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Chapter 14.1- Church Reform and the Crusades Quiz

  1. Who was Urban II? (time period, location, key achievements)

Pope of the Roman Catholic Church who resided in Rome, and called for the First Crusade in 1096…also known as the Peasant’s Crusade. Urban II used a letter from the Byzantine Emperor Alexius asking for help to defend his city from the Turks to launch the Crusade…justified role of Christian Knight, saying it was only a sin to kill Christians, and that if you died you’d go straight to heaven, and if you survived, you’d be released from feudal oaths and be forgiven of all sins.

  1. Describe characteristics of Romanesque versus Gothic architecture.

Romanesque- heavy thick walls, narrow windows, little light, often in the shape of a cross
Gothic- thin walls, ornate stained-glass windows, very tall and grand, flying buttresses

  1. What were the Reconquista and the Inquisition? What were their effects?

Reconquista- program by Ferdinand and Isabella to expel the Jews and Muslims from Spain and unify the country under Roman Catholicism- culminates in 1492

Inquisition- court system set up to try people accused of heresy…use of torture and death penalty…purify the religion

Chapter 14.1- Church Reform and the Crusades

  1. Monastic Revival and Church Reform

  • Beginning in 1000’s- revival across Europe, led by monasteries

  • Reformers wanted a return to basic principles of Christian religion

  • New religious orders were founded

    • New monasteries and popes began to reform the Church

  • restored and expanded Church power and authority

  • Age of Faith

  1. Problems in the Church

  • Some of the major problems:

    • 1. Many village priests married and had families

    • 2. Positions in the church were sold by bishops…called SIMONY

    • 3. The practice of lay investiture put kings in control of church bishops (Church reformers wanted bishops to be appointed by the Church alone)

  1. Reform Begins at Cluny

  • 910- Benedictine monastery was founded at Cluny in France

  • Monks followed the Benedictine rule

    • Inspired others to follow suit

  • By 1000CE- 300 houses were under Cluny’s leadership

  • 1098- Cistercian Order of Monks was founded

    • focused on a life of hardship…brought about further reforms

  • Pope Leo IX, took office in 1049, enforced Church laws against simony and the marriage of priests

  • Pope Gregory VII was elected in 1073

    • Spent time at Cluny

    • Determined to purify the Church

  1. Reform and Church Organization

  • 1100’s and 1200’s- Church was restructured to resemble a kingdom, with the pope at its head

  • Papal Curia= the pope’s group of advisors, who also acted as a court

    • Developed canon law (law of the Church) on matters such as marriage, divorce, and inheritance

    • Curia also decided cases based on these laws

  • Papal diplomats traveled through Europe, meeting with bishops and kings

    • Extended the power of the pope

  • Church collected taxes, called TITHES

    • Tithe= 1/10 the yearly income from every Christian family

  • Church provided social service: cared for sick and poor

    • Most hospitals in medieval Europe were operated by the Church

  • By the early 1200’s, popes had established their authority throughout Europe

    • Practice of simony, and marriage of clergy had declined dramatically

  1. Preaching Friars

  • Friars traveled from place to place in the 1200’s

  • Friars- like monks, took vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience…but friars did not live apart from the world in monasteries

  • Friars preached to the poor throughout Europe’s towns and cities…owned nothing, and lived by begging

  • EX: Friar Tuck in Robin Hood

  • Dominicans- earliest order of friars…founded by Spanish priest named Dominic

    • Emphasized the importance of study…many Dominicans were scholars

  • Franciscans- order of friars founded by Italian St. Francis of Assisi

    • Son of rich merchant

    • Francis gave up his wealth, and turned to preaching around age of 20

    • Less importance on scholarship

    • Treated all creatures (like animals) as spiritual brothers and sisters

  1. Religious Orders for Women

  • Women joined the Dominicans

  • 1212- Poor Clares founded

    • Franciscan order for women

    • Founded by Clare and her friend, Francis of Assisi

  • Germany- Hildegard of Bingen, mystic and musician, founded a Benedictine convent in 1147

  • Women were not allowed to travel from place to place as preachers

    • Lived in poverty and worked to help sick and poor

  1. Cathedrals- Cities of God

  • Cathedrals became symbols of the Church’s wealth during the Middle Ages

  1. New Style of Church Architecture

  • Between 800 and 1100- churches were built0 in Romanesque style

    • Round arches, heavy roof held up by thick walls and pillars

    • Thick walls, tiny windows with little light

  • Early 1100’s new style of architecture: Gothic evolved

    • Gothic from Germanic tribe called the Goths

    • Gothic cathedrals thrust upward toward heaven

    • Huge stained-glass windows

    • Ex: Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris, France (vaulted ceiling 100 feet high)

  • about 500 Gothic churches were built between 1170 and 1270

  • Also sculpture, woodcarvings, and stained-glass windows

  • Cathedral represented the City of God

    • Richly decorated

  1. The Crusades

  • 1093- Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus send an appeal to Robert, Count of Flanders, also read by Pope Urban II

    • emperor asked for help against the Muslim Turks who were threatening to conquer his capital at Constantinople

    • “And in your coming you will find your reward in heaven, and if you do not come, God will condemn you.”- Alexius Comnenus

  • Pope Urban II- issued a call for a “holy war”, or Crusade, to gain control of the Holy Land

  • Series of Crusades were launched over the next 200 years

    • Goal: recover Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks

  1. Causes of Crusading Spirit

  • Crusades had economic goals and religious motives

  • Pope Urban II’s call- tremendous outpouring of religious feeling and support for the Crusade

  • In 1096- between 50,000 and 60,000 knights became Crusaders

    • Red crosses on tunics worn over armor

    • Battle cry= “God wills it!”

  • Kings and the Church saw the Crusades as an opportunity to get rid of quarrelsome knights

  • Also, many younger sons participated (those marginalized by laws of primogeniture)

  • Knights and commoners were inspired by religious zeal

  • Pope Urban II

    • Said if knights died on Crusade, they were assured a place in heaven

    • Said Jesus had been misquoted in the Bible, and it was only a sin to kill Christians

  • Later Crusades, merchants profited by making cash loans to finance the Crusade

    • Also leased ships to transport armies over the Mediterranean Sea

    • Merchants of Pisa, Genoa, and Venice wanted to win control of key trade routes to India, Southeast Asia, and China from Muslim traders

  1. First and Second Crusades

  • By 1097, three armies of knights and others had gathered outside of Constantinople

    • Most of Crusaders were French, also Germans, English, Scots, Italian, and Spanish

  • Crusaders were ill-prepared for holy war in First Crusade

    • Knew nothing of geography, climate, or culture of Holy Land

    • Medieval maps showed Jerusalem as center of world, distance was much farther from Europe than Crusaders had anticipated

  • Crusaders did not have a strategy for capturing Jerusalem

    • Nobles argued among themselves

    • Supply lines weren’t adequate

  • army of 12,000 (1/4 of original army) made it to Jerusalem and besieged the city for a month

  • July 15, 1099- captured city of Jerusalem

  • Second Crusade- organized to recapture city of Edessa

    • Armies were unsuccessful

  • 1187: city of Jerusalem fell to the Muslim leader Saladin

  1. The Third and Fourth Crusades

  • Third Crusade

    • Recapture Jerusalem

    • Called “kings Crusade”

    • Led by 3 most powerful monarchs:

      • French king, Philip Augustus

      • German emperor Frederick Barbarossa

      • English king, Richard the Lion-Hearted

    • Barbarossa drowned on the journey

    • Philip argued with Richard and went home

    • Richard left to regain Holy Land from Saladin

    • Richard and Saladin respected each other

    • Agreed to a truce in 1192…Jerusalem remained under Muslim control, but unarmed Christian pilgrims were allowed to freely visit the holy city

  • 1198 Pope Innocent III appealed for another Crusade to capture Jerusalem

  • Fourth Crusade- entangled in Italian and Byzantine politics

    • Looted the city of Constantinople in 1204 to gain loot for Venice (persecuted Eastern Orthodox)

    • Ended the Fourth Crusade

    • Schism of 1054 between Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches became permanent

  1. Crusading Spirit Dwindles

  • 1200’s Crusades were increasingly common but unsuccessful

  • religious fervor of First Crusade replaced by search for personal gain (ex: Fourth)

A. The Later Crusades

  • Armies also marched to North Africa

  • Louis IX- French king who led last two Crusades…respected in Europe…declared a saint…but didn’t conquer much land

  • Children’s Crusade 1212

    • Thousands of children set out for the Holy Land

    • Led by Stephen…believed Jesus appeared to him as a pilgrim and encouraged children to take back the Holy Land because they were pure in spirit

    • Many children died of cold and starvation…some turned back…some drowned at sea due to leaky ships loaned by unscrupulous merchants…some children were sold into slavery

  1. A Spanish Crusade

  • In Spain, Muslims (Moors) controlled much of the country until the 1100’s

  • Reconquista- effort to drive the Muslims (and Jews) out of Spain

  • By late 1400’s, Muslims held only the tiny kingdom of Granada

  • 1492: Granada fell to the Christian army of Ferdinand and Isabella, the Spanish monarchs

  • Spain had large Jewish population as well

    • Many Jews had high positions in finance, government, and medicine

  • Many Jews and Muslims converted to Christianity during the late 1400’s

  • Isabella and Ferdinand made use of the Inquisition

    • Tribunal court system, held by the Church, to suppress heresy

    • Ex: Iron Maiden?

    • “Nobody expects the Spanish Inquisition!”

    • Heretics- those accused of not believing in the church’s doctrines

    • Suspects were often tortured…if they confessed, often burned at the stake

  • 1492- Ferdinand and Isabella expelled all practicing Jews and Muslims from Spain

    • Major motive in financing Christopher Columbus the same year, was to find alternative routes to China/ India, without going through Muslim controlled Middle East

  1. The Effects of the Crusades

  • Failure of later Crusades lessened the power of the pope

  • Crusades weakened feudal nobility

  • Thousands of knights lost their lives and fortunes

  • Crusades did stimulate trade between Europe and Southwest Asia

    • Spices, fruits, and cloth

  • For Muslims, Crusades resulted in animosity from intolerance and prejudice displayed by Christians in Holy Land

  • Continue conflict between Christians, Muslims, and Jews into the present

  • European merchants continued trading with Middle East

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