Date: European History/Sec

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Name: Ms. Zendrian

Date: European History/Sec ___

Chapter 23: Growth of Western Democracies (1815-1914)
Section 1: Democratic Reform in Britain
Reforming Parliament

  • 1815- Britain- constitutional monarchy with a parliament and two political parties

  • House of Commons and House of Lords

  • Wealthy dominated politics

Reformers Press for Change

  • Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants could not vote or serve in Parliament

  • Finally parliament granted these people the right to vote

  • Population shift due to the Industrial Revolution- impacted voters

  • Rotten boroughs

Reform Act of 1832

  • Whigs and Tories battled over reform of Parliament

  • Great Reform Act of 1832- redistributed seats in the House of Commons, giving representation to large towns and cities and eliminating rotten boroughs.

  • Enlarged the electorate- the body of people allowed to vote, by granting suffrage to more men

  • Act kept landowning as a requirement for voting

  • Did not bring full democracy

  • Did give a greater political voice to middle-class men

Chartist movement

  • Protestors known as Chartists drew up the People’s Charter- demanded universal male suffrage, annual parliamentary elections, and salaries for members of Parliament

  • Demand for secret ballot

  • Government moved to suppress the march

  • Chartist movement declined

The Victorian Age

  • 1837 to 1901- the great symbol of British life was Queen Victoria

  • Victorian ideals: duty, thrift, honesty, hard work, and above all respectability

  • Victoria was empress of India and ruler of 300 million subjects around the world became a revered symbol of British might

  • Lower classes “earn their bread and riches so deservedly that they cannot and ought not to be kept back”

A New Era in British Politics

  • 1860s- old political parties regrouped under new leadership

  • Benjamin Disraeli- forged the Tories into the modern Conservative Party

  • William Gladstone- The Whigs became part of the liberal party

  • Disraeli- gave the right to vote to many working class men, doubled the size of the electorate

  • 1880s- Gladstone- extended suffrage- farmworkers and most other men

  • By the end of the century- almost universal male suffrage

  • Britain transformed itself from a constitutional monarchy to a parliamentary democracy- a form of government in which the executive leaders (prime minister and cabinet) are chosen by and responsible to the legislature (parliament)

Limiting the Lords

  • 1900s- House of Commons men defeat in the House of Lords

  • 1911- Liberal government passed measures to restrict the power of the lords including their power to veto tax bills

  • Lords backed down because they were threatened by the government

  • House of Lords would become a largely ceremonial body with little power

  • The elected house of Commons would reign supreme

Section 2: Social and Economic Reform in Britain

  • Lytton’s 1910 hunger strike was part of a long struggle for women’s suffrage

A Series of Reforms:

  • Mid-1800s- Parliament passed a variety of new laws

  • Free trade

Free trade and the Corn Laws

  • Free traders- usually from the middle class agreed with Adam Smith on a policy of laissez faire- it would increase the prosperity for all

  • If tariffs were abolished, merchants everywhere would have larger markets to sell their goods and there would be open competition

  • Corn laws- imposed high tariffs on imported grain

    • Corn- all cereal grains

    • Farmers and wealthy landowners supported the Corn Laws- kept the price of British grain high

    • Free traders wanted Parliament to repeal the Corn Laws

    • Parliament repealed the Corn Laws in 1846

Campaign Against Slavery

  • Enlightenment thinkers turned spotlight on the evils of the slave trade

  • British ships were carrying more Africans to the Americas than any other European country

  • US abolition movement- campaign against slavery and slave trade

  • 1807- Britain was the first European power to abolish the slave trade

  • 1833- Parliament passed a law banning slavery in all British colonies

Crime and Punishment

  • Early 1800s- more than 200 crimes were punishable by death

  • Capital offenses- shoplifting, sheep stealing and impersonating an army veteran

  • Executions were public

  • 1850- death penalty was reserved for murder, piracy, treason, and arson

  • Penal colonies- settlements for convicts- Australia

  • 1868- Parliament ended public hangings

Victories for the Working Class

  • 1840s- Parliament aimed at passing laws for improving social conditions

  • Parliament passed laws to regulate conditions in factories and mines

  • 1842- mine owners were forbidden to employ women or children under age 10

  • 1847- law limited women and children to a 10-hour workday

  • Parliament sent inspectors to see that the laws were being enforced

  • 1890-1914- union membership soared

  • Unions: won higher wages, shorter hours for workers, improve the lives of working class

  • Disraeli sponsored laws to improve public health and housing for workers in cities

  • Gladstone- education act called for free elementary education for all children

  • Fabian Society- promoted gradual change through legal means rather than by violence

  • Early 1900s- Britain began to pass social welfare laws to protect the well-being of the poor and disadvantaged

The Struggle to Win Votes for Women

  • 1900- Emmeline Pankhurst- leading suffragist- wanted votes for women

  • Women collected peititons and organized huge public demonstrations

  • Drastic and violent protests- smashed windows or burned buildings

  • 1918- Parliament finally granted suffrage to women over age 30

Instability in Ireland

  • English began conquering Ireland in the 1100s

  • 1600s- English and Scottish settlers colonized Ireland- took possession of much of the best farmland

  • Irish never accepted English rule

  • Irish did not like absentee landlords- who owned large estates but did not live on them

  • Many Irish lived in desperate poverty and had to pay high rent

  • Irish were Catholic- had to pay tithes to support the Church of England

Irish Nationalism

  • In 1800s- Irish campaigned for freedom and justice

  • Daniel O’Connell “the liberator” organized an Irish Catholic League

  • Britain slowly moved to improve conditions in Ireland

  • 1829- Parliament passed the Catholic Emancipation Act- Irish Catholics got the right to vote and to hold political office

  • Absentee landlords could evict tenants almost at will

  • British laws forbade the teaching and speaking of the Irish language

Struggle for Home Rule

  • Famine in Ireland left the Irish with a feeling of bitterness and distrust toward Britain

  • 1850s- Fenian Brotherhood- goal was to liberate Ireland from British rule by force

  • Home rule- local self government

  • Gladstone- pushed for reforms in Ireland; ended the use of Irish tithe money to support the Anglican church and tried to east the hardships or Irish tenant farmers

  • New laws prevented landlords from charging unfair rents and protected the rights of tenants to the land they worked

  • 1914- Parliament passed a home rule bill

Section 3: Division and Democracy in France

  • After the Franco-Prussian War- France was no longer the dominating power in Europe

  • France experienced economic growth, democratic reforms, and the fierce nationalism expressed by Clemenceau

France Under Napoleon III

  • 1848- Napoleon III- nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte- rose to power and set up the Second Empire

  • Bourgeoisie saw him as a strong leader who would restore order

  • Promised to end poverty gave hope to the lower classes

  • Napoleon III ruled like a dictator

  • Napoleon appointed his cabinet, upper house of the legislature, and many officials

  • Debate was limited, newspapers faced strict censorship

  • 1860s- emperor began to ease censorship and gave the legislature more power

  • Napoleon III issued a new constitution and added democratic rights

  • Napoleon III promoted investment in industry and large-scale railroads

  • Ferdinand de Lesseps- organized the building of the Suez Canal in Egypt to link the Mediterranean with the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean

  • Napoleon legalized labor unions, extended public education to girls, created a small public health program

  • Napoleon tried placing Maximilian- Austrian Hapsburg prince, on the throne of Mexico

  • Napoleon hoped to turn Mexico into a French satellite

  • Adventure failed- Mexico resisted

  • Napoleon helped Italian nationalists defeat Austria

  • Italy became a rival

  • France and Britain won the Crimean War

  • Otto von Bismarck manipulated the French and lured Napoleon into war in 1870- Franco-Prussian War. Napoleon had to give up Alsace Lorraine

Challenges of the Third Republic

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