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1 E.L. Quarantelli. 1994. Disaster Stress. Paper presented at the After Everyone Leaves: Preparing for, Managing and Monitoring Mid- and Long-Term Effects of Large-Scale Disasters Conference, Minneapolis Minnesota.

2 Gesetz uber den katastrophenschutz in Schlesig-Holsteni (LkatSG) vom 9 Dezember 1974. Wiesbaden, Germany: Kommunal und Schul-Verlag A. Heinig (in German).

3 Kasastrophen-Vorschrift (1988), Bonn: Deuches Rotesse Kreuz (in German).

4 Politique et compexite: Les crises sans ennemi. Grenoble, France: CRISE. (Cited in Porfiriev 1995, 287).

5 Tierney, Lindell and Perry (2001, 14) state that “…Horlick-Jones (1995) argued in fovor of defining disasters as originating in the fundamental social conditions of late-modern society and as involving disruptions of cultural expectations and the release of existential dread. Such dread or anxiety originates in turn in a loss of faith in the institutions that are supposed to keep risks under control.”

6 C. Pelanda. 1982. Disaster and Order: Theoretical Problems in Disaster Research. Unpublished paper.

7 K. Hewitt. 1997. Regions at Risk: A Geographical Introduction to Disasters. London: Longman.

8 A. Varley. 1994. “The Exceptional and the Everyday: Vulnerability Analysis in the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction.” In A. Varley (ed.), Disasters, Development and Environment. London: Wiley.

9 P.Y. Miller and M.R. Fowlkes. 1984 “In Defense of ‘Man-Made’ Disaster.” Natural Hazards Observer, Vol. 8, p. 11.

10 D. Okrent. “Comment on Societal Risk.” Science, Vol. 208, 1980, pp. 372-375.

11 C. Southwick. Global Ecology in Human Perspective. NY: Oxford University Press, 1996.

12 C. Flavin. “Climate Change and Storm Damage: The Insurance Costs Keep Rising.” World Watch, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1997, pp. 10-11.

13 Dean, W. “Risk Assessments and Future Challenges.” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, July 2005.

14 Deyle, French, Olshansky, and Paterson 1998, 124.

15 Downloaded from web site address: (definitions from The Simeon Institute are obtained from “unattributed sources”).

16 Referenced is a chapter in Natural Disasters: Protecting Vulnerable Communities, edited by P.A. Merriman and C.W. Browitts (London: Thomas Telford, 1993).

17 Referenced is chapter by Norton and Chantry in Natural Disasters: Protecting Vulnerable Communities, edited by P.A. Merriman and C.W. Browitts (London: Thomas Telford, 1993).

18 Sinha, D.K. Ed. 1992. Natural Disaster Reduction to the Nineties:

Perspectives, Aspects and Strategies. Calcutta: International Journal


19 Pelanda, Carlo. 1982. “Disastro e vulnerabilita sociosistemica.”

Rassegna Italian di Sociologia 22:507-532.

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