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Martin Luther King Jr., "I Have a Dream," speech, March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, 28 August 1963. C. Free Speech Movement



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Martin Luther King Jr., "I Have a Dream," speech, March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, 28 August 1963.

C. Free Speech Movement

Primary source:
Free Speech Movement Newsletter, "For Free Speech 824-115," statement, 1964.
Background information: In 1964 at the Berkeley campus of the University of California, students, many of them active in the civil-rights movement, protested the university administration's rule forbidding them to distribute leaflets on the school's campus. Thus began what came to be known as the free-speech movement. \

[ . . . ]

The source of their power is clear enough: the guns and the clubs of the Highway Patrol, the banks and corporations of the Regents. But what is the source of our power?

It is something we see everywhere on campus but find hard to define. Perhaps it was best expressed by the sign one boy pinned to his chest: "I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me." The source of our strength is, very simply, the fact that we are human beings and so cannot forever be treated as raw materials—to be processed. Clark Kerr [president of the University of California] has declared, in his writings and by his conduct, that a university must be like any other factory—a place where workers who handle raw material are themselves handled like raw material by the administrators above them. Kerr is confident that in his utopia "there will not be any revolt, anyway, except little bureaucratic revolts that can be handled piecemeal." [ . . . ]


"For Free Speech 824-115," in Free Speech Movement Newsletter, no. 5 (December 10, 1964). Full text available online at




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