Who was Urban II? (time period, location, key achievements)
Pope of the Roman Catholic Church who resided in Rome, and called for the First Crusade in 1096…also known as the Peasant’s Crusade. Urban II used a letter from the Byzantine Emperor Alexius asking for help to defend his city from the Turks to launch the Crusade…justified role of Christian Knight, saying it was only a sin to kill Christians, and that if you died you’d go straight to heaven, and if you survived, you’d be released from feudal oaths and be forgiven of all sins.
Describe characteristics of Romanesque versus Gothic architecture.
Romanesque- heavy thick walls, narrow windows, little light, often in the shape of a cross
Gothic- thin walls, ornate stained-glass windows, very tall and grand, flying buttresses
What were the Reconquista and the Inquisition? What were their effects?
Reconquista- program by Ferdinand and Isabella to expel the Jews and Muslims from Spain and unify the country under Roman Catholicism- culminates in 1492
Inquisition- court system set up to try people accused of heresy…use of torture and death penalty…purify the religion
Chapter 14.1- Church Reform and the Crusades
Monastic Revival and Church Reform
Beginning in 1000’s- revival across Europe, led by monasteries