Department of Public Administration Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs

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Department of Public Administration

Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs

Syracuse University

Spring 2003

PPA/PSC 706 – U.S. National Security: Defense and Foreign Policy

Tuesday: 3:00 – 6:00 PM Eggers 018


Ambassador Melvyn Levitsky

Global Affairs Institute

351 Eggers Hall

Office Hours –

Wednesdays 2-5 p.m.

or by appointment


(contact Sallie Guyder, see below)

Graduate Assistant:


Faith Corneille – Global Affairs Institute

346-A Eggers Hall

Phone: 443-1634

Fax: (315) 443-9085


Mrs. Sallie Guyder – Global Affairs Institute,

346 Eggers Hall

Phone: (315) 443-4022

Fax: (315) 443-9085



David Berteau

Director, National Security Studies

Public Administration Department

211 Eggers Hall

Office Hours –

Mondays 1-4 p.m.

or by appointment

Phone: (315) 443-3070

Fax: (315) 443-9721


Graduate Assistant:

Mr. Octavio Hinojosa-Mier

Public Administration

210 Eggers Hall

Phone: (315) 443-9217

Fax: (315) 443-9721


Course Description:
This course in U.S. National Security: Defense and Foreign Policy is designed to provide a basic understanding of U.S. national security policy and strategy. We will examine a range of political, military, legal, social, economic and cultural factors that affect the conduct of national security policies and actions. We will assess the interaction among national defense and foreign policy interests, and will explore in depth how strategies to promote and defend U.S. national security are devised and implemented, with particular emphasis on practical examples from the State and Defense Departments and the National Security Council. We use exercises and case studies to examine the public policy and decision making involved in such issues as

  • foreign policy and defense goals and resources;

  • diplomacy and the use of force;

  • transnational threats;

  • civil-military relations;

  • leadership and responsibility;

  • international organizations and peace support operations;

  • U.S. relations with major powers; and

  • the future course of national security policies

Method of Instruction:
We will use readings, lectures, case discussions, and classroom exercises throughout the semester. All students must prepare for the discussions based on the weekly reading assignments. Written assignments are listed on the course outline on the day they are due in class. Unless otherwise noted, written papers are due at the beginning of class.
In addition to the reading list, class discussions will draw on contemporary issues. The New York Times, the Washington Post, and Wall Street Journal frequently cover the current national security debate, and students should consider periodicals such as these as required regular reference reading and grist for class discussion (;; We will often begin each class with a fifteen-minute discussion of a national security issue highlighted by the press during the week before. Students should come to class prepared to discuss such issues.

The Orange Bookstore in the Marshall Square Mall has the textbook and cases. You will find additional assigned readings in the PPA/PSC 706 Reader at the Copy Center in the Marshall Square Mall. Use the World Wide Web to access the listed URLs. Unless otherwise noted, assigned readings can be found in the reader.

  1. Reader

  2. Rise to Globalism: American Foreign Policy since 1938, Stephen E. Ambrose and Douglas G. Brinkley.


  1. Generals vs. the President: Eisenhower and the Army, 1953-1955, A. J. Bacevich and Lawrence F. Kaplan, National Security Studies Case Program, CS 0697-02.

  2. The Pentagon and the War on Drugs, Harvard/Kennedy School Case Study 1149.0 & 1150. Parts A & B.

  3. The UN-NATO Coalition, Diplomatic and Military Interaction in Bosnia, Thomas A. Keaney and Scott Douglas, National Security Studies Case Program, CS 1299-16.

  4. Obligations of Leadership: The Khobar Towers Bombing and Its Aftermath, Eliot A. Cohen, National Security Studies Case Program, CS 1197-06.

Required Assignments and Grades:

  1. A two-page challenge/threat assessment. Due February 4. Format will be provided.

  2. Case Analyses. Each time a case study is assigned a one-page analysis is due at the opening of class. (Format will be provided.)

  3. A five-to-seven page analysis/critique of the U.S. National Security Strategy. Due March 4. (Format to be provided)

  4. National Security Policy Paper. Up to twenty pages. Subject to be chosen by student and cleared by instructors based on a one paragraph abstract or an outline submitted by March 4. Paper is due on April 22.

  5. There will be no final examination.

Grades are based on the following --

Threat Paper and Case Papers 20%

National Security Strategy Analysis 30%

Research/Policy Paper 40%

Class Participation 10%

Course Outline

January 14 (SESSION 1)
Introduction to Course

  • Introductions

  • Discussion of course objectives, requirements, and assignments

  • “Seven Whats and a Who” -- Issue Analysis

  • Case Study Analyses

January 21 (SESSION 2)
National Security System: What it is and how it works

  • The National Security Council

  • DOD Organization

  • State Department Organization

  • Intelligence Community

  • State – DOD relations

Note: Threat Paper Assigned


  • “History of the NSC, 1947-1997

  • DOD Organization at Read section on “Organizational Structure.”

  • “State Department Organization,” At (read section on “Organization” through section entitled “Diplomacy at Work: A U.S. Embassy”)

  • CIA website at Read sections on “About the CIA,” “Director of Central Intelligence, and “Central Intelligence Agency.”

January 28 (SESSION 3)
National Security - The Context

  • Discussion of Threat / Challenge Assessment Paper (2 pages)

  • Nostalgia for the Cold War

  • Foreign Policy & Defense

  • Morality/Idealism/Realism/Pragmatism

  • Terrorism as a Central Focus (The Five Battlefields)


  • Ambrose and Brinkley, Rise to Globalism.

We would like you to read the entire book for this lesson. Concentrate especially on Chapter 4 through 10 and 13 through 16.

  • Melvyn Levitsky: “A New Kind of Enemy and a New Kind of War,” Syracuse University Magazine, Winter 2001-2002.

February 4 (SESSION 4)
The U.S. and the World, Part I

  • The Clash of Civilizations, Samuel Huntington, Responses to Huntington. Foreign Affairs, Summer 1993.

  • Give War a Chance, Edward N. Luttwak, Foreign Affairs, July/August 1999.

  • “Between Concert and Unilateralism.” Joseph B. Nye. The National Interest, Winter 01/02

  • “The Eagle Has Crash Landed,” Immanuel Wallerstein. Foreign Policy, July/August/02

Note: Threat Papers Due

February 11 (SESSION 5)
Civil – Military Relations / War Powers

  • Group assignments made

Note: One-page case analyses due on today’s case


  • The Gap: Soldiers, Civilians and their Mutual Misunderstanding, Peter D. Feaver and Richard H. Kohn. The National Interest, Fall 2000.

  • Why the Gap Matters, Eliot A. Cohen. The National Interest, Fall 2000.

  • The War Powers Act, Public Law 93-148.

  • War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance, Congressional Research Service, March 15, 2001.


Generals vs. the President: Eisenhower and the Army, 1953-1955, A. J. Bacevich and Lawrence F. Kaplan, National Security Studies Case Program, CS 0697-02.

February 18 (SESSION 6)
Transnational Threats: Drugs, Terrorism and the Military

Note: One-Page case analysis due on today’s case

  • “Narco-Terror: The International Connection Between Drugs and Terror.” Lecture by Drug Enforcement Administrator Asa Hutchinson, 4/2/02.

  • Excerpts from Symposium on Drugs and Terrorism at DEA Library, 12/4/01. Raphael Perl, Larry Johnson.

“The Pentagon and the War on Drugs.” Harvard Kennedy School Case Study, 1149.0 & 1150.0. Parts A & B.
February 25 (SESSION 7)
Diplomacy, Sanctions and Force

  • One-page case analyses due on today’s case

Case Study - Bosnia


  • Excerpts from On the Manner of Negotiating With Princes, Monsieur Francois De Callieres. (Published in Paris in 1716. Translated from the French by A.F. Whyte.)

  • Assessment of Sanctions Effectiveness (Unpublished paper by Andrew Mack done for United Nations.)

  • Economic Sanctions Reconsidered, Gary Clyde Hufbauer, Jeffrey J. Schott, and Kimberly Ann Elliott, (concluding chapter with conclusions and recommendations) Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC, 1990.

  • Using Sanctions to Fight Terrorism, Herfbauer, Schott and Oegg. International Institute of Economics Policy Briefs, November 2001.

The UN-NATO Coalition, Diplomatic and Military Interaction in Bosnia, Thomas A. Keaney and Scott Douglas, National Security Studies Case Program, CS 1299-16.

March 4 (SESSION 8)
Discussion of National Security Strategy
(Class Debate: Guidance to Follow)

  • National Security Strategy Papers Due


  • The National Security Strategy

  • A Grand Strategy of Transformation, John Lewis Gaddis, Foreign Policy, November/December 2002.

  • In Praise of the Bush Doctrine, Norman Podhoretz, Commentary, September 2002

  • Keeping US No. 1: Is It Wise? Is It Now,” Judith Miller, New York Times, October 26, 2002.

March 11 (SESSION 9)
No Classes – Spring Break

March 18 (SESSION 10)

Decision to Use Force

  • Vietnam

  • Iraq


  • Escalating the War in Vietnam, by Thomas Keaney, Maxwell/SAIS Case Studies Program (CS1000-21.) (Note: One Pager NOT Required.)

  • Text of UN Security Council Resolution 1441 on Iraq, November 8, 2002.

  • Joint Resolution of U.S. Congress on Iraq, November 2002.

  • Blix/El-Baradei Letter on UNMOVIC and IAEA Inspections to Iraq, October 8, 2002.

  • “The Just Demands of Peace and Security: International Law and the Case Against Iraq.” Paul Stevens, Andru Wall, ata Dinlenc. The Federalist Society.

March 25 (SESSION 11)
Relations with Russia and China

Guest Speaker –

Ambassador (ret.) James Collins – Former Ambassador to Russia

  • America’s Real Russian Allies, Colton & McFaul, Foreign Affairs, November –December 2001.

  • Russia Renewed?, Daniel Treisman, Foreign Affairs, November-December 2002.

  • Bush and Putin’s Tentative Embrace, Bremmer and Zaslovsky, World Policy Journal, Winter-January 2002.

  • In From the Cold: A New Approach to Relations with Russia and China, Robert S. McNamara and James G. Blight, World Policy Journal, Spring 2001.

  • Sino-American Relations Since September 11: Can the new Stability Last?, David Shambaugh, Current History, September 2002.

  • Coping with China, Richard Bernstein and Ross Munro, from The Coming Conflict with China, Vintage Books 1998.

April 1 (SESSION 12)

The U.S. and the World, Part 2 (Europe, the U.S. and Islam)


  • Prague NATO Summit Declaration, November 22, 2002.

  • Power and Weakness, Robert Kagan, Policy Review No. 113, June 2002.

  • The End of the West, Charles A. Kupchan, The Atlantic, November 2002.

  • The New Transatlantic Project, Ronald D. Asmus and Kenneth M. Pollack, Policy Review, October 2002.

  • The Future of Political Islam, Graham Fuller, Foreign Affairs, March-April 2002.

  • Can Any Good Come Out of Radical Islam?, Francis Fukuyama and N. Samin, Commentary, September-October 2002.

April 8 (SESSION 13)

Nuclear Policy

Leadership and Responsibility

  • One-page case analyses due on today’s case


  • Nuclear Proliferation Issues, Carl E. Behrens, Congressional Research Service, November 19, 2002

  • Nuclear Posture Review (Excerpts), January 8, 2002, Find at

  • Department of Defense January 9, 2002, Findings of the Nuclear Posture Review Briefing Charts:

  • Bush’s Nuclear Weapons Policy: Where the Rule of Law Doesn’t Matter, Anthony DiFilppo:

  • A Review of the 2002 US Nuclear Posture Review, by Stephan Young and Lisbeth Gronlund, Union of Concerned Scientists Working Paper, May 14, 2002.


Obligations of Leadership: The Khobar Towers Bombing and Its Aftermath, Eliot A. Cohen, National Security Studies Case Program, CS 1197-06.

April 15 (SESSION 14)
Defense Transformation
Restructuring Intelligence


  • Transforming the Military, Donald H. Rumsfeld, Foreign Affairs, May/June 2002.

  • A Tale of Two Secretaries, Eliot A. Cohen, Foreign Affairs, May/June 2002.

  • Defining Transformation, CDI, June 25, 2002:

  • Cebrowski Speech in Transformation Trends, Center for Naval Analysis – November 20, 2002.

  • Fixing Intelligence, Richard Betts. Foreign Affairs, January/February 2002.

April 22 (SESSION 15)
The War on Terrorism, Homeland Security and Defense

Note: National Security Papers Due


  • Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan, November 25, 2002.

  • Homeland Security Legislation

  • President’s National Strategy for Homeland Security

(Both at

(Other Readings to be Provided)

April 29 (SESSION 16)
Wrap Up Discussion and Review – The U.S. and the World, Part 3

1. Four articles from Foreign Affairs:

  • American Primacy in Perspective, Brooks and Wohlforth, Foreign Affairs, July-August 2002.

  • Bush and the World, Michael Hirsch, September-October 2002.

  • America’s Imperial Ambition, G. John Ikenberry, September-October 2002.

  • The Inadequacy of American Power, Michael Mondelbaum, September-October 2002.

2. Supporting U.S. Foreign Policy in the Post- 9/11 World, Richard Haass. Find at

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