Decades of Darkness Footnotes

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[5] Thomas Dombeck’s nickname “Dynamite” is a shortening of “Dynamite Happy”. He earned the name during his days working in the mines of Calumet, Wisconsin and the subsequent strike. At the time he was known as a temperamental youth who was quick to anger when his family or friends were insulted. He had also been known among his friends for laughing and saying that the easiest way to get the bosses to recognize the union would be to “dynamite ‘em!” He was, in fact, joking; and managed to avoid the worst of the fighting during the strike, but the name stuck. After several years of working as a union organizer and then being elected to the provincial Parliament, Tom began to take pride in the nickname, which he thought had character. It was, after all, much better than his previous nickname gained due to his hurling injury; “Ol’ Limpy”.
[6] The emergency dissolution of Parliament applied to all provincial parliaments (with some leeway on the dates for election), not just the national parliament.
[7] The Upper Peninsula was settled by the same sorts of people who settled it in OTL and as such the accent is nearly identical. Similarly, the nickname “Yooper” has come to denote someone from that region. The accent itself is largely English imposed over a Scandinavian and German mode of speech. For example, if written in the dialect the quote would have read:
“Oh ja! I got it all in. Gard rotation skedules at da armry, a list uh every shipment ‘spected in for da next tree munths. A list uh staff and der addresses. Da whole kittenkaboodle.”
Naturally this is a lot of fun to speak, but a hell of a time to write; thereby, expect that any future posts taking place in the Upper Peninsula spoken in this accent (Tom and Matt Dombeck both speak it as well, although less heavily). Holy Wah!
[8] Yes, this means England, not Britain.
Decades of Darkness #134c: “A Picture From Life’s Other Side”
[1] i.e. the Canadian Party (informally called the Jacobites).
[2] One suspects that if the Dombecks had campaigned on a platform of annexation by the United States, though, that there would be shotguns rather than the stars and stripes.
[3] The national seat of Escanaba corresponds roughly to the western half of the Upper Peninsula.
Decades of Darkness #135: Playing With The Boys
[1] This racing ground has been built on new land gained by draining the large swamps which had covered most of that area until quite recently.
[2] To be more precise, built by Louis Chevrolet and a team of skilled mechanics from the heights of the Jura Mountains, including several from his own home town of La Chaux-de-Fonds.
[3] ‘Oelhochdruckmotoren’ means oil-high-pressure-engines, or OHDM for short. This is the ATL German name for diesel engines.
[4] ITTL, this quote does not come from a Russian politician, although Fischer wasn’t quite sure where he had heard it from before. (It’s been variously attributed to Edward Mahan, Otto von Bismarck, and Benjamin Disraeli).
[5] A driver, a navigator, a gunner, a commander, a mechanic and a loader.
[6] Prototypes built the old-fashioned way in Biel, which had each cost much more than the 800 Talers for the new production models.
Decades of Darkness #136a: Reasons Of State
[1] The President’s Annual Message to Congress (sometimes called the State of the Republic Address) is New England’s equivalent to the State of the Union Address. It is traditionally delivered on the second Tuesday in February, although there is no constitutional provision for this. (New England Presidents are inaugurated on the last Tuesday of January, after the passage of the Third Amendment; 26 January 1909, for the inauguration of Lemuel Tweedie.)
[2] In New England, the President’s Annual Message is not actually given by the President in person, but forms a written address which a clerk reads to a joint sitting of both Houses of Congress. Ironically, this practice was one instituted by one of New England’s most loathed figures, U.S. President Thomas Jefferson, and for the first two-thirds of the nineteenth century, the Annual Message was also read by a clerk to the U.S. Congress. U.S. President Hugh Griffin reinstated the practice of delivering the address in person in 1870, and was also the one responsible for calling it the State of the Union Address.
[3] In other words, anyone suspected of war profiteering is in big, big trouble. Especially since most of those businessmen (and a couple of businesswomen) had firm connections to the Federalists, not Tweedie’s own Radical Party.
[4] Partly anti-rioting laws and the like, but mostly the introduction of an equivalent to the FBI to act against crime at a federal level.
[5] Lemuel Tweedie’s address is based in part on Franklin Roosevelt’s 1934 State of the Union Address, largely because there are certain similarities between post-war New England and OTL 1930s America (and also because I couldn’t find any examples of Tweedie’s own speeches [9]).
[6] Shortly after the North American War, the New England Army Sky Corps was re-established as an independent body, the Sky Force. Unlike many areas of military technology, New England has no treaty restrictions on the building of heavier-than-air craft.
[7] Harrow football is closest to OTL rugby or rugby league. New England also has some association football (soccer).
[8] i.e. with the naval losses on both sides in the North American War, the Krijgmarine (German Navy) is now the single largest in the world.
[9] Lemuel Tweedie is a historical character, who in OTL became lieutenant governor of New Brunswick. For more information about him, see:
Decades of Darkness #136b: Conventions Of State
[1] President Alfonso is head of the Venezeulan government-in-exile in Australia. In theory, Australia should be bound by the Treaty of Washington, which forbade such an action, but the Australian government has ignored this. In effect, they’re saying that they control their own foreign policy in all particulars, despite the protocol that Kingdoms within the British Empire have their foreign policy controlled from London.
[2] The decade of 1900-1909 in OTL saw over eight million migrants to the United States from Europe. ITTL, while the pool of potential migrants has been reduced due to greater economic opportunities in Europe, there’s still somewhere around seven million potential migrants looking for opportunities. Immigration to the United States was declining even before the North American War, and Canada and New England are no longer attractive destinations. With Brazil in civil war, this leaves the main target for migrants as the Southern Hemisphere nations of Australia, South Africa and Argentina, and they are receiving a large portion of the migration which in OTL went to the United States (and a bit of that which went to Canada, too).
[3] Britain signed on behalf of the Empire (as it still represented those nations in terms of foreign policy and defence), except that Australia chose to be represented and to sign on its own behalf.
[4] The United States actually included this reservation (and another on non-interference in the affairs of other states) to the OTL Hague Convention as well. It’s just that the ‘traditional attitudes’ are slightly different ATL.
Decades of Darkness #137b: The Start of Wars: The Reich Strikes Back
[1] A reference to the Confederation of the Equator, which both in OTL and ATL attempted to form an independent nation out of Brazil’s north-eastern provinces in 1824.
[2] Which, of course, a lot of them were, but there was plenty of Imperial support from non-slaveholders, too. Some from loyalty to the Empress, but more from distrust of any government in Rio de Janeiro.
[3] Gomes was a Brazilian hero of the War of the Quadruple Alliance (See posts #88 and #89.) Although he only led one division during the North American War, he was Brazil’s most senior and most respected soldier in that fight.
[4] Loosely translated, the Outlander Sky Volunteers.
[5] In pre-NAW Germany, various German aristocrats established flying clubs, the most famous and exclusive of which was the Luftritter, the Sky Knights. They continue to dominate the slowly developing German flight industry post-war, leaving men like Hans believing that they will find better opportunities elsewhere. Thanks also go to Scarecrow for suggesting the idea of the Luftritter.
[6] In fact, the main duty of the volunteer Republican sky force in 1907 is reconnaissance and occasional strafing and bombing, rather than the enemy skycraft which he hopes to find, since they Monarchists don’t really have many enemy skycraft to fight yet. But that doesn’t stop Hans hoping to find one.
[7] Marshal Gomes fought with “Monty” in the North American War (of First Sword Army fame), and some of his attitudes seem to have rubbed off.
[8] Portugal is still a monarchy under the Braganca dynasty, and thus its government feels honour-bound to support Brazil (to say nothing of the favourable trade terms they’d received from Imperial Brazil).
[9] This is less generous in military aid than it might seem, since the cloud-ships in question were obsolete and being replaced by newer, helium-filled models, and the battleships were obsolete pre-Vanguards which were sold for only a little above the price they would have received as scrap metal.
[10] DOK stands for “Deutsche Observations Kraft”, i.e. the German Observation Force. Thanks also go to Andrew Donelson for suggesting some of the activities of the German Observation Force.
Decades of Darkness #137c: The Start of Wars: The Return of the JD-Is
[1] Like most *German authors, Professor Miksa Fenyő regards Europe as ending at the Russian border.
[2] The Amistad is a mutual defensive pact between Argentina, Charcas [Bolivia], Paraguay and Peru.
[3] i.e. during the *Boer War.
[4] In German, Der Vater.
[5] The United States didn’t build any meaningful numbers of *tanks during the North American War, and the few rushed models were built too late to be deployed in combat.
[6] The JD-Is are closest to OTL’s British Medium Mark C Hornet. The U.S. General Mahans are similar to a steam-powered, heavier version of the French Renault FT-17.
[7] Even though the Germans were officially disapproving of the actions of their *tanks, they were hardly likely to stay quiet about something like this.
Decades of Darkness #138a: Call of the Kulullu
[1] The names which Philips uses have a vague similarity to those of H.P. Lovecraft. L.H. Philips’ father is an ATL brother of H.P. Lovecraft’s mother, Sarah Susan Phillips Lovecraft, and L.H. Philips himself has had a similar background. Thus many of the names are similar (Kulullu, Yog-Silloth, Arkham House, etc), although often with different meanings.
[2] TTL’s Transcendentalism comes from a cultural and artistic movement to “transcend mundane reality in pursuit of higher thought.” It has nothing to do with OTL’s Transcendental movement of the mid-nineteenth century, and is closest to Surrealism. Synthesism (or synthetic realism) is an artistic style which involves a combination of smaller parts to create an abstract version of the complete whole, and is closest to OTL’s cubism, particularly the later synthetic cubism. Dynamism as an artistic and political movement (most prominent in Germany) which emphasises new developments in technology, and seeks to cast aside the old world. Dynamism is closest to OTL’s futurism.
[3] Carl Jung is similar to OTL’s version in some forms, in that he encourages analysis of the unconscious, particularly the collective unconscious, and the integration of the study of dreams and myth into psychology. However, he has some differences due to having no contact with Sigmund Freud. (He never met Albert von Moltke, TTL’s closest equivalent to Freud.)
[4] In OTL, Hans Richer offered similar sentiments about the Dada movement.
[5] As in OTL, Arkham House is a specialty publishing house, but is located in Boston rather than Sauk City.
[6] According to Lewis’s more lurid accounts, anyway. It is more widely believed that he simply never told his mother about the war (she never read the newspapers, and was virtually a recluse from her neighbours), and simply left for work one morning and never came back.
[7] Yellow’s Notes are an ATL literature study guide, somewhat reminiscent of Cliff’s Notes in OTL.
[8] With apologies to Marcel Duchamp.
[9] The editor is exaggerating considerably; perhaps a third of the audience left Meeting during the interval. Given that this production was an experimental style even with Raven circles, such a “high turnover” was to be expected.
Decades of Darkness #138b: The March of Madness
[1] The names which Philips uses have a vague similarity to those of H.P. Lovecraft. L.H. Philips’ father is an ATL brother of H.P. Lovecraft’s mother, Sarah Susan Phillips Lovecraft, and L.H. Philips himself has had a similar background. Thus many of the names are similar (Kulullu, Yog-Silloth, Arkham House, etc), although often with different meanings.
[2] As in OTL, Arkham House is a specialty publishing house, but is located in Boston rather than Sauk City.
[3] Matthew Hammer fills a role in the Kulullu Mythos which as an analogue falls somewhere between Frank Belknap Long (when Matthew is at his best) and August Derleth (when Matthew is at his worst) and their work with OTL’s Cthulu Mythos.
[4] i.e. during the North American War.
[5] There’s something tragically inevitable of writers of speculative fiction in almost every timeline, who feel strangely compelled to write names with lots of a’po’strop’h’es.
[6] Named for Napoleon V, who is famous for his busy moustache with its upturned ends. In OTL, it would be called a Kaiser Bill moustache.
[7] By socialists and do-gooders and do-nothings, he means both of the major parties, since the Radicals are variously called socialists and do-gooders, and the Federalists are denounced for doing nothing.
[8] Yellow’s Notes are an ATL literature study guide, somewhat reminiscent of Cliff’s Notes in OTL.
[9] TTL’s Transcendentalism has nothing to do with OTL’s Transcendental movement of the mid-nineteenth century, and is closest to Surrealism.
[10] Synthesism (or synthetic realism) is closest to OTL’s cubism, particularly the later synthetic cubism.
[11] TTL’s Prontoism has some similarities to OTL’s Nowism, but also has a few distinct differences. Its development ITTL is partly from Nyssa Colquhoun and also by Shawn Passmore himself. The name comes from an instance of one of the many Spanish loan words incorporated into *American English, some of which have been adopted in New England as well.
[12] As a movement, Dynamism is closest to OTL’s futurism.
[13] OTL’s equivalent of this quote was written by Umberto Boccioni.
[14] At this point, Pluto had not been discovered even in our history; it took until 1930 and was a lucky find even then.
[15] This is a modified version of an OTL quote found at
[16] As seen in part #138a, Woods takes rather a positive outlook on Philips’ life. As such, Matthew Hammer’s eulogy is closer to the truth of Philips’ life, although he has his own biases.
Decades of Darkness #139: Riders On The Storm
[1] Consolidating Fruit Holdings (CFH) was formed in 1889 from a merger of the Gordon & Associates Banana Company (founded by Julia Gordon, as she then was, in 1873) and the Baltimore Fruit Company. Harry and Julia Walker are the largest shareholders in CFH, which has fruit-growing interests in American states from Chiapas to Nicaragua, and in Puerto Rico and other parts of the Caribbean.
[2] B. Scott Harrison invented the Harrison Process, TTL’s equivalent of the Hall-Héroult Process which allows much cheaper aluminium production than previous methods.
[3] Frédéric Chopin was still born ITTL – he was born in late February or early March 1810, depending on which source you consult – but he managed to avoid the chronic lung infections which plagued him in OTL. His career was thus longer and more productive.
[4] See post #75.
[5] The author of this book did not mention the reason why John Calhoun was near the Abraham Lincoln; this would not be revealed until the memoirs of Admiral Admiral Henry Clarin Vargas were published after the Great War. “It was a fortunate accident for New England, though not for France,” Vargas said. The rescue of over one thousand people by vessels of former enemies had a temporary boost to relations between New England and the United States.
[6] OTL’s Humboldt University of Berlin.
[7] Martin Sigereff’s equations are the same as OTL’s Hertz’s equations for reformulating Maxwell’s equations into the wave equations. TTL has in general seen a slower development of radio, due to the non-existence of James Clerk Maxwell. The theoretical underpinnings of electromagnetism took about a decade longer to work out without Maxwell around, with the *Maxwell equations being formulated in the early 1880s rather than 1873. The *Michelson-Morley experiment (which demonstrated that the luminiferous aether didn’t exist) was conducted in 1901, not 1887. While there were quite a few people ITTL who noticed some of the effects of ‘wireless’ technology before the Francona brothers, these effects were difficult to control until Sigereff’s equations.
Decades of Darkness Interlude #6: Destination Unknown
[1] Hobson University is located in Eden, Australia [Auckland, New Zealand].
[2] Shick, a borrowing from Neudeutsch ‘Schick’ (elegance, fitness, style) is used roughly as OTL English ‘chic.’
[3] Rich., i.e. University of Richmond [Brisbane].
[4] KEU, i.e. King Edward University, Retief [Pretoria, South Africa].
[5] Kings., i.e. Kingsland University, Hampshire [Southport, Queensland].
[6] KCSA: Knight Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of Australia, the oldest purely Australian order of knighthood, created in 1850.
Decades of Darkness #141a: To The Brink
[1] Although there has been less German emigration to the United States when compared to OTL, it has still been a notable amount.
[2] These are the territories which the *United States has divided *Colombia and Venezuela into, although as Diane Grant notes, their control is not exactly firm. Panama Territory is more or less OTL Panama, and Quito is approximately Ecuador. OTL Colombia is divided into Antioquía (Antioquía, Córdoba, Sucre, Bolívar, Magdalena, Cesar, La Guajira, both Santanders, Boyacá, Arauca, and Casanare), Amazonia (Putumayo, Caquetá, Meta, Guaviare, Vichada, Guainía, Vaupés and Amazonas), and Buenaventura (Nariño, Cauca, Valle del Cauca, Chocó, Cundinamarca and all the small departments around it, Huila, Tolima, and the D.F.). OTL Venezuela is divided into Orinoco (Amazonas, Bolívar, Delta Amacuro, Nueva Esparta, Sucre, Monagas, and Anzoátegui), Caracas (Vargas, Miranda, Guárico, Cojedes, Yaracuy, Portuguesa, Barinas, Apure, and Caracas itself), and Maracaibo (Falcón, Lara, Trujillo, Mérida, Táchira, and Zulia).
Decades of Darkness #141b: Move In Time
[1] Lewis Tompkins is not named after Lewis Mitchell – he is, after all, rather too old for that – but like Mitchell himself, was named after Lewis Cass, another of America’s most popular presidents.
[2] Clement Clarke Moore, who was born pre-PoD, has still written his celebrated poem “The Night Before Christmas” ITTL. Although none of the reindeer are named Cupid.
[3] Germans ITTL are still often called “Dutchmen” in the United States. Of course, some of those Germans really are Dutch, too.
[4] Effectively, Hampton is the Minority Leader of the Senate, although this position does not formally exist. Dalton is an influential Unionist Senator, but not quite the equivalent of the Majority Leader.
[5] TTL’s Senate doesn’t call delaying tactics filibusters, but the effect is the same.
[6] A figure which included three abstentions.
Decades of Darkness #141c: Listen To Your Heart
[1] i.e. Prince Pedro, Empress Maria’s elder son, and nominal commander of the southern Royalist forces.
Decades of Darkness #142: In the Shadow of the Mountain
[1] Or, at least, to descend while climbing. At any age, the boy would have equal ability to descend quickly by falling.
Decades of Darkness #143: This Land Is Mine
[1] The USA’s allies in 1912 consisting of the Nephi Free State and, much less reliably, Portugal.
[2] i.e. Napoleon I and Napoleon IV. Napoleon III tends to be forgotten outside of France, particularly in comparison to his uncle and his son.
[3] Segovia’s misunderstanding of the “death of a thousand cuts” is common amongst non-Chinese peoples of the period in both TTL and OTL, but it bears little relationship to the actual Chinese practice of “ling che”.
[4] 25 April 1884 is the date when Brazil declared war on Uruguay at the start of the War of the Quadruple Alliance.
[5] Eunuco is Spanish for eunuch.
Decades of Darkness #144: The Darkening Menace
[1] Around this time, the Southern Netherlands [Belgium] were trying to win their independence from the Dutch crown. This kept the Dutch more focused there rather than trying to settle the long-disputed regions around Timor.
[2] The role of Vice-King of Goa involved a much larger area of responsibility than just Goa itself; as Vice-King of Goa, Saldanha was responsible for Portuguese possessions stretching from Africa to Timor and China.
[3] Vatuas was the name that Portugal applied to all peoples that came from southern Africa around 1820 and moved into the lands between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers.
[4] A similar event happened in OTL.
[5] Which specialises mainly in tropical diseases.
[6] Morocco’s acquiescence to this conquest has more to do with the perceived threat of French expansionism. In 1896, the concern over French expansion meant that the King of Morocco accepted a titular overlordship from the King of Portugal. In practice, this means that Morocco largely is left to run itself, although the Portuguese tend to view it as more of a colony.
[7] While the standard in TTL’s English is to refer to OTL Hawaii as the Sandwich Islands, the Portuguese (and some others) refer to it by the locals chosen name of Hawaii.
Decades of Darkness #145: Roma Eterna America
[1] A suburb of Acapulco, and the main centre of the American film industry.
[2] The presence of a modern, expansionistic slaveholding power has given the *United States’ neighbors a less favorable view of historical expansionistic slaveholding empires.
[3] The *United States does not have the specific Hayes Codes of OTL. Their alternate rating system developed in the 1920s, and has four main grades: AAAS, All Ages and Sexes; 16AS, All Sexes Over 16; 16MO, Men Over 16; and MM, Mature Men Only. A film rated “MM” would be most shocking to an OTL 1950s audience, although it does not quite display exactly what the New England movie reviewer claims it does.
Decades of Darkness #146: The Years of Nice and Fault
[1] The salt beds beneath Detroit (which are just part of a large formation which spreads over Michigan, Ontario, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York and West Virginia) were not mined in OTL until 1896. ITTL, the different settlement patterns of Michigan (not so many people settled further west as early as in OTL) meant that the salt mines under Detroit were exploited earlier.
[2] Former presidents of New England are often politely referred to as President even after they have left office, although they have no formal right to keep the title.
[3] The Modern Baptists are one of a number of new denominations (and some new groups within existing dominations) which form in post-war New England. Their belief system is similar to some of the Modernist Christian movements of OTL, and includes a rejection of biblical literalism, a strong focus on the community, and some aspects of the Social Gospel movement of OTL (although not the temperance aspects).

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