Day in Between:
Brady/Photography +Antietam Presentations!!!!
WHAT DO I ADD TO THIS ONE???/
End of the Civil War
Today we are going to conclude our examination of the Civil War.
The Democratic Party was still a viable political power in the north during the war copperheads were Democrats in the north who argued for a cease-fire. Copperheads wanted the war to be over and they wanted a peace settlement negotiated even if it resulted in an independent Confederacy. Lincoln opposed the copperheads and believed that the copperheads were dangerous to the union more effort. He believed that they were seditious, if not treasonous. He suspended habeas corpus, citing the section of the Constitution that said “the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.” In doing so, Lincoln established the principle he followed for the rest of the war. To save the union, he did not hesitate to suppress constitutional guarantees of free speech and the right to a speedy trial. Over the next few years thousands of copperheads were put in jail for lengthy periods of time without a trial. Many critics of Lincoln argued that he abused his power and suppressed free speech by shutting down opposition newspapers and arresting people who voice tested with the towards the union war effort or who voiced sympathy towards the Confederacy.
EXPLAIN WHAT HABEAS CORPUS IS!!!!!
1863 was a turning point to the war. Lincoln knew that no matter how many decrees he issued, restoring the union and abolishing slavery would not happen unless the Union army had victories on the field. The Confederates had begun to invade the north. They thought this might convince France or Britain to intervene. They were too big victories during July 1863. These include Pickett’s charge at Gettysburg and a siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi. After July 1863, the union had control over the entire Mississippi River. That had tremendous political and economic advantage. By mid-1863, the weaknesses of the Confederate economy had begun to show. The Emancipation Proclamation also shook southern society, as Lincoln had hoped for. Thousands of slaves left their plantations and headed for the Union army or to the northern states. In early 1864, the northern army was assisted by Lincoln’s choice of Ulysses S. Grant as commander of all of the Union armies. Grant in 1864 devise a two-pronged attack to finish off the Confederacy. He sent the army south to take Richmond. And in the West he sent Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman to take Atlanta. These were two major southern cities that week in the Confederacy tremendously if taken by the union. Lincoln, meanwhile, worried about his chances for reelection. In the summer of 1864, he campaigned with Andrew Johnson of Tennessee, a prounion Democrat who would serve as his vice president. Lincoln’s advisers chose Andrew Johnson because he was the only southern senator not to resign during the secession winter of 1861. In September 1864, Lincoln received news that Sherman had captured Atlanta. This boosted morale across the north and secured Lincoln’s ability to win election. This time around he garners 55% of the popular vote. The victory in battle and the capture of Atlanta were what secured his ability to become president once again.
The union had already conquered Atlanta. The next step was to secure the entire area. Sherman’s march to the sea was a “scorched earth” campaign. Sherman’s army marched across 285 miles of Georgia. Sherman’s soldiers destroyed whatever they could on this March. They tore up railroad tracks, destroyed crops, burned bridges, and pulled down telegraph wires in order to impair the Confederacy’s ability to move goods, soldiers, and information. Sherman’s army also enticed thousands of slaves to flock to its camp. By the time he reached the coast, Sherman’s campaign of destruction left the Confederate Army without supplies. Sherman’s march to the sea also demonstrated the effectiveness of a tactic that would become central to modern warfare in the 20th century. This modern war was now about bringing conflict the civilian population and to undermine his willingness to support the war. Sherman told his soldiers, “we are not only fighting hostile armies, but a hostile people, and we must make old and young, rich and poor, feel the hand of war, as well as their organized armies.” Sherman also issued special field order number 15. This set aside more than 400,000 acres of seized Confederate land from northern Florida to the South Carolina Sea Islands. It was supposed to be distributed to former slaves in 40 acre plots, along with a mule. By June about 40,000 freed men lived on land distributed by Sherman. African-Americans and radical Republicans wanted more of these land redistribution programs, but nearly all of the land would eventually get return to its original white owners.
With Georgia in ruins, the stage was set for the final phase of Grant’s plan. The Confederacy grew desperate. They began dropping soldiers as young as 17 and as old as 50. The Confederacy also drafted two regiments of slaves. Neither Regiment saw actual combat. Lee surrendered on April 9, 1865. Lincoln had set a tone of reconciliation in his second inaugural address one month earlier. He said, “with malice toward none, with charity for all, bind up the nation’s wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.” The last group of soldiers, 30,000 men in Lee’s army, were permitted to go home, providing beats swore never again to take up arms against the federal government.
Celebrations broke out across the north as people weary of four years of war were glad that the war was finally over. That celebration quickly changed to despair. On the night of April 14, just five days after Lee surrendered, a relaxed and cheerful Lincoln and Mary Todd went to Ford’s Theatre to enjoy a performance of the comedy Our American Cousin on April 14th, 1865. During the third act, a little after 10 p.m., actor John Wilkes Booth, a fanatical Confederate sympathizer, made his way into the presidential box, sneaked up behind Lincoln, and shot him in the back of the head. In the pandemonium, Booth escaped. Lincoln was comatose and was carried to a private home across the street from the theater. He died there a little before 7:30 a.m. on April 15th. The assassination elicited an outpouring of grief for the martyred president among Northerners and free slaves in the South. A train carried Lincoln’s body back to Springfield, Illinois, past approximately 7,000,000 people who lined the tracks.
Jefferson Davis had fled to Texas hoping to establish a new Confederate government there. He was captured on May 10 and put in prison. Many Northerners demanded his execution for treason. Davis was released after two years without even being tried.