1. Israel has undergone many conflicts to “defend their existence”. The most famous being the Sinai Campaign, the Six Day War, and the October War.
2. Under your Israel tab, create a word document for each of the above and describe the reasoning behind each conflict, the conflict itself, the result of the conflict, and how the United States reacted during the conflict. Who did we support, and why do you think our reaction was what it was?
3. Research the 1972 Munich Olympics. Describe what happened with Israeli athletes at this Olympic Games. How did the world react?
The Sinai campaign was fought to put an end to terrorist incursions into Israel and to remove the Egyptian blockade of Eilat. On October 30, Britain and France issued the planned ultimatum to Israelis and Egyptians to try and put an end to their fighting but to no effect. The Sinai Peninsula soon fell into the hands of the Israelis in a swift operation lasting 100 hours, at a cost of 231 soldiers’ lives. The Campaign resulted in the reaffirmation of the direction the IDF had already taken as well as the doctrine that the determining factors in Israel’s mode of warfare was their Air Force and Armored Corps. Israel gained a breathing space of about ten years. The United States was caught by surprise by the invasion and was more concerned with the Soviet war in Hungary and the Cold War. The U.S. wanted Israelis to pull out of Egypt so they took the Egyptians side, they mainly wanted a compromise, and our reaction was the way it was because we were more worried about the Soviet Union at the time.
The Six Day War was fought because of clashes with the Air Force of Syria and the mobilization of Nasser and 100,000 of his troops into the Sinai Peninsula and he closed the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping. In June within the brief span of six days, the IDF overran the whole Sinai Peninsula, up to the Suez Canal and took the entire West Bank of the River Jordan among other places. The result of the conflict was the loss of 776 Israeli soldiers and the Air Force also played a decisive and significant role in the war and diplomatic solutions were attempted after this war to put an end to conflict. The U.S. aggressively pursued diplomatic solutions to the conflict in 1967. They didn’t really take sides although the U.S. did recognize the rights of Israel to use the Straits of Tiran.
The October War was fought because of failure to resolve territorial disputes after the Six Day War and also the assurance the Israel’s General Staff felt safe from conflict in the indefinite future. The conflict started when a joint military attack on Israel by Syria and Egypt was carried out on the holiest day of the year for the Jewish, Yom Kippur. The war was fought for weeks and was very bloody and brutal. The result of the war was devastating, thousands of soldiers dead and the economic cost of the war was huge, Israel confidence was destroyed while Arab confidence was increased. The U.S. responded by sending aid to the Israelis and Israel became more dependent more on the U.S. for economic, military and diplomatic aid.