Define these terms



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Chapter 10 TEST #1 STUDY GUIDE Answer Key
Define these terms

Imperialism

The policy by a stronger nation to attempt to create an empire by dominating weaker nations economically, politically, culturally, or militarily.


Provisional

Temporary (in regards to Hawaii)

Annexed or Annexation

To incorporate (territory) into an existing political unit such as a country )


Yellow Journalism

PRINTED EXAGGERATED ACCOUNTS of news stories

Remember the Maine

battle cry of the American people after the ship sank in Cuban waters

Rough Riders

Volunteer cavalry (Wild West Types along with Aristocratic men from Eastern US – needed little training – could shoot and ride); led by T. Roosevelt in Cuba – famous battle was at San Juan Hill

Spanish-American War

War between Spain and America; Fought in Cuba and Philippines; Ended with American victory; Caused US to become an Imperialist Power

Protectorate

a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power)


White Man's Burden/Brown Man's Burden

a belief in the superiority of the white race produced the idea that whites had a responsibility to civilize non-whites “inferior people”.

Response to Kiplings’ Whites Man’s Burden – criticism


Who are these people?

Admiral Alfred Mahan

3 Part Suggestions for American Imperialism;

Admiral; Pres of Naval War College; outspoken advocate of American military expansion


Sanford B Dole

Became Provisional Governor of Hawaii after overthrow of Hawaiian gov’t; refused to give up power

Grover Cleveland

President of US – disliked what happened in Hawaii

William McKinley

followed Cleveland as President of US; favored annexation of Hawaii; President during Spanish-American War

John Stevens

US ambassador to Hawaii

Liliuokalani

Hawaiian queen; educated in US; Rallied against US rule (Hawaii for Hawaiians); was overthrown in bloodless coup


Jose' Marti'

Cuban poet and journalist; exiled in New York (his poems angered Spanish government)

General Valeriano Weyler

Nicknamed “The Butcher” by US newspapers; Spain sent to restore order; created concentration camps and forced rural population into these horrible camps (1000s died; hunger and disease)


William Randolph Hearst

Newspaper tycoon (New York Journal); engaged in Yellow Journalism; Sent artist Remington down to Cuba; “…I’ll provide the war”

Joseph Pulitzer

newspaper tycoon (New York World); engaged in Yellow Journalism


Enrique Dupoy de Lome

Spanish minister to US; wrote letter criticizing McKinley (stolen and printed in newspapers)

Frederic Remington

Artist sent by Hearst to illustrate news stories in Cuba; (“Everything is quiet. There is no trouble. There will be no war. I wish to return.”)

George Dewey

Commander of the Pacific fleet (sent to Philippines after Maine by T. Roosevelt); easily defeated Spanish fleet

Theodore Roosevelt

Assistant Sec. of Navy; Commander of Rough Riders (famous charge up San Juan Heights [Cuba] during Spanish-American War); Became McKinley’s VP and then President of US (when McKinley was assassinated)


Significance of these places with regards to Imperialism




Cuba

Fought and won away from Spain; Afterwards, US remained in control of government; Cubans called for their independence – wrote Constitution; US agreed with certain provisions

Puerto Rico

Gained by US in Treaty of Paris with Spain; Puerto Ricans thought US was granting them independence but rather US set up a military govt

Philippines

US paid Spain for it; Fight between Filipinos and US (with some African American soldiers joining Filipino side due to treatment of US soldiers on Filipinos [concentration camps as well])

Hawaii

annexed by the US with an overthrow of Queen (Hawaiian gov’t) by American Businessmen and John Stevens (US ambassador)


Imperialism - Introduction Textbook 364-366
At the beginning of our Unit, how did most Americans feel about Imperialism?

Liked the idea – Economic, political and military competition; Anglo-Saxon superiority

What branch of the military did Mahan suggest the US needs to build up to defend US economic interests?



Navy
What was Mahan's 3 Part Suggestion for US dominance in the world?

  1. Naval bases in Caribbean

  2. Canal through Panama

  3. Acquire Hawaii and other Pacific Islands

What did it mean to "civilize" non-Europeans?

US had a responsibility to spread Christianity and civilize the world’s “inferior” people

What negative reasons did some Americans have towards Imperialism?


Moral and practical grounds; not given US Constitutional protections; Cost of maintaining military force to enforce US claims; expansion take away US jobs


Hawaii Textbook 366-367
What 2 American groups began stopping in Hawaii (and staying)? Missionaries and Merchants
How did White Planters change Hawaii?

Brought in laborers from Japan, Portugal, and China (outnumbered NATIVE HAWAIIANS); Voting rights to wealthy landowners (gave control of Hawaiian govt to American businessmen – forced the Hawaiian king to change Hawaiian constitution)

Why did Liliuokalani (Queen of Hawaii) create a new Hawaiian constitution?



Rallied against US rule (Hawaii for Hawaiians) – restore political power to Native Hawaiians

What events occurred that led to the US setting up a provisional government in Hawaii?



    • On the night of January 16th 1893, the U.S.S. Boston appeared in Honolulu harbor

    • American marines moved ashore (supposed mission – to protect American lives and property)

    • At same time, volunteer troops took over government building and imprisoned the queen in her palace

    • Queen saw no hope (didn’t want bloodshed) – stepped down as Queen

How did the US government (including the Presidents of the United States) feel about the annexation of Hawaii?
Grove Cleveland – against it (wanted to return queen to power – Dole refused to step down)

William McKinley – for it (when became President – approved annexation of Hawaii)
Interest in Cuba Textbook 370-372
Why did Americans have an interest in Cuba?

American capitalists began investing millions $ in large sugar cane plantations

How did Jose' Marti' stir up trouble with the Spanish (who controlled Cuba at this time)? What was his strategy to get the US involved to help the rebels?



He launched a revolution (guerrilla warfare  destroyed property) ESPECIALLY American-owned sugar mills and plantations *Called for Cuban Independence!

He had counted on provoking U.S. intervention to help the rebels (in the Cuban plight against Spain)

Explain the events surrounding the sinking of the USS Maine and who was blamed?



On Feb 15 an explosion sent the ship’s ammo up in flames and it SANK

Causalities – 260 American officers and crew died

How did Yellow Journalism play a major role in the beginnings of the Spanish - American War? (*2 events)


1) NEW YORK JOURNAL published a private letter written by Enrique Dupuy de Lome (Spanish minister to US)

- How was it obtained? A Cuban rebel stole the letter from a Havana post office and leaked it to newspaper

-What did it say? Criticized President McKinley for being weak and just played to the crowd *(did whatever they wanted him to do)

2) USS Main explosion - No one really knows the cause of explosion (ship hit a mine was report at the time) – Journalists held Spain responsible

War Breaks Out Textbook 372-374
What was the US's 3 Part Plan to win the Spanish American War?

#1 – Naval blockade of Cuba

#2 – American troops organized to invade (however small # and largely inexperienced)

#3 – Plans for the use of Naval over troops

Why did Theodore Roosevelt send George Dewey and the Pacific fleet to the Philippines?



Philippines was under the control of Spanish; US Navy launched surprise attack and destroyed the Spanish fleet (allowing US soldiers to fight alongside Filipino rebels against Spain)
Explain how the US annexed the Philippines and how did the Filipinos feel and react to this?
After defeating Spain however, the U.S. fails to grant the Philippines independence after the war (leaning towards annexation); Filipinos, unhappy that they were under the control of yet another colonial ruler, fought back

Explain how the war in Cuba played out? (be specific - San Juan Heights battle)


US had tough battle – Spain had uphill position (fortifications and guns); US at bottom of hill (getting slaughtered); T. Roosevelt leads charge up hill with his Rough Riders and overtook the Spanish

What was agreed upon in the Treaty of Paris?



1) Cuba would become independent

  1. Spain would give Puerto Rico and Guam to US

  2. US would pay Spain $20 million for annexation of the Philippine islands

How did some Americans react to the Treaty of Paris?
Felt the people in power (making decisions) had misunderstanding of Cubans, Filipinos, Puerto Ricans

Denied US Declaration of Independence (what US had fought against, they were NOW doing to others)

Moral – race-relations at home need to solved FIRST

Immigrants taking American jobs

The Spanish American War only lasted 4 months (a splendid little war) HOWEVER it wasn't over...
What made the Puerto Ricans mad towards the US?
Some Puerto Ricans (which Spain gave to US in the treaty) wanted independence – US gave them no promises

- American officers doubted that Puerto Ricans could govern themselves [set up military government]

Why did the US want to stay involved in Cuba after the war?


1) strategic position in Caribbean

2)Protection of future canal



3)Protecting American Business Interests (protect LARGE PROFITS)

What events happened in the Philippines that caused the Philippine-American War?


Native Filipinos were intent on independence - outraged about America’s talk about annexing them

- Rebel leaders believed US had betrayed them

- proclaimed Philippines an independence republic and drafted a constitution

(however there were still a presence of America soldiers)

Tried guerilla tactics  US response – “Designated Zones” (Concentration Camps)
African-American soldiers (some) did not like the treatment by US soldiers towards Filipinos – they joined Filipinos side
America as a World Power Textbook 382-387
How did the U.S. meet Mahan's 3 part Suggestion?
Had a modern navy and naval bases in the Caribbean and Hawaii

What can be concluded about US pursuing and achieving foreign policy?
Expanded access to foreign markets in order to ensure the continued growth of the domestic economy

US builds a modern navy to protect interests abroad

US exercises its international power to ensure American dominance

US HAS BEEN DRAWN DEEPER INTO WORLD AFFAIRS WITH PURSUIT OF IMPERIALISM BUT IS LEADING THEM TOWARDS A WAR THEY COULD NOT AVOID… WORLD WAR I


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