Department of Economics



Download 0.69 Mb.
Page1/5
Date31.05.2016
Size0.69 Mb.
  1   2   3   4   5

Prof. John H. Munro munro5@chass.utoronto.ca

Department of Economics john.munro@utoronto.ca

University of Toronto http://www.economics.utoronto.ca/munro5/
Updated: 2 January 2013
Economics 303Y1
The Economic History of Modern Europe to 1914
Topic No. 6: [10]


The Social Consequences of Urban Industrialization, ca. 1770-1840: The British Standard of Living during the Industrial Revolution

READINGS:
All readings are listed in the chronological order of original publication, when that can be ascertained, except for collections of readings (listed in order of the publication of the volumes).
You are expected to read at least two articles or essays: preferably selecting from those by Hobsbawm, Hartwell, Lindert, Williamson, von Tunzelmann, Mokyr, Hunt, Crafts, Flinn, Taylor, etc., as indicated by the asterisks. Some of these contributions, if not the most recent, may also be found in one or more of the essay collections.
Notes:
(1) On econometrics and economic history:
Students without a strong background in econometrics and micro-economic theory (i.e. most students) will generally find those essays written before 1974/75 easier to read than those written subsequently. For this reason, the essays in this debate have been segregated between those written before and after 1974/75: in sections B and C below.
(2) Marxists vs. Conservatives:
The earliest views on this debate were dominated by those socialist opponents of industrial capitalism, most especially Karl Marx and his followers; and much later, their views provoked a conservative reaction, led principally by T.S. Ashton in the post-WW II era. Subsequently, from the late 1950s, the classic debate came to be that between the Marxist economic historian Eric Hobsbawm (of ‘General Crisis’ fame) and the conservative economic historian R.M. Hartwell, and their respective ideological followers. Since the mid-1970s, this debate, relying more and more on econometric analyses of the available data, has been rather less politically motivated, though hardly free from the traditional left-right split on these social issues.


A. Collections of Essays: in chronological order of publication.

1. Philip A.M. Taylor, ed., The Industrial Revolution in Britain: Triumph or Disaster? (Problems in European Civilization Series, Boston, 1958). Excerpts of essays:


(a) Arnold Toynbee, ‘The Classical Definition of the Industrial Revolution’, pp. 1-6.
* (b) Karl Marx, ‘The Origin of the Industrial Capitalist’, pp. 27-33.
[from Karl Marx, Capital: A Critical Analysis of Capitalist Production, 3 vols. (1887 English edition edited by Frederick Engels). See especially Vol. I, parts iii - vii.]
(c) J.L. and Barbara Hammond, ‘The Industrial Revolution: The Rulers and the Masses’, pp. 34-44.
* (d) Thomas S. Ashton, ‘Workers' Living Standards: A Modern Revision’, pp. 45-56.
(e) W.W. Rostow, ‘The Trade Cycle, Living Standards, and Movements of Discontent’, pp. 57-63.
(f) Paul Mantoux, ‘The Destruction of the Peasant Village’, pp. 64-73.
(g) J. D. Chambers, ‘Enclosures and the Rural Population: A Revision’, pp. 74-84.
(h) George Clark, ‘The Industrial Revolution: A Reappraisal’, pp. 85-88.

2. R.M. Hartwell, The Industrial Revolution and Economic Growth (London and New York, 1971). His collected essays, including:


(a) ‘The Great Discontinuity’, pp. 42-59.
(b) ‘Poverty and Crime in the Eighteenth Century’, pp. 60-80.
(c) ‘Interpretations of the Industrial Revolution in England’, pp. 81-105.
* (d) ‘The Rising Standard of Living in England, 1800-1850', pp. 313-43.
(e) ‘The Standard of Living: An Answer to the Pessimists’, pp. 344-60.
(f) ‘The Making of the English Working Class?’ pp. 361-76. [A review of E.P. Thompson's The Making of the English Working Class].
(g) ‘The Rise of Modern Industry: A Review’, pp. 377-89. [A review of J.L. and Barbara Hammond's The Rise of Modern Industry.]
(h) ‘Children as Slaves’, pp. 390-408.

3. Sima Lieberman, ed., Europe and the Industrial Revolution (Cambridge, Mass. 1972), Section IV: ‘The Industrial Revolution, Good or Evil?’ See her introduction to this section, pp. 159-62.


* (a) E.J. Hobsbawm, ‘The British Standard of Living, 1790-1850', pp. 163-92.
(b) Elizabeth B. Gilboy, ‘The Cost of Living and Real Wages in Eighteenth-Century England’, pp. 193-208.
* (c) R. M. Hartwell, ‘The Rising Standard of Living in England, 1800-1850', pp. 209-36.

4. Norman Gash, ed., The Long Debate on Poverty: Essays on Industrialization and ‘The Condition of England’ (London: Institute of Economic Affairs, revised edn. 1974):


(a) Norman Gash, ‘The State of the Debate’, pp. xvii-xxxii.
(b) R.M. Hartwell, ‘The Consequences of the Industrial Revolution in England for the Poor’, pp. 1-22.
(c) George Mingay, ‘The Transformation of Agriculture’,pp. 23-60.
(d) Rhodes Boyson, ‘Industrialisation and the Life of the Lancashire Factory Worker’, pp. 61-88.
(e) Norman McCord, ‘Aspects of the Relief of Poverty in Early 19th Century Britain’, pp. 89-110.
(f) C. G. Hanson, ‘Welfare Before the Welfare State’, pp.111-40.
(g) A. W. Coats, ‘The Classical Economists, Industrialisation, and Poverty’, pp. 141-68.
(h) W. H. Chaloner and W. O. Henderson, ‘Friedrich Engels and the England of the `Hungry Forties'’, pp. 169-86.
(i) J.M. Jefferson, ‘Industrialisation and Poverty: In Fact and Fiction’, pp. 187-238.

5. Arthur J. Taylor, ed., The Standard of Living in Britain in the Industrial Revolution, Debates in Economic History series (London, 1975).


* (a) A.J. Taylor, ‘Introduction’, pp. vii-lv.
* (b) E.W. Gilboy, ‘The Cost of Living and Real Wages in Eighteenth-Century England’, pp. 1-20.

(c) R.S. Tucker, ‘Real Wages of Artisans in London, 1729-1935', pp. 21-35.


(d) T.S. Ashton, ‘The Standard of Life of the Workers in England, 1790-1830', pp. 36-57.
* (e) E.J. Hobsbawm, ‘The British Standard of Living, 1790-1850', pp. 58-92.
* (f) R.M. Hartwell, ‘The Rising Standard of Living in England, 1800-50', pp. 93-123.
(g) E.P. Thompson, ‘The Making of the English Working Class: Standards and Experiences’, pp. 124-53.
(h) R.S. Neale, ‘The Standard of Living, 1780-1844: A Regional and Class Study’, pp. 154-78.
* (i) E.J. Hobsbawm, ‘The Standard of Living Debate’, pp. 179-88.
* (j) R.M. Hartwell and Stanley Engerman, ‘Models of Immiseration: The Theoretical Basis of Pessimism’, pp. 189-213.

6. Roderick Floud and Donald McCloskey, ed., The Economic History of Britain Since 1700, Vol. I: 1700 - 1860 (Cambridge University Press, 1981). See below no. 8, for the 2nd rev edition (Cambridge, 1994), with an entirely different set of essays.


(a) N.C.R. Crafts, ‘The Eighteenth Century: A Survey’, pp. 1 - 16.
(b) R.D. Lee, ‘British Population in the Eighteenth Century’, pp. 17 - 35.
(c) W. A. Cole, ‘Factors in Demand, 1700-80', pp. 36 - 65.
(d) D. N. McCloskey, ‘The Industrial Revolution, 1780 - 1860: A Survey’, pp. 103 - 27. A revised, expanded version appears in Joel Mokyr, ed., The Economics of the Industrial Revolution (1985), pp. 53 - 74, below.
(e) C. H. Feinstein, ‘Capital Accumulation and the Industrial Revolution’, pp. 128 - 42.
* (f) P. K. O'Brien and S. L. Engerman, ‘Changes in Income and its Distribution during the Industrial Revolution’, pp. 164-81.
(g) N. L. Tranter, ‘The Labour Supply, 1780 - 1860', pp. 204 - 26.
(h) M. E. Rose, ‘Social Change and the Industrial Revolution’, pp. 253 -75.

* 7. Joel Mokyr, ed., The Economics of the Industrial Revolution (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1985):


* (a) Joel Mokyr, ‘The Industrial Revolution and the New Economic History’, pp. 1 - 52. See especially pp. 38 - 44 on the ‘Standard of Living Debate.’

(b) Donald McCloskey, ‘The Industrial Revolution, 1780 - 1860: A Survey’, pp. 53 - 74.


(c) Joel Mokyr, ‘Demand vs. Supply in the Industrial Revolution’, pp. 97 - 118.
* (d) Brinley Thomas, ‘Food Supply in the United Kingdom during the Industrial Revolution’, pp. 137 - 50.
* (e) Peter Lindert and Jeffrey Williamson, ‘English Workers' Living Standards During the Industrial Revolution: A New Look’, pp. 177 - 206.
** (f) Gustav N. von Tunzelmann, ‘The Standard of Living Debate and Optimal Economic Growth’, pp. 207 - 26.
(g) E. G. West, ‘Literacy and the Industrial Revolution’, pp. 227-40.

**8. Roderick Floud and Donald McCloskey, eds., The Economic History of Britain Since 1700, Volume 1: 1770 - 1860 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994):


a) Ann Kussmaul, ‘The Pattern of Work as the Eighteenth Century Began’, pp. 1-11.
b) Joel Mokyr, ‘Technological Change, 1700 - 1830', pp. 12-43.
c) Nick Crafts, ‘The Industrial Revolution’, pp. 44-59.
d) Roger Schofield, ‘British Population Change, 1700-1871', pp. 60-95.
e) Robert Allan, ‘Agriculture During the Industrial Revolution’, pp. 96-122.
f) Maxine Berg, ‘Factories, Workshops, and Industrial Organisation’, pp. 123-50.
g) Larry Neal, ‘The Finance of Business During the Industrial Revolution’, pp. 151-81.
h) Stanley L. Engerman, ‘Mercantilism and Overseas Trade, 1700 - 1800', pp. 182-204.
i) Patrick O'Brien, ‘Central Government and the Economy, 1688 - 1815', pp. 204-42.
j) Donald McCloskey, ‘1780-1860: A Survey’, pp. 242-70.
k) Nick von Tunzelmann, ‘Technology in the Early Nineteenth Century’, pp 271-99.
l) Nick Harley, ‘Foreign Trade: Comparative Advantage and Performance’, pp. 300-31.
m) Jeffrey Williamson, ‘Coping With City Growth’, pp. 332-56.
** n) Peter H. Lindert, ‘Unequal Living Standards’, pp. 357-86.
9. Graeme D. Snooks, ed., Was the Industrial Revolution Necessary? (Lodon and New York, Routledge: 1994).
a) Graeme D. Snooks, ‘New Perspectives on the Industrial Revolution’, pp. 1-26.
b) E. A. Wrigley, ‘The Classical Economists, the Stationary State, and the Industrial Revolution’, pp. 27-42.
c) Graeme D. Snooks, ‘Great Waves of Economic Change: the Industrial Revolution in Historical Perspective, 1000 to 2000', pp. 43-78.
d) R. V. Jackson, ‘What Was the Rate of Economic Growth During the Industrial Revolution?’ pp. 79-95.
e) Stephen Nicholas and Deborah Oxley, ‘The Industrial Revolution and the Genesis of the Male Breadwinner’, pp. 96-111.
f) Stanley L. Engerman, ‘The Industrial Revolution Revisited’, pp. 112-23.

*10. Roderick Floud and Paul Johnson, eds., Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain, 3 vols. (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), Vol I: Industrialization, 1700 - 1860: see the following


a) Joel Mokyr, ‘Accounting for the Industrial Revolution’, pp. 1-27
b) Pat Hudson, ‘ Industrial Organsiation and Structure’, pp. 28-56
c) E. A. Wrigley, ‘British Population during the “Long” Eighteenth Century, 1680 - 1840’, pp. 67-95.
d) Robert Allen, ‘Agriculture during the Industrial Revolution, 1700 - 1850’, pp. 96-116
e) Kristine Bruland, ‘Industrialisation and Technological Change’, pp. 117-46.
f) Stephen Quinn, ‘Money, Finance, and Capital Markets’, pp. 147 -74.
g) C. Knick Harley, ‘Trade: Discovery, Mercantilism and Technology’, pp. 175-203.
h) Ron Harris, ‘Government and the Economy, 1688 - 1850’, pp. 204-37.
i) Jane Humphries, ‘Household Economy’, pp. 238-67.
j) Hans-Joachim Voth, ‘Living Standards and the Urban Environment’, pp. 268-94.
k) Simon Ville, ‘Transport’, pp. 295-331.
l) David Mitch, ‘Education and the Skill of the British Labour Force’, pp. 332-56.
m) Maxine Berg, ‘Consumption in Eighteenth- and early Nineteenth-Century Britain’, pp. 357-87.
n) T. M. Devine, ‘Scotland’, pp. 388-416.
o) Roger Burt, ‘The Extractive Industries’, pp. 417-50.
p) Stanley Engerman and Patrick O’Brien, ‘The Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective’, pp. 451-64.


B. The Traditional Debate in Articles and Essays: from 1936 to 1974/5:
The classic, and non-mathematical readings: in chronological order of publication, to about 1974/5.
1. Elizabeth Gilboy, ‘The Cost of Living and Real Wages in Eighteenth-Century England’, Review of Economic Statistics, 18 (1936), reprinted in:
(a) A.J. Taylor, ed., The Standard of Living in Britain (1975), pp. 1-20.
(b) Sima Lieberman, ed., Europe and the Industrial Revolution (1972), pp. 193-208.
2. R. S. Tucker, ‘Real Wages of Artisans in London, 1729-1935', Journal of the American Statistical Association, 31 (1936), reprinted in A.J. Taylor, ed. The Standard of Living in Britain (1975), pp. 21-35.
* 3. T. S. Ashton, ‘Some Statistics of the Industrial Revolution’, The Manchester School, 16 (1948), reprinted in:
(a) E.M. Carus-Wilson, ed., Essays in Economic History (London, 1962), Vol. III, pp. 237-51.
(b) A.E. Musson, ed., Science, Technology, and Economic Growth in the Eighteenth Century (1972), pp. 115-21 (excerpts only).
* 4. T.S. Ashton, ‘The Standard of Life of the Workers in England, 1790-1830', Journal of Economic History, 9 (1949), Supplement; reprinted in:
(a) A.J. Taylor, ed., The Standard of Living in Britain (1975), pp. 36-57.
(b) P.A.M. Taylor, ed., The Industrial Revolution in Britain: Triumph or Disaster?’ (1958): excerpts only as ‘Workers Living Standards’, pp. 45-56.
** 5. E.J. Hobsbawm, ‘The British Standard of Living, 1790-1850', Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 10 (1957), 46-68, available in:

(a) A.J. Taylor, ed., The Standard of Living in Britain (1975), pp. 58-93.


(b) Sima Lieberman, ed., Europe and the Industrial Revolution (1972), pp. 163-92.
** 6. A. J. Taylor, ‘Progress and Poverty in Britain, 1790-1850: A Re-appraisal’, History, 45 (1960); reprinted in E.M. Carus-Wilson, ed., Essays in Economic History, Vol. III (London, 1962), pp. 380-93.
** 7. R. M. Hartwell, ‘The Rising Standard of Living in England, 1800-1850', Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 13 (1961); reprinted in:
(a) A.J. Taylor, ed., The Standard of Living in Britain (1975), pp. 92-124.
(b) Sima Lieberman, ed., Europe and the Industrial Revolution (1972), pp. 209-36.
(c) R. M. Hartwell, The Industrial Revolution (1971), pp. 313-43.
* 8. E. J. Hobsbawm and R.M. Hartwell, ‘The Standard of Living During the Industrial Revolution: A Discussion’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 16 (1963), 120 - .
* 9. Edward P. Thompson, ‘The Making of the English Working Class: Standards and Experiences:’ from his Making of the English Working Class (London, 1963), republished in A.J. Taylor, ed., The Standard of Living in Britain (1975), pp. 124-53.
10. J. E. Williams, ‘The British Standard of Living, 1750-1850', Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 19 (1966), 581-89.
* 11. R. S. Neale, ‘The Standard of Living, 1780-1844: Regional and Class Study’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 19 (1966), 590 - 606, reprinted in A.J. Taylor, ed., The Standard of Living in Britain (1975), pp. 154-78.
12. D.R. Adams, ‘Some Evidence on English and American Wage Rates, 1790-1830', Journal of Economic History, 30 (1970), 498-520.
13. G.I. Barnsby, ‘The Standard of Living in the Black Country During the Nineteenth Century’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 24 (1971), 220-39.
14. R.M. Hartwell, ‘The Standard of Living: An Answer to the Pessimists’ and his ‘The Making of the English Working Class?’ in his Industrial Revolution and Economic Growth (London, 1971), pp. 344-60, 361-76.
15. T.R. Gourvish, ‘The Cost of Living in Glasgow in the Early Nineteenth Century’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 25 (1972), 65-80.
* 16. E.J. Hobsbawm, ‘The Standard of Living Debate: Essay in Postscript’, in A.J. Taylor, ed., The Standard of Living in Britain (1975), pp. 179-88.

C. The More Recent Debate on Real Wages and the Standard of Living during the Industrial Revolution era: The Application of Statistics, Micro/Macro Theory and Econometrics.
In chronological order of publication, from 1974/75.
* 1. Michael Flinn, ‘Trends in Real Wages, 1750-1850’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 27 (1974), 395-413.
2. R.M. Hartwell and Stanley Engerman, ‘Models of Immiseration: The Theoretical Basis of Pessimism’, in A.J. Taylor, ed., The Standard of Living in Britain (1975), pp. 189-213.
3. T.R. Gourvish, ‘Flinn and Real Wage Trends in Britain: A Comment’, and:
M.W. Flinn, ‘Real Wage Trends in Britain, 1750-1850: A Reply’, both in:
Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 29 (1976), 136-42, 143-45.
4. Joel Mokyr, ‘Demand vs. Supply in the Industrial Revolution’, Journal of Economic History, 37 (Dec. 1977), 981 - 1008; reprinted in Joel Mokyr, ed., The Economics of the Industrial Revolution (London, 1985), pp. 97 - 118.
5. Joel Mokyr and N. Eugene Savin, ‘Some Econometric Problems in the Standard of Living Controversy’, Journal of European Economic History, 7 (1978), 517-25.
6. G.N. von Tunzelmann, ‘Trends in Real Wages, 1750-1850, Revisited’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 32 (1979), 33-49.
* 7. N.F.R. Crafts, ‘National Income Estimates and the British Standard of Living Debate: A Reappraisal of 1801-1831', Explorations in Economic History, 17 (1980), 176-88.
* 8. Jeffrey Williamson, ‘Earnings Inequality in Nineteenth-Century Britain’, Journal of Economic History, 40 (1980), 457-75. Estimates British earnings distributions for four years in the period 1827-1901 (1827, 1851, 1881, 1901), by occupations. A knowledge of econometrics would help greatly in reading this paper.
9. David Loschky, ‘Seven Centuries of Real Income per Wage Earner Reconsidered’, Economica, 47 (1980), 459 - 65.
A reconsideration and reconstructed analysis of the data in:
E. H. Phelps Brown and Sheila Hopkins, ‘Seven Centuries of the Prices of Consumables, Compared with Builders' Wages-Rates’, Economica, 23 (Nov. 1956), reprinted in their A Perspective of Wages and Prices (London, 1981), pp. 13 - 59 (with extra statistical appendices not provided in the original article).
* 10. Patrick K. O'Brien and Stanley Engerman, ‘Changes in Income and Its Distribution during the Industrial Revolution’, in Roderick Floud and Donald McCloskey, ed., The Economic History of Britain Since 1700, Vol. I: 1700-1860 (Cambridge, 1981), pp. 164-81.
** 11. Jeffrey G. Williamson, ‘Urban Disamenities, Dark Satanic Mills, and the British Standard of Living Debate’, Journal of Economic History, 41 (1981), 75-84.
12. Sidney Pollard, ‘Sheffield and Sweet Auburn -- Amenities and Living Standards in the British Industrial Revolution: A Comment’, Journal of Economic History, 41 (1981), 902-904.
13. Jeffrey Williamson, ‘Some Myths Die Hard -- Urban Disamenities One More Time: A Reply’, Journal of Economic History, 41 (1981), 905-07.
* 14. Jeffrey Williamson, ‘Was the Industrial Revolution Worth It? Disamenities and Death in Nineteenth-Century British Towns’, Explorations in Economic History, 19 (1982), 221-45.
15. Jeffrey Williamson, ‘The Structure of Pay in Britain, 1710-1911', Research in Economic History, 7 (1982).
16. N.F.R. Crafts, ‘Regional Price Variation in England in 1843: An Aspect of the Standard-of-Living Debate’, Explorations in Economic History, 19 (1982), 51-70.

17. Brinley Thomas, ‘Food Supply in the United Kingdom during the Industrial Revolution’, Agricultural History, 56 (Jan. 1982), 328 - 42; reprinted in Joel Mokyr, ed., The Economics of the Industrial Revolution (London, 1985), pp. 137 - 76.


18. C. Knick Harley, ‘British Industrialization Before 1841: Evidence of Slower Growth During the Industrial Revolution’, Journal of Economic History, 42 (June 1982), 267 - 90.
19. Roderick Floud and Kenneth W. Wachter, ‘Poverty and Physical Stature: Evidence on the Standard of Living of London Boys, 1770 - 1870', Social Science History, 6 (1982), 422 - 52.
20. Peter H. Lindert and Jeffrey Williamson, ‘Revising England's Social Tables, 1688-1812', Explorations in Economic History, 19 (1982), 385-408. See also the following.
* 21. Peter H. Lindert and Jeffrey Williamson, ‘Reinterpreting England's Social Tables, 1688-1913', Explorations in Economic History, 20 (1983), 94-109.
** 22. Peter H. Lindert and Jeffrey G. Williamson, ‘English Workers' Living Standards during the Industrial Revolution: A New Look’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 36 (1983), 1-25. Reprinted in Joel Mokyr, ed., The Economics of the Industrial Revolution (New York, 1985), pp. 177 - 205.
23. Peter H. Lindert, ‘English Living Standards, Population Growth, and Wrigley-Schofield’, Explorations in Economic History, 20 (1983), 131-55.
In connection with this article, see also the following:
E.A. Wrigley, ‘The Growth of Population in Eighteenth-Century England: A Conundrum Resolved’, Past and Present, No. 98 (February 1983), 121-50.
E.A. Wrigley and R.S. Schofield, The Population History of England, 1541-1871: A Reconstruction (Cambridge, Mass. 1981).]
24. N. F. R. Crafts, ‘British Economic Growth, 1700-1831: A Review of the Evidence’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 36 (1983), 177-99.
25. R.A. Cage, ‘The Standard of Living Debate: Glasgow, 1800-1850', Journal of Economic History, 43 (1983), 175-82. See also R.M. Hartwell, ‘Discussion’, pp. 203-06.
26. Richard Steckel, ‘Height and Per Capita Income’, Historical Methods, 16 (1983), 1 - 7.
27. Michael Flinn, ‘English Workers' Living Standards During the Industrial Revolution: A Comment’, and:
Peter Lindert and Jeffrey Williamson, ‘Reply to Michael Flinn’, both in:
Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 37 (Feb. 1984), 88-94.
28. Jeffrey G. Williamson, ‘Why Was British Growth So Slow During the Industrial Revolution?’ Journal of Economic History, 44 (Sept. 1984), 687 - 712.
29. Peter Lindert, ‘English Population, Wages, and Prices: 1541-1913', Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 15 (Spring 1985), 609-34.
30. Brinley Thomas, ‘Escaping from Constraints: the Industrial Revolution in a Malthusian Context’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 15 (Spring 1985), 729-54.
31. L.D. Schwarz, ‘The Standard of Living in the Long-Run: London, 1700-1860', Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 38 (Feb. 1985), 24-41.
* 32. N.F.R. Crafts, ‘English Workers' Real Wages During the Industrial Revolution: Some Remaining Problems’, and Peter Lindert and Jeffrey Williamson, ‘English Workers' Real Wages: A Reply to Crafts’, Journal of Economic History, 45 (March 1985), 139-44, 145-53.
33. David Levine, ‘Industrialization and the Proletarian Family in England’, Past and Present, no. 107 (May 1985), 204-26.
34. Peter H. Lindert and Jeffrey Williamson, ‘Growth, Equality, and History’, Explorations in Economic History, 22 (Oct. 1985), 341 - 77.

* 35. Jeffrey Williamson, Did British Capitalism Breed Inequality? (London, 1985).


36. N. F. R. Crafts, British Economic Growth during the Industrial Revolution (Oxford, 1985).
** 37. G. N. von Tunzelmann, ‘The Standard of Living Debate and Optimal Economic Growth’, in Joel Mokyr, ed., The Economics of the Industrial Revolution (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1985), pp. 207 - 26.
In this same volume, see also:
(a) Joel Mokyr, ‘The Industrial Revolution and the New Economic History’, pp. 38 - 44, with comments on the Standard of Living Debate in the introduction to this volume.
(b) Peter H. Lindert and Jeffrey G. Williamson, ‘English Workers' Living Standards during the Industrial Revolution: A New Look’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 36 (1983), 1-25.
* 38. E. H. Hunt, ‘Industrialization and Regional Inequality: Wages in Britain, 1760-1914', Journal of Economic History, 46 (1986), 935-62.
39. N. F. R. Crafts, ‘British Economic Growth, 1700 - 1850: Some Difficulties of Interpretation’, Explorations in Economic History, 24 (July 1987), 245 - 68.
* 40. E. W. Hunt and F. W. Botham, ‘Wages in Britain during the Industrial Revolution’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 40 (August 1987), 380-99.
41. R. V. Jackson, ‘The Structure of Pay in Nineteenth-Century Britain’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 40 (Nov. 1987), 561-70.
* 42. Joel Mokyr, ‘Is There Still Life in the Pessimist Case? Consumption During the Industrial Revolution, 1790 - 1850', Journal of Economic History, 48 (March 1988), 69 - 92.
43. Joel Mokyr and Cormac O Grada, ‘Poor and Getting Poorer? Living Standards in Ireland Before the Famine’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 41 (May 1988), 209-35.
* 44. Charles Feinstein, ‘The Rise and Fall of the Williamson Curve’, Journal of Economic History, 48 (September 1988), 699-729. A review article on Jeffrey Williamson's Did British Capitalism Breed Inequality? (Boston, 1985).
45. John A. James, ‘Personal Wealth Distribution in Late Eighteenth-Century Britain’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 41 (Nov. 1988), 543-65.
46. Henk Jan Brinkman, J. W. Drukker, and Brigitte Slot, ‘Height and Income: A New Method for the Estimation of Historical National Income Series’, Explorations in Economic History, 25 (1988), 227 - 64.
* 47. L.D. Schwarz, ‘Trends in Real Wage Rates, 1750 - 1790: A Reply to Hunt and Botham’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 43 (Feb. 1990), 90 - 98.
48. Henry Phelps Brown, ‘Gregory King's Notebook and the Phelps Brown-Hopkins Price Index’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 43 (Feb. 1990), 94 - 103.
* 49. John C. Brown, ‘The Condition of England and the Standard of Living: Cotton Textiles in the Northwest, 1806 - 1850', Journal of Economic History, 50 (Sept. 1990), 591-614.
* 50. Douglas A. Irwin, ‘Was Britain Immiserized during the Industrial Revolution?’ Explorations in Economic History, 28 (January 1991), 121-24. A brief note, with a mathematical model based on Britain's export sector, concluding that ‘the possibility that Britain was immiserized during this period can be ruled out in general...’
51. Stephen Nicholas and Richard H. Steckel, ‘Heights and Living Standards of English Workers During the Early Years of Industrialization, 1770 - 1815', The Journal of Economic History, 51 (December 1991), 937 - 57.
52. David Loschky, ‘New Perspectives on Seven Centuries of Real Wages’, Journal of European Economic History, 21:1 (Spring 1992), 169 - 82.
* 53. N.F.R. Crafts and C.K. Harley, ‘Output Growth and the British Industrial Revolution: A Restatement of the Crafts-Harley View’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 45:4 (November 1992), 703-30.
54. T. L. Richardson, ‘The Agricultural Labourers' Standard of Living in Lincolnshire, 1790 - 1840: Social Protest and Public Order’, Agricultural History Review, 41:1 (1993), 1 - 18.
* 55. Stephen Nicholas and Deborah Oxley, ‘The Living Standards of Women during the Industrial Revolution, 1795 - 1820', Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 46:4 (November 1993), 723-49.
** 56. N.F.R. Crafts and Terence C. Mills, ‘Trends in Real Wages in Britain, 1750-1913', Explorations in Economic History, 31:2 (April 1994), 176-94.
** 57. Peter H. Lindert, ‘Unequal Living Standards’, in Roderick Floud and Donald McCloskey, eds., The Economic History of Britain Since 1700, 2nd edition, Vol. 1: 1770 - 1860 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pp. 357-86.


  1. * Charles Feinstein, ‘Changes in Nominal Wages, the Cost of Living, and Real Wages in the United Kingdom Over Two Centuries,’ in P. Scholliers and Vera Zamagni, eds., Labour’s Record: Real Wages and Economic Change in Nineteenth and Twentieth-Century Europe (Aldershot, 1995), pp. 3 - 36.

59. Stephen Nicholas and Deborah Oxley, ‘Living Standards of Women in England and Wales, 1785 - 1815: New Evidence from Newgate Prison Records’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 49:3 (August 1996), 591-99.


60. Joyce Burnette, ‘An Investigation of the Female-Male Wage Gap During the Industrial Revolution’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 50:2 (May 1997), 257-81.
61. N.F.R. Crafts, ‘The Human Development Index and Changes in Standards of Living: Some Historical Comparisons’, European Review of Economic History, 1:3 (December 1997), 299-22.
* 62. Simon Szreter and Graham Mooney, ‘Urbanization, Mortality, and the Standard of Living Debate: New Estimates of the Expectation of Life at Birth in Nineteenth-Century British Cities’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 51:1 (February 1998), 84-112.
** 63. Charles H. Feinstein, ‘Pessimisim Perpetuated: Real Wages and the Standard of Living in Britain during and after the Industrial Revolution’, Journal of Economic History, 58:3 (September 1998), 625-58.
64. Moshe Justman and Mark Gradstein, ‘The Industrial Revolution, Political Transition, and the Subsequent Decline in Inequality in 19th-Century Britain’, Explorations in Economic History, 36:2 (April 1999): 109-27.
* 65. T.V. Jackson, ‘British Incomes circa 1800', The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 52:2 (May 1999), 257-83.
* 66. Sara Horell, Jane Humphries, and Hans-Joachim Voth, ‘Destined for Deprivation: Human Capital Formation and Intergenerational Poverty in Nineteenth-Century England’, Explorations in Economic History, 38:3 (July 2001), 339-365.
** 67. Gregory Clark, ‘Farm Wages and Living Standards in the Industrial Revolution: England, 1670 - 1869', The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 54:3 (August 2001), 477-505.
* 68. Robert C. Allen, ‘The Great Divergence in European Wages and Prices from the Middle Ages to the First World War’, Explorations in Economic History, 38:4 (October 2001), 411-47.
69. A. Blair, L. Karsten, and J. Leopold, ‘The Fight Over Working Hours: Trade Union Action or State Control? A British Dutch Comparative Perspective’, The Journal of European Economic History, 31:2 (Fall 2002), 273-92.
* 70. Pol Antràs and Hans-Joachim Voth, ‘Factor Prices and Productivity Growth During the British Industrial Revolution’, Explorations in Economic History, 40:1 (January 2003), 52-77.
* 71. Frank Geary and Tom Stark, ‘Trends in Real Wages during the Industrial Revolution: A View from Across the Irish Sea’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 57:2 (May 2004), 362-95.
** 72. Hans-Joachim Voth, ‘Living Standards and the Urban Environment’, in Roderick Floud and Paul Johnson, eds., Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain, 3 vols. (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), Vol I: Industrialization, 1700 - 1860, pp. 268-94.
* 73. Nikola Koepke and Joerg Baten, ‘The Biological Standard of Living in Europe during the last Two Millenia’, European Review of Economic History, 9:1 (April 2005), 61-96.
74. Gregory Clark, ‘The Condition of the Working Class in England, 1209-2004’, Journal of Political Economy, 113:6 (December 2005), 1307-1340.
75. Stephen Broadberry and Bishnupriya Gupta, ‘The Early Modern Great Divergence: Wages, Prices and Economic Development in Europe and Asia, 1500-1800’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 59:1 (February 2006), 2-31.
76. Gregory Clark, ‘The Long March of History: Farm Wages, Population, and Economic Growth: England, 1209-1869’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 60:1 (February 2007), 97-135.
77. Paul A. Custer, ‘Refiguring Jemima: Gender, Work and Politics in Lancashire, 1770 - 1820’, Past & Present, no. 195 (May 2007), pp. 127-58.
78. Joyce Burnette, ‘Married with Children: the Family Status of Female Day-Labourers at Two South-Western Farms’, Agricultural History Review, 55:i (2007), 75-94. Concerns the 19th century,
79. Margaret Lyle, ‘Regional Agricultural Wage Variations in Early Nineteenth-Century England’, Agricultural History Review, 55:i (2007), 95-106.
* 80. Leonard Schwarz, ‘Custom, Wages and Workload in England during Industrialization’, Past and Present, no. 197 (November 2007), pp. 143-175.
* 81. Francesco Cinnirella, ‘Optimists or Pessimists? A Reconsideration of Nutritional Status in Britain, 1740-1865’, European Review of Economic History, 12:3 (December 2008), 325-54.
* 82. Jeffrey Wagner, David Loschky, and Charles McDaniel, ‘Real Income and Mortality in a Household Production Model: English Mortality from 1541 to 1871’, The Journal of European Economic History, 36:1 (Spring 2007), 47-69.
* 83. Luis Angeles, ‘GDP Per Capita or Real Wages? Making Sense of Conflicting Views on Pre-Industrial Europe’, Explorations in Economic History, 45:2 (April 2008), 147-63.
* 84. Joyce Burnett, Work and Wages in Industrial Revolution Britain (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008).
85. K. Powers, ‘ “Their Palms were Crossed with Silver:” The Payment of Workers in Early Textile Factories, 1780 - 1830’, Textile History, 40:2 (November 2009), 229-37.
** 86. Joel Mokyr, The Enlightened Economy: An Economic Historyof Britain, 1700 - 1850, The New Economic History of Britain (Caid Cannadine, general editor) (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2009), chapter 18, ‘Living Standards and Inequality’, pp. 449-74.
* 87. Şevket Pamuk and Jan-Luiten van Zanden, ‘Standards of Living’, in Stephen Broadberry and Kevin H. O’Rourke, eds., The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe, 2 vols. (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), Vol. I: 1700 - 1870, pp. 217-334. Note: this study concerns all of Europe, though of course including the British Isles.




Share with your friends:
  1   2   3   4   5




The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2020
send message

    Main page