Decades of Darkness Footnotes

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[4] See post #123.
[5] i.e. the various vitalist (*fascist) parties who’ve sprung up in post-war New England.
[6] This is the New England equivalent to the State of the Union Address, traditionally read by a clerk rather than in person, and usually delivered on the second Tuesday in February.
Decades of Darkness #147: Where Eagles Dare
[1] Berlin Polytechnic is TTL’s closest equivalent to the Technical University of Berlin.
[2] Flame engines are the most common name for TTL’s jet engines.
[3] The Goddard Rocket Company, based in New England, is at this time the world’s main supplier of high-quality rockets. Due to the North American War, the German government is increasingly reluctant to rely on New England technology for any military applications.
[4] Coleman Carnegie is a distant ATL ‘relative’ of the historical Andrew Carnegie; Coleman’s great-grandfather Thomas is the same man as Andrew’s historical grandfather.
[5] Australia’s high rate of immigration means that housing is at a premium in Sydney.
[6] Vegelade is a strong, salty, savoury cheap spread made from yeast paste and other things best left unmentioned. Its closest OTL equivalent is Vegemite [11].
[7] Coleman’s grandfather and father (William Carnegie and Randolph Carnegie) are labour agitators in Australia. Randolph Carnegie was recently arrested for sedition over labour protests. Coleman has mysteriously lost his job at Sydney’s patent office, although the two events obviously have no connection whatsoever, as the Minister for Employment has repeatedly said.
[8] Many machine shops of this era used a single engine (steam, gas, or diesel) to power a system of shafts, and belts that hook to a motor on various machine tools.
[9] One of the side-effects of German nationalism being language-based rather than on ethnicity (e.g. they treat Poles who learn German and act German as if they are German much more readily than in OTL) is that Yiddish-speaking Jews are also considered to be Germans, or close enough. Unfortunately, this means that some Russians reach the same conclusion.
[10] Feodor Kraksky is one of Russia’s foremost metallurgical engineers during the 1910s. His shop in St Petersburg produces precision machinery for a wide range of projects, such as skycraft engines and high powered artillery.
[11] And for those non-Australasians who haven’t yet tried Vegemite, one word of advice: Don’t [12].
[12] Or at least, if you do, don’t go by the adage that “a little is good, so more must be better.”
Decades of Darkness #148: Ordinary World
[1] In terms of years in the Senate, not greatest age. Vermillion is effectively the Majority Leader of the Senate, and his counterpart Wade Hampton IV fills a similar role amongst the Democrats.
[2] In this era, West Coast refers to the states between Oregon and South California.
[3] New England founded the first modern intelligence agency, the Department of Foreign Security, in 1865. The United States, Britain and a few other nations have followed suit.
[4] The Industrial Commission, founded by President Mahan in 1889, has the power to break up trusts and other monopolies.
[5] Only if he were a rather wealthy working man, but horsts did became affordable for the middle class within the decade.
[6] Nubado (originally nublado) music would perhaps better be translated as cloudy music, rather than cloud music.
[7] TTL’s closest equivalent to Prohibition-era speakeasies, where music and dancing were the pretext for alcohol.
[8] Nubado music does not have a close historical analogue, but can best be imagined as the fusion of 1920s-era blues with early twentieth-century Latin American music, particularly Cuban styles such as guajira, son and changui.
Decades of Darkness #149a: Queen of Hearts
[1] Faith Griffin (b. 16 February 1889) is the daughter of Hugh Griffin, Jr and Margaret Griffin, née Parkes. Hugh Jr is the son of America’s 13th President (see post #68), and who has accomplished very little other than being born with a famous name. Margaret is a daughter of an influential Ohio industrial family, and noted Columbian socialite.
[2] By which Hugh Griffin meant that she might turn out to be the one other family member who inherited both his brains and his charisma. Of Hugh’s two sons, Hugh Griffin, Jr. had inherited his looks and charm, but not his intellect, while Harvey Griffin had acquired something of his father’s brains, but none of his earthy charm.
Decades of Darkness #149b: Dream The Day Away
[1] There has been a retcon to post #149a. The United States did not grant female suffrage in 1915, as for a variety of reasons I’ve become convinced that this was too early.
[2] Large portions of this section are based on a historical book of the same name, written by Carrie Chapman Catt and Nettie Rogers Shuler and published in 1926.
[3] This is because Louisiana and Coahuila are community property jurisdictions (which they inherited from French and Spanish civil law, respectively), and thus as joint owners planter’s wives meet the property qualifications. Kansas has common-law property rights. As such, while women can keep their own property on marriage, and can inherit their husband’s assets, only their own property counts toward the property qualification as long as they are married.
[4] Rowling University, in East Knoxville, Tennessee. Founded in 1862, it is one of the premiere educational institutions in the United States, largely due to its proximity to lots of wealthy statesmen looking to make philanthropic contributions and/or vote-winning gestures.
[5] From Spanish zanja, meaning roughly “hole” or “ditch”.
Decades of Darkness #149c: Sowing the Seeds
[1] The Bautistas’ children are Ramon Ignacio, born 6 February 1914, and the twins Patricia Teodora and Nathaniel Jackson, born 19 March 1915.
[2] The C&G 50 is the Carlton & Gordon weighted average of the top fifty companies on the New Orleans Stock Exchange, the *USA’s largest stock exchange.
[3] In previous posts, I’d used the date of 14 March, due to a misreading of the calendar. (14 March is a Sunday). Thus a small retcon is in order.
[4] Unlike OTL’s Great Depression, the economic crisis of TTL’s 1920s is much sharper in its onset. The relatively higher use of credit meant that a banking crisis started in the same year, with earlier and more frequent foreclosures and repossessions when compared to OTL.
[5] As in OTL, the various state legislatures usually hold their elections on the same day as federal election, but some states time their elections for the odd-numbered year instead.
[6] Having the convention meet in Washington’s then-notorious summer climate might well have been Congress’s not-so-subtle method of keeping the convention as short as possible.
[7] i.e. they’ll have twice the voting power due to having women cast votes.
Decades of Darkness #150: History Repeating
[1] The Mornington Crisis is named for Sergeant Harold Mornington, the most senior *American soldier killed in an exchange of fire with German soldiers in December 1910, almost precipitating a war between those nations. See posts #141a-c.
[2] The home of the New Orleans financial district, and whose stock market is a major item of interest to *Americans during the 1910s.
[3] Esperanza, Sonora is located approximately at OTL Los Mochis, Sinaloa. Founded in 1866 as a new city and port at one end of the South-Central Pacific Railroad (New Orleans to Esperanza – the other main spur of the railroad connected to San Francisco), Esperanza is a major agricultural and tourist centre, as well as the site of Fernan Cortes University.
[4] Association football (soccer) exists in TTL similar to its OTL form, and the same abbreviated name (soccer) is used in a few countries, principally the United States and Australia, to distinguish it from other forms of football played in those nations.
[5] i.e. San Jose, North California. This is the second-largest city in that state, behind San Francisco.
[6] Goldenrods are older steam-powered horsts mostly built in New England, while Coyotes and M-7s are American-built; the M-7 is TTL’s closest equivalent to the Model-T Ford, while the Coyotes are similar in design to OTL Bugatti racing models. The North American horst industry has two main centres of production: the *Rust Belt and *Birmingham. New England-built horsts are mostly constructed in Michigan and Hudson (primarily Detroit and Buffalo), with a few companies in nearby Ontario. The centre of the *American steel industry is in Pulaski [Birmingham, Alabama], and the majority of horsts are built here with a combination of slave and free labour. A smaller horst industry is also beginning to develop in Puerto Veracruz.
[7] A surprising number of children born in late 1907 and early 1908 have the name Lewis.
[8] The Coyote Mark IV is very similar to the Bugatti Type 35.
[9] The Costello is a former hotel now occupied by Esperanza’s local stock exchange.
[10] For those not familiar with Australian football, the scoring is as follows: A goal (kicked between the inner posts) is worth six points, a behind (achieved several ways) is worth one point. The score is reported as number of goals/number of behinds/total points. For example, the score of 16.17.113 means 16 goals and 17 behinds, for a total of 113 points.
[11] Faulkner is OTL Anchorage, Alaska. It was constructed as a planned city starting in 1911, and named for the *American Secretary of State who negotiated the acquisition of Alaska at the end of the North American War.
[12] Properly, the Puerto Veracruz Conquistadors, but many journalists and even a few commentators forget that.
Decades of Darkness #151a: Architect of Dreams
[1] In the geographical sense only; neither Germany nor Italy could be said to exist as united nations during the late 1830s.
[2] Due to its location on the U.S.-New England border, Philadelphia saw a delayed boom. Where in OTL it went from roughly 120,000 inhabitants in 1850 to 560,000 inhabitants by 1860, *Philadelphia took longer to boom. It began to receive more immigrants from the mid-1860s, when *American relations with New England had normalised. However, it is still considerably smaller in comparison to its OTL population. Philadelphia is at the northern end of an industrial belt rather than being in the centre of one. Its primary advantage is as a convenient rail hub for cross-border trade with New England.
[3] TTL’s Philadelphia City Hall is overall smaller than OTL’s equivalent (which is built in a Second Empire style), although its central monument is slightly taller and lacks a statue of William Penn. The Egyptian Revival style it’s built in is uncommon in the OTL USA, but a few examples of it do exist, such as the Egyptian Building in Virginia Commonwealth University:
[4] Washington College is OTL’s Washington and Lee University, in Lexington, Virginia. It has one of the most selective law schools in the *USA.
[5] Office of Knowledge Management. The *USA’s first formal intelligence agency, and precursor to its modern Federal Intelligence Agency.
[6] i.e. universal for citizens. Bird, like most *Americans, cares nothing for education of the indentured population.
[7] i.e. Pennsylvania, Westylvania and Ohio, the former “Free Trio” and the most New England-like states in the *USA.
[8] Of course, it could also be argued that Pennsylvania, Westylvania and Ohio had copied the model from New England, but that would have made the system of public education a much harder sell in the *USA.
[9] Northern states means Nebraska, Iowa and Wilkinson, and sometimes Indiana and Illinois as well. The Rocky Mountain states include Idaho, Wyoming, Deseret, Colorado and Aururia, and are sometimes considered to include West Texas as well, even though that state has considerable non-mountainous territory.
[10] The Eastern states refers roughly to OTL’s Old South plus Florida, i.e. the ATL states of Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia and Jackson. The Midwest is an amorphous term which includes most of the rest of the OTL Southern states and border states, plus some parts of northern Mexico. In the sense in which Bird uses it, he means the ATL states of Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, East and West Florida, Missouri, Kansas, Washington, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, East Texas, Jefferson, and Coahuila.
[11] Due to the quirk of receiving a large proportion of the German immigrants who made it to the *USA, Iowa has had a much earlier and stronger focus on education than most of the rest of the country. Its state system of schools is modelled on the German system of gymnasium and vocational schools rather than general primary and high schools, with the clear aim of preparing some students for a university education. It has a number of institutions of higher education to support this, most notably Clay University (founded by members of the Clay family after they left Kentucky) in Grant [Davenport, Iowa] and Crawford University in Des Moines. Iowa’s universities have a strong enough reputation that they attract students both from surrounding states and even a few from Canada.
[12] Trinity University, like the predecessors to OTL’s Duke University, was founded by Methodists and thus acquired a similar name, but apart from the name it has little in common with the OTL institution.
[13] The U.S. college system which Bird describes has as its main focus helping people to fit into upper-class society. In effect, they’re used as “finishing schools” for the elite and the children of the upper middle class who want to join the elite. They turn out some excellent lawyers, doctors, and the like, a lot of good sportsmen, and a reasonable number of technical professionals, engineers and the like. But they have very little in the way of pure research.
[14] Unlike in OTL, the *USA’s universities never saw an equivalent of the “gentleman’s agreement” or quota system to reduce the proportion of Jewish students.
[15] The American Education Association, as its name suggests, is a special interest group founded to promote better funding for all forms of education, and engages a number of lobbyists to help it pursue its goals.
Decades of Darkness #151b: Better Off Alone
[1] Examination is concerned with investigating any given area of industrial conduct, as directed by the President or Congress. It usually targets specific industries or companies, and had been moribund since Mahan left office. Economics & Statistics had a smaller but ongoing role in gathering relevant commercial data and providing advice to Congress when considering legislation.
[2] In other words, they had a spoils system, which can be traced back to Thomas Jefferson.
[3] Similar to several other areas of his memoirs, Bird has a habit of glossing over details and exaggerating his own importance. In this case, he has omitted the fact that the United States went off the gold standard during the North American War. It rejoined the gold standard in 1910, after the gold mined in the Klondike gold rush allowed it to rebuild its gold reserves and rejoin the gold standard, albeit at a lower rate of exchange.
[4] i.e. leased or rented slaves & peons were more frequently badly-treated.
[5] In OTL, Charles Donagh Maginnis helped to establish a style of Gothic Revival (Collegiate Gothic) in many American university campuses. ITTL, Bird’s heritage and inspiration means that most of the new American universities use neo-classical styles (Romanesque, Doric Greek or Egyptian) instead.
Decades of Darkness #152: Shards of Gold
[1] This amendment has been retconned from the version used in post #149c. The Vice-President is now elected on the same ticket as the President, and Congress has the power to set uniform electoral laws, to limit (although probably not eliminate) how many times the dead can vote.
[2] Standards management and flexible inventory control are equivalent to OTL’s quality management and just-in-time inventory control methods, respectively.
Decades of Darkness #153b: Fox on the Hudson
[1] The Liberians have invented an equivalent of the Christie suspension system, first used in 1928 in OTL, and which allowed vastly improved cross-country performance.
Decades of Darkness #153c: Book of Secrets
[1] Reasons which amount to not wanting the stigma of being the first bankrupt President of the United States. Not that Bellamy would ever admit this to anyone, let alone a Yankee.
[2] The New England Constitution, which derived from the early U.S. Constitution, still has the provisions of Article 2, Section 1, Clause 6. This authorises Congress to provide for presidential succession if the president dies or is unable to discharge their duty... but contains no provision for replacing a Vice-President while the President is still functioning. The New England line of presidential succession also follows the 1792 Presidential Succession Act, where the President pro tempore of the Senate follows the Vice-President in the order of succession.
Decades of Darkness #153d: A Winter Garden
[1] Credit goes to Noel Maurer and Franklin Delano Roosevelt for their assistance with some of the parts of this speech.
[2] The Treaty of Washington did not specify a maximum limit on the size of the New England Army, but required that it be “no larger than necessary to maintain internal security,” and it specifically forbade the use of conscription.
[3] The New England Constitution, like that of the U.S. Constitution it is based on, has prohibitions against Senators and Representatives filling any civil office under the United States. Mullins argues that this prohibition applies to Cabinet Secretaries and the like, but that it does not apply to the presidency, which is also an elected office.
Decades of Darkness #154: The Weight of the World
[1] Germany and France have increased agricultural tariffs since the late nineteenth century, Britain (for different reasons) has encouraged local grain production.
[2] TTL’s Italian Fascists could best be described as nationalist corporatists, and are effectively the party of the urban middle and upper classes. While they are firmly anti-liberal, they don’t have any particular preference for street armies or totalitarianism.
[3] TTL’s British Liberal party is not much like its OTL version. The “New Liberal” of OTL’s nineteenth century did not take hold, nor was there any equivalent of Gladstone’s advocacy of Home Rule in Ireland. Instead, the Liberals evolved into the party of low taxation, government non-interference and free trade (although that last position is partly changing due to the effects of the North American War). The Tories became more the party of government intervention and protectionism, and have been experiencing difficulties competing with the rising Labour Party.
[4] Germany has not deliberately set out for any sort of naval arms race, but when Britain’s fleet was greatly weakened during the North American War, Germany emerged as the single largest naval power, and it has maintained its lead.
[5] Conflicting interest in Poland, Courland and the Balkans, in the case of Germany, and conflicting interest in Turkey, Persia, Afghanistan and China, in the case of Britain.
Decades of Darkness #156: Matters of Orient-ation
[1] From the British point of view, Portugal’s actions in making an alliance with the United States, and backing the royalist forces in the Brazilian civil war, were themselves unfriendly acts.
[2] Werner Schweitzer, an Alsatian with a considerable personal financial empire along with a private army consisting of mostly Thai and Vietnamese mercenaries, can best be considered as a German equivalent of Cecil Rhodes.
[3] The Qing Dynasty is Russian-backed and rules most of those parts of OTL China which are part of the Russian sphere of influence (although most of Manchuria and Inner Mongolia are under direct Russian rule).
Decades of Darkness #157: Here Come The Drums
[1] Grillparzer was an early writer of *science fiction, who had a rather pessimistic view of the future. See post #94a.
[2] The Reichsverein is the name for the combined parliament/association of the various states within Germany’s sphere of influence: Germany itself, Poland, Hungary, Croatia and Courland. The Reichsverein coordinates decisions of combined foreign policy, defence, currency, and tariffs. Decisions are usually sought as unanimous, but majority decisions have been accepted in the past. Representation is proportional to population, and Germany alone can force a majority decision if it wishes.
[3] Germany experienced what was overall a mild recession in 1920-22, mostly due to the raising of international trade barriers. This affected some parts of the Verein more than others, with falling wages and higher unemployment affecting much of Hungary and Croatia, and parts of OTL Austria and Poland.
[4] This was after New England had just seen hyperinflation, and the value of the American dollar and British pound sterling had both suffered as well.
[5] Unlike, say, the pre-WW1 Anglo-German naval race. The OTL German High Seas Fleet lacked the range to have any credible use except as a threat to the Royal Navy. TTL’s Krijgmarine has considerably greater range and does not have the same emphasis on capital ships above all else. However, its sheer size is still a threat, and makes impossible any British aim of building a bigger navy than the next two naval powers.
[6] This was quite arguable, even if including the British Empire as part of Britain, which Chou is doing here.
[7] Sophie is the daughter of King Richard IV of the United Kingdom, while Grand Duke Nicolai is the brother of Tsar Alexander II. See post #125.
[8] Named for the captain of the Dutch/German fleet which forced Nippon to end its isolation. See post #52.
Decades of Darkness #158a: The Path of Shadows
[1] Lebedev is thinking of the three volcanic eruptions of Mount Pelée in Martinique, Santamaría in Guatemala, and Soufrière in St Vincent, all of which erupted in 1902 and which between them cost over 36,000 lives. His memory is, however, more fallible than he realises – St Vincent did not fall under *American rule until 1906.
[2] Any similarities to the resignation speech of Richard M. Nixon are purely coincidental.
[3] In the *U.S. Navy, the rank of Rear Admiral is actually a two-star rank. The position of first-star admiral is given the rank of Commodore Admiral, usually just called Commodore.
Decades of Darkness #159: Diamonds in the Dark
[1] i.e. José Ramon Juarez, a Mexican guerrilla general during the Third Mexican War. See posts #79a and b, and #83.
[2] Liberian accents, and particularly Wilkinston ones, have more distinct emphasis on pronouncing separate syllables. Even unstressed syllables tend to be pronounced clearly. Stress almost invariably falls on the penultimate syllable in a word.
[3] Awari is part of the mancala family of games, known by a variety of names, e.g. Oware, Ayo, and Warri. It probably originated in West Africa in OTL. ITTL, Liberia has adopted it as something close to their national game, largely because it is a distinctly African game.
Decades of Darkness #160: West of Suez
[1] The Grisham Enigma is roughly equivalent to a Hawker Hurricane Mk I.
[2] The Vickers Thunderer is slightly inferior to an OTL Vickers Wellington twin-engine bomber, although intended more as a daylight bomber.
Decades of Darkness #161: Who Will You Run To?
[1] These were actually German sailors and marines, in a couple of German naval bases along the coast.
Decades of Darkness #162a: Spark To A Flame

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