navigation, weather, environmental monitoring, missile defense, and access to the global information grid.”
b. TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1, The US. Army Operating Concept for Operational
Maneuver, addresses the operational level of war and focuses on the ways and means by which future Modular Force commanders link abroad array of tactical actions to achieve a joint force commander’s campaign objectives. The concept presents a detailed discussion of the seven key operational ideas identified in the Army capstone concept and how they are applied at the operational level of war. The concept reinforces the idea that the Army is a space-empowered force and recognizes the threat’s access to a wide array of space-based capabilities and the dependence of Army forces on space enablers. In its discussion of space, the concept goes beyond the traditional space force enhancement capabilities to describe a, layered redundancy and improved capabilities to help resolve many current operational challenges (such as, fleeting target engagement or limits on range and mobility of terrestrial communications).”
The concept characterizes space-enabled capabilities as critical enablers for implementation of the fundamental principles of the operational maneuver concept, particularly with respect to achieving information superiority, creating situational understanding, and operating within the high tempo, non-contiguous simultaneous framework of distributed operations.”
c. TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-2, The US. Army Operating Concept for Tactical Maneuver, describes the future Modular Force within the framework of tactical operations—battles and engagements. The concept presents a detailed discussion of five key ideas as defining the most important vectors of change in tactical operations. Underpinning these five key ideas is the need to develop and maintain a deep understanding of the increasingly complex tactical environment.
The key ideas are
• Simultaneous and continuous operations.
• Decisive maneuver—new tactical paradigm.
• Routine employment of joint capabilities at tactical level.
TP 525-3-0, The Army in Joint Operations, 7 April 2005, pg. 34.
TP 525-3-1, Operating Concept for Operational Maneuver, 2 October 2006, pg. l Ibid, pg l
TP 525-3-2, Operating Concept for Tactical Maneuver, 2 October 2006, pgs l
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• Self-synchronizing and cooperative engagement.
• The quality of firsts. d. To achieve this level of situational understanding, the concept describes space-enabled capabilities such as near real-time, digitized terrain updates, and precision position, navigation and timing data as becoming increasingly more important to the new tactical paradigm. e. The final concept documents describing the Army’s role in the future Modular Force are the six Army functional concepts Battle Command, See, Move, Strike, Protect and Sustain. The functional concepts describe the Army capabilities needed to conduct successful operational and tactical maneuver. The following paragraphs address each Army functional concept and identify capabilities enabled by space-based systems.
(1) Battle Command. The Battle Command functional concept provides a visualization of how Army future Modular Force commanders will exercise command and control of Army operations in a joint, interagency, and multinational environment. The battle command function is a blend of the cognitive and the technical. It is achieved by combining the art of well prepared leaders with the enabling science and technical systems of the future Modular Force. Many of the key ideas within the Battle Command functional concept relate to or are enabled by space- based systems.
These include
• Collaborative planning accelerated military decision making process (MDMP).
• Information and decision superiority.
• A single, integrated Army battle command system.
• Interagency and multinational interoperability and integration.
• Horizontal and vertical fusion.
(2) See. The See functional concept describes how the future Modular Force will acquire and generate knowledge of itself, its opponent and the operational environment. The function of seeing and creating knowledge of the operational environment is the essential element of transforming to a knowledge-based, net-enabled force capable of seeing first, understanding first, acting first and finishing decisively. Every aspect of future Modular Force operations derives increased effectiveness through the ability to see and know, and from that, the ability to anticipate. Space-based systems and enablers are critical to the main ideas put forward in this concept.
The ideas that maybe supported by space enablers include
• Acquisition of data from organic and non-organic sources including joint and interagency. This includes the subordinate functions of gathering, collecting and fusing.
• Transforming data through the rapid and continuous fusion of data and analysis of information to produce knowledge, across all domains and disciplines to develop relevant knowledge.
• The provision of timely, precise and tailored knowledge input to the command for decision-making, force application, movement, protection and sustainment.
TP 525-3-3 Battle Command Functional Concept 2015-2024, Coordinating Draft, 15 August 2005, pgs. 8-15.
TP 525-2-1 See Functional Concept 2015-2024, Coordinating Draft 5 August 2005, pg 1 and pgs 14-16.
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(3) Move. The Move functional concept focuses on strategic force projection and operational agility in support of joint campaign objectives. The Army’s approach to this requirement for strategic responsiveness is through a prompt and sustained framework.”
The prompt response concept depends on space-based enablers to support Establishment of information superiority and situational understanding.
• Global command and control, communications, and intelligence-surveillance- reconnaissance.
• Precision navigation and targeting aids.
• Integrated missile warning network.
• En route knowledge-building and continuous connectivity.
• Similarly, sustained response and operational agility depend on space-based enablers to support joint and blue force tracking (BFT) and in-transit visibility.
(4) Strike. The Strike functional concept addresses joint and future Modular Force fires at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels. Strike includes fires routinely integrated with information operations (IO) and three IO-related military activities public affairs (PA, civil military operations (CMO), and defense support to public diplomacy (DSPD). a) It reflects future Modular Force elements that will have fully integrated capabilities to employ direct and long-range, precision, highly responsive, reliable, sustainable, readily available and easily deployable fires coordinated with IO-related military activities that can support future Modular Force and applicable joint operations. b) Future Modular Force strike, in conjunction with joint fires, will create interdependent future Modular Force strike and joint fires networks that mutually enhance strike and joint fires capabilities for Army and joint forces in a joint, interagency, and multinational environment. The future Modular Force strike network will capitalize on joint command and control (JC2) and joint intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance networks, using the collaborative information environment and the common operating picture (COP) to gain the near real-time situational awareness (SA) required to effectively employ strike in support of future Modular Force operations. c) Strike will help shape the operational environment, seize and maintain the initiative, maintain continuous pressure, disintegrate, disorient, or destroy the enemy, support stability operations, and protect friendly forces conducting full spectrum operations across the full spectrum of operations in support of joint force commander objectives. The Strike functional is built around the following key ideas, each of which is supported by space-based enablers

• Provide continuous integration and employment of networked strike from tactical to strategic distances. Enabled by
TP 525-3-6, Move Functional Concept 2015-2024, Coordinating Draft, 12 August 2005, pg 13.
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Collaborative, dynamic planning and employment across all levels of commando Continuous access to the global information grid (GIG. o
Seamless and transparent communications and computer interface. o
Routine exploitation of available joint, allied, and coalition fires.
• Execute seamless employment of strike by lethal or nonlethal means. o
Routine integration of fires with IO and related capabilities.
• Prosecute elusive and fleeting surface targets. o
Achieve near-real time SA for strike employment. o
Eliminate response gaps between organic and other available strike capabilities. o
Deliver immediate, precision or sustained fires.
• Establish and maintain routine access to space at all levels.
(5) Protect. The Protect functional concept lays out a set of enabling tasks and capabilities by which the future Modular Force protects people, physical assets and information against the full spectrum of threats. The function of protect will take place on land, in the air, on the seas, in space and the electronic domains.
Space-based systems and enablers play a role in accomplishing each of the seven enabling tasks detect, assess, warn, prevent, deter, defend, and respond. These tasks are interconnected and represent the processes of a full dimensional protection environment. Additionally, the concept includes two other broad missions that operate across the spectrum of conflict and enable the future Modular Force force health protection support and space operations. The discussion of space operations includes a discussion of space control which it describes as, active and passive means to protect friendly assets and retain the space capabilities they need while, when appropriate, denying those capabilities to adversaries.”
The Protect functional concept also states that, Space systems provide communication, surveillance, and reconnaissance systems which are essential to protect situational awareness in identifying adversary locations, capabilities, weather, terrain, and missile information that warns those under direct missile attack, cues missile defense systems, and provides the launch data necessary for counterattack operations) Sustain. The Sustain functional concept establishes the overarching framework for logistics support to the future Modular Force. At the strategic and operational level, future Modular Force support is envisioned as a single joint system that senses and interprets the operational environment and responds through networked capabilities and advanced distribution platforms with precision, from the source of support to the point of effect.
Future Modular Force support operations include supply and field services, medical support, maintenance, transportation, force health protection, Soldier services, and aviation logistics support. Space- based systems form much of the enabling backbone of this single, coherent joint system needed to support future Modular Force sustainment operations by enabling
• Sustainment command and control.
TP 525-3-5 Protect Functional Concept 2015-2024, Coordinating Draft 5 August 2005, pgs. 13-14.
TP 525-3-5 Protect Functional Concept 2015-2024, Coordinating Draft 5 August 2005, pg 14. Ibid pg 14.
TP 525-4-1 Sustain Functional Concept 2015-2024, Coordinating Draft, 5 August 2005, pg 14.
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• Force situational awareness and understanding.
• Data links for sustainment operations.
• In-transit visibility. f. While the joint and Army concepts provide word pictures of the capabilities required for future Modular Force operations in the 2015–2024 timeframe, the vignettes in Chapter 2 put these concept capabilities into an operational setting.

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