“Fighting Chuck” Nowinski was the most successful Labour politician in Canada at the provincial level. As one of the founders of the Labour Party he carried them to electoral victory at the provincial level in 1892. Nowinski was a former lumberjack from northern Wisconsin and became active as a union organizer while still a teenager. While in his thirties he helped to transform the Wisconsin Republican Party into the first Labour Party in Canada’s history through a merger with union elements. Under Nowinski, Labour started to institute reforms in the province which attracted some praise even from politicians in New England and the United States, where William Shipstead called him “A guiding light in the northern darkness”. On 24 November 1898, Nowinski suffered a fatal heart attack while on the Parliament floor.
 Whatever other flaws it may have, Dearborn has an efficient public transportation system.
Decades of Darkness #122c: The Shotgun Sings The Song
 With apologies to both Kipling and Chumbawumba.
 As a constitutional monarch, George I’s actual power is rather limited, although he does retain an influence on the government of the day. As crown prince, he had been quite vocal in his support of Labour, although tradition and the exigencies of war meant that he had to temper his opinions when he took the throne.
 The Irish tri-colour looks almost identical to OTL’s one, except that the colours are reversed (i.e. orange on the left, green on the right, with white still in the centre). It was first developed by Irish nationalists before the formation of the Kingdom of Ireland, and has been adopted by many of the Irish émigrés to Wisconsin. Since the Friday Riot, it has become the symbol of many of the Republicans in heavily-Irish Wisconsin. Some Republicans in other provinces have also adopted various forms of tri-colours to indicate their allegiance, included a red-white-red flag in Ontario and a reversed French tri-colour in Quebec. The various provincial Republican parties are not yet united and have yet to find a national symbol.
 My apologies to W.B. Yeats who did not live in this ATL but whose work is too good not to quote.
Decades of Darkness #123: Holding Out For A Hero
 During the Second Napoleonic Wars, the United States was at war with Spain, but not with France (or Russia).
 In France, anyway.
 Or Monaco, Vatican City or San Marino, either.
 i.e. their great-great-uncle, Napoleon I.
Decades of Darkness #124: From This Moment On
 Okay, Finnish. “Russian” ITTL is one of those maddeningly ambiguous labels which can mean either a citizen of Russia (of any ethnicity) or an ethnic Russian.
 i.e. that of Andrew Jackson, who sought and won a third term as president in 1836, on the basis that he needed to do so to continue the war.
 Jesse Grant II, owner of the Columbia Messenger. His father appeared in posts #97 and #104b.
Decades of Darkness #125: A Question Of Orthodoxy
 15 January 1907 was actually New Year’s Day on the Russian calendar, which at the time still followed the Julian, not the Gregorian calendar.
 Historical note: in OTL, life in the Pale became a harsher institution post-1881, as part of the broader repression in Russian life which followed the assassination of Alexander II. During the period of 1881-1917, life for Jews in Russia became harder, with pogroms and the expulsion of some Jews who had been permitted to live beyond the Pale. Nearly 2 million Jews emigrated from the Pale post-1881. In ATL Russia, the gradual liberalisation of the 1860s and 1870s continues, and while there is still some mistreatment of Russian Jews, it is less harsh than in OTL. The total emigration of Jews from *Russia is only about half of what it was in OTL – most of them going to the United States and Germany.
 This is the motto of both the OTL and ATL Fennoman party, a movement within Finland dedicating to raising the awareness and status of the Finnish language to match that of Swedish.
 Russian democracy at this stage involves not direct election of candidates by the people, but the election of regional delegates who in turn elect the members of the Duma. In many cases, these regions are allocated along ethnic lines (the Grand Duchy of Finland has its own regional assembly, for example) but in some cases there is deliberate organisation of electoral regions to cut across ethnic lines.
 The Russian Socialist Party here is more or less analogous to the OTL Mensheviks, who advocate the development of a large group of political activists to pursue working-class reform. The Social Democrats are broadly similar in their interests, with the key difference being that they are more committed to working within the government, whereas the Russian Socialists broadly see the Duma as being a ‘temporary’ body until the revolution comes. In practice, the two groups work together, most of the time. Labour (the Trudoviks) are more directly concerned with urban industrial reform, particularly an 8-hour working day. The Socialist Revolutionaries are similar to what they were in OTL – favouring the interests of the rural poor and wide-scale confiscations of land – but without a terrorist wing.
 Constitutionalists are members of the middle and upper classes who are relatively liberal in their tendencies – but who oppose going too far too fast, and who are most definitely anti-communist in the sense of opposing the abolition of private property and the like. Progressives favour economic reform in the sense of encouraging the development of industry and policies which favour a commercial middle class (i.e. the abolition of political corruption). Decembrists focus on the implementation of the December Manifesto (see post #86).
Decades of Darkness #126a: Pacem Appellant
 *Alaska includes OTL’s Yukon Territory in Canada as well as Alaska itself.
Decades of Darkness #126c: Abyssus Abyssum Invocat
 i.e. King George III of Great Britain and Ireland.
 The Columbia Messenger is the best-selling, although perhaps not the best regarded, of Columbia’s newspapers.
 This is what allowed peons to be transported between territories and states in the first place.
 Andrew Vermillion is the closest thing the Patriots have to a Minority Leader in the Senate.
 Wade Hampton IV is in effect the Majority Leader of the Senate, but that position has not been established as a formal office yet.
 In the current version of the *American Citizenship Act, jus sanguinis (right of blood) is in theory the only way to get citizenship. By unwritten custom, white immigrants are given citizenship after a period of time which varies by state (anywhere between two to seven years, usually around five). So, in effect, Vermillion is proposing to abolish this custom.
 In this sense, Mitchell is talking in *American English, which includes considerable imports of Spanish vocabulary. He’s taking what was originally a slang term for Spanish-speaking whites – ‘blanco’ – and applying it to whites who are not citizens.
Decades of Darkness #126d: Aegrescit Medendo
 Camp Mañana (guards included) is a privatecamp and sisal plantation, not a government-run one.
 Granting immediate provisional citizenship, and complete citizenship after five years of residence in the United States.
 Except that there were a handful of female convicts who had themselves been captured in arms as rebels, and who were excluded from this pardon.
Decades of Darkness #127a: Land of Milk and Honey
 The OTL version of this quote is from Doctrines and Covenants (and is not what is said in 1 Nephi 3:3 in OTL’s Book of Mormon) and specifies Independence, Missouri as the place to go. ITTL, the Nephites were caught between being citizens of New England and wanting to go through the United States. With the greater confusion, the place where the Temple was to be built was left as being a vague place westward.
 Named after Edward VII, who was the child born instead of Queen Victoria. The Nephite majority on Vancouver Island wanted to rename the city. The U.S. commander, General John “Fighting Jack” Leggett was perfectly happy to rebrand a city which had been named for a British monarch, and thus Edwardsville was renamed Brigham.
 The Nephites, like OTL Mormons, don’t drink alcohol or coffee. This makes the independence celebrations more ‘civilized’ or more ‘boring’, depending on the perspective of the Vancouver Islander describing it.
 Blame the closeness of formerly Russian Alaska for this one. Veterans acquired the taste of it during the Canadian conquest of Alaska during the Turkish War. This particular brand is homebrewed by David Shaw of Campbell River.
 While there are considerably more than six Gentiles (i.e. non-Nephites) on Vancouver Island, it is tradition to say six.
 New in that it is untouched by American hands. Aulson regards the Canadians to have been merely looking after the land (i.e. British Columbia and Alaska) until Americans arrive to make proper use of it. This is a common viewpont for the generation who grew up during the North American War (Aulson is fifty-eight at the date of publication).
 Who also wrote a biography of John Brown (see post #33).
 McGill University in Montreal survived the POD. King’s University is located in Kingston and is the other premier national university.
 The Nephite community in Wisconsin has been much-reduced since the Wisconsin Revolt of 1866, but about twenty thousand of them remain. They have some theological differences from the “mainstream” Nephites in Vancouver Island; the Wisconsin community follows the teachings of Joseph Smith while the Vancouver community has adopted some additional teachings from Brigham Young.
 The formal name for the Nephites, although they commonly use the name Nephite even amongst themselves.
 Very much in that order.
 With apologies to Dr Everett.
Decades of Darkness #127b: The Land That Yet Remains
 Son of President Matthias Rigdon.
 Made a territory before the Third Exodus, Deseret ended up with a European name rather than a local Native American name because the *USA is somewhat less inclined to use those names if an alternative is available. The name for the territory remained even after many of the Nephites who had chosen the name migrated to Vancouver Island.
 Even before the North American War began, North America began to lose its attractiveness to immigrants because of the threat of war. After the war’s end, many of those migrants who in OTL went to North America here find other destinations, particularly Australia.
 The favourable mention of this publishing company in a book published by the same company is surely a complete coincidence.
 OTL Australians often have difficulty differentiating between Canadian and American accents. Due to the Spanish influence on *Americans, they have no such difficulty (except for a few Americans from the border states). New Englander and Canadian accents still pose a problem for them, though.
Decades of Darkness #128a: Stand By Me
 See post #79b for William Macarthur’s last appearance.
 Strictly speaking, wool wasn’t *Australia’s first great export, any more than it was in OTL. Whale oil was the largest early export. But descendants of the early Australian graziers like Macarthur tend to ignore that.
 John Marshall Harlan, in OTL a Supreme Court Justice, ITTL is a former Governor of Kentucky and as of 1884 holds the position of Secretary of Immigration. (This is a new Cabinet post specifically created by President Thomas Corbin to encourage more ‘appropriate white men to come to our beloved country’).
 ITTL, John Harlan as Minister of Immigration is following a policy of encouraging large numbers of ‘white’ people to find a new life in the United States, and more specifically in the northern states of Idaho, Wyoming, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas and Wilkinson (and, to a lesser degree, in parts of Iowa, New Mexico and West Texas as well). He is in some ways performing an equivalent role that Sir Clifford Sifton did in OTL Canada. In particular, Harlan has set up colonial offices throughout various European countries whose main role is to reassure would-be immigrants that they will under no circumstances be vulnerable to peonage. The largest source of immigrants comes from Russia , with smaller numbers coming from parts of the Habsburg dominions, particularly the Slavic inhabitants of Hungary and both (Slavic) Poles and Jews from what would become the Kingdom of Poland after the Second Napoleonic Wars. Many of the Jewish immigrants during this period actually opted to settle in American cities instead of the countryside, but Harlan’s actions were responsible for a large boost to the population of the American northern interior states during the 1880s and 1890s. The migration program declined considerably after Harlan’s retirement in 1901, and effectively ceased with the outbreak of the North American War.
 The immigration from Russia is in fact nearly zero during the Second Napoleonic Wars, but rebounded afterwards, since the United States did not actually fight Russia during that struggle.
 Camden is rich pastureland which was near Sydney at the time, but distinctly rural. (In modern Sydney, it has been more or less swallowed by suburban expansion).
 i.e. the Second Napoleonic Wars, in which Australia and the United States were both involved to varying degrees, and which had ended in August 1885.
 The American word hurricane has been hispanicized into hurracane, returning closer to the Spanish word huracán (from which it was originally borrowed into American English anyway).
 Cowpastures was the name of the original land grant to the Macarthur family in Australia (later renamed Camden).
 William Macarthur has been slightly misinformed. President Jefferson Davis referred to the entirety of Cuba as “the jewel of the Caribbean,” not just Habana itself.
Decades of Darkness #128b: The Colour Of Hope
 Ballington, Jackson [Miami, Florida] is one of the fastest-growing cities in TTL’s USA. The Ballington Herald is the most respected of its morning newspapers, although it is generally considered to have a pro-Democratic slant.
 What the man actually said was: “If Negroes are given no hope of freedom by any legal means, then whites must always be watchful of a day when they may try to gain it by force.” Things got a little garbled in the ensuing excitement.
 In OTL, American Methodism split along North-South lines in 1845 over the issue of slavery. A similar division has happened ATL between Methodists in New England and the United States, although there’s also a Free Methodist Church in some of the northern American states (principally Pennsylvania) which continues to view slavery as immoral.
 Harlan is referring here to President Hugh Griffin, who often expressed similar sentiments. Of course, Harlan is unaware of just how much money Macarthur brought with him to the United States, although Macarthur has also built on that capital.
Decades of Darkness #129: One Out Of Many
 "The Rise of the modern world" is Volume 4 of the series: "History for Upper High School," in use as standard textbooks for history classes in the Grand Duchy of Zurich and some other German states.
 Federal Assembly [Bundesversammlung] and Bundesrat were terms used under the old treaty of the German Confederation. Bundesrat then remained in use as a term for the upper house, representing the states. The lower house, representing the German people, is called the Bundestag. Both Houses together are called the Reichstag (similar to the use of Congress for House and Senate in the USA). This term is also used to refer to the German parliament in general, and to the building (in Frankfurt) where it meets.
 Under the revised treaty, the term used first remained Bundeskanzler, but to make it more clear that he is acting for the entire Reich, Bismarck changed it to Reichskanzler shortly after he took office.
 i.e. the system of Carl Andrae, an OTL figure who introduced a method of single transferable voting to Denmark in 1855, and which ITTL has been adopted in some German states.
 Under the German system, approval for internal legislation requires only the support of two of the three Kaisers, while external affairs require unanimous support.
 The official residence of the German Reichs Chancellor.
Decades of Darkness #130: The Days of the Jackals
 El Salvador “agreed” to American annexation in 1883, with the only other alternative being invasion.
 Juarez and Diaz were the presidents of Mexico during the Second and Third Mexican Wars, respectively.
 The Amistad is a military pact between most South American nations, except Brazil.
Decades of Darkness #131: Debts Of Honour
 The *British House of Lords does in fact have a slim majority of Conservative peers, but many of these are opposed to McGowan’s actions. There has also been no equivalent to the Parliament Act of 1911 yet either, and thus the House of Lords still has the power to reject, not merely delay government bills.
Decades of Darkness #132: Pillars Of Fire
 Henry Goddard is not the same as OTL’s Robert Goddard, but from the same family.
 ITTL Skeet targets are called clay birds, not clay pigeons.
 The early history of rockets could almost be called “There’s Something About William.”
 The Dunker Nozzle is equivalent to OTL’s De Lavel Nozzle. For more information, see:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustaf_de_Laval  The Morrell-Sewell skycraft is roughly equivalent to OTL’s Lippisch Ente, and is capable of reaching a maximum of 5000-8000 feet. See:
Decades of Darkness #133: After The Tide
 Federal House is the formal name for the residence of the New England President. Informally, it is most often called Pickering’s Cottage.
Decades of Darkness #134a: Danger Zone
 Following the grain embargo shock of 1905, Britain is not particularly interested in being reliant on any wheat imports, particularly from Canada, which is regarded as being too vulnerable.
 The Canadian economy is still quite unstable, and it took only a brief loss of confidence over poor business performance to bring about a stock market crash.
 The fact that these highways would also be helpful for military purposes was an unstated but clear secondary benefit for the bill.
 Due to the publicity that the Freedom Army has gathered, many people who are would otherwise not be inclined to join in have managed to enter the camp. These folk are of an undeniably radical nature and include hardcore Socialists, Republicans and Anarchists. Matt Dombeck here is downplaying the role of the Freedom Army itself in the rioting which occurred, instead blaming it on sympathizers.
 Figuratively, not literally.
 Quebec has a small but growing independence movement which started after the war, due in part to disaffected soldiers who feel that French-speaking units were unfairly committed to the deadliest offensives of the war in greater numbers than their English-speaking counterparts.
 Father Weizba (pronounced Vee-ish-ba)) is but the latest in a long line of Catholic priests who, historically, have become involved in radical thought and activity. Weizba was the priest of St. Ladislaus Parish in Four Lakes, Wisconsin; a moderately sized industrial city which has long been a hot bed of union and republican sympathies.
Following his assumption of the priesthood in Four Lakes, he quickly became an outspoken opponent of the moneyed interests in the city. Besides his duties as priest, he also marched with any union organizations and became their unofficial spokesman. This lead to his house being firebombed during the midst of a nasty paper mill strike in 1905. He survived, although having his left hand badly burned during the experience. After hearing of the Freedom Army, he became a vocal supporter of the inclusion of union elements in the ranks and lobbied Baker and the others for that cause.
With the outbreak of violence, he became the first person to hoist the Republican flag over the King James Library, the largest building which the Freedom Army then controlled. From that point onward he was a constant presence upon the front lines of the fighting; giving the last sacrament to those who lay dying of both sides, tending to the injured and also picking up a rifle himself on more than one occasion.
On 16 November, two days before the fighting ended, he was ambushed by several members of the Canadian militia while he was tending to a wounded man. Unarmed at the time, he was shot five times; three times in the chest and stomach and twice in his left leg. His final words were reportedly “I forgive you; you know not what you do.”
Following the conclusion of the fighting, Father Weizba became one of the most prominent martyrs for the Republican and Labour cause. Tom Dombeck knew exactly what he was doing when he chose Four Lakes to be the place of the first convention for the newly reformed Republican Party.
 While this may seem at first to be an odd choice for the name of a pro-monarchical party, the first Jacobites to adopt the name saw themselves as rebels against the chaos and liberalism of their day who were rallying around a true national hero.
 This is sung to the tune of “The Foggy Dew”. A much superior song to this little ditty.
Decades of Darkness #134b: You Say You Want a Revolution
 Hans Kohler was one of the more famous poets to emerge from Wisconsin during the first two decades of the twentieth century. He was one of the two most prominent poets (Janette T. Harrington being the other) most associated with the Anglo-Saxon revival which emerged in England  following the conclusion of the North American War and which is credited with sparking revival movements in traditional forms of poetry in many European nations. The style would become intensely linked with the nationalistic movements of the day. Kohler’s most famous work is the “Book of Green Bay”, a collection of poems written in the Old English style, which captured the passions of Wisconsin during that era. The two most noted poems in the collection were “The Saga of Thomas Dombeck”, written following Dombeck’s death, and “The Battle of Bloomington”, a long narrative poem which follows the life and deaths of several heroes during the course of that struggle.
 Born before the POD, and with Finland relatively unaffected by butterflies so early, Lonrot’s life followed a similar path to OTL, including his mission to collect the Runo songs of Finland and compile them into a coherent whole. The version quoted above is from the OTL translation by Eino Friberg.
 Due to the heavy Irish, Germanic and Slavic populations in Dearborn, it has developed a very distinctive accent. It can best be imagined as a mix of OTL’s Boston and Chicago accents.
 The heavily Irish population of *Wisconsin has seen hurling present in the province since the early days of settlement. It has developed into the unofficial sport of Wisconsin, popular amongst all nationalities, and its popularity has begun to spread throughout Canada and beyond the borders into New England and the northern USA as well. In 1905, a Wisconsin team played an exhibition match against the Gaelic League champions of the Kingdom of Ireland and won, increasing the prestige of the sport in Canada. Sadly, the North American War put an end to plans for a rematch, at least for now.