Date: European History



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Name: Ms. Zendrian

Date: European History

Chapter 22 Outline

Nationalism Triumphs in Europe (1800- 1914)


Section 1: Building a German Nation

  • 1806-181: Napoleon (France) made important territorial changes in German-speaking lands

  • Napoleon dissolved the Holy Roman Empire

  • Organized the Rhine Confederation

  • Napoleon encouraged: freeing the serfs, easier trade, abolished laws against Jews

  • Not everyone appreciated Napoleons changes

  • Prussia created an economic union called Zollverein

Bismarck United Germany



  • Otto von Bismarck- served Prussia as a diplomat in Russia and France

  • 1862- William I made Bismarck prime minister

  • Bismarck used policy of “blood and iron”- wanted to unite the German states under Prussian rule

  • Realpolitik

  • Bismarck was concerned about the power of the army

  • Prussia declared war with Denmark and Austria

  • Austro-Prussian war lasted 7 weeks

  • Prussia annexed northern German states

  • Franco-Prussian War of 1870

Birth of the German Empire



  • France lost Franco-Prussian War

  • January 1871- German nationalists celebrated the birth of the second Reich

  • Constitution set up two-house legislature

  • Bundesrat and Reichtag

Section 2: Germany Strengthens


Germany Becomes an Industrial Giant

  • Possessed several of the factors needed to make industrialization possible

  • Ample iron and coal resources

  • Disciplined and educated workforce

  • Germany’s rapid growing population

  • Built railroads

  • 1871- single currency for Germany

Iron Chancellor



  • Bismarck’s goal- keep France weak and isolated while he built strong links with Austria and Russia

  • Bismarck- known as Iron Chancellor

  • Targeted two groups: Catholic Church and Socialists

Kaiser William II



  • Democratic reforms

  • Social welfare

  • Cheap transportation and electricity

Section 3: Unifying Italy


Obstacles to Italian Unity

  • Frequent warfare and foreign rule led people to identify with local regions

  • Secret patriotic societies focused their efforts on expelling Austrian forces from northern Italy

  • Between 1820 and 1848- nationalist revolts exploded across the region

  • Giuseppe Mazzini- founded Young Italy

The Struggle for Italy



  • Risorgimento- Italian nationalist movement

  • 1852- Victor Emmanuel made Count Camillo Cavour his prime minister

  • Cavour was a monarchist who believed in Realpolitik

  • Cavour improved agriculture, had railroads built, encouraged commerce by supporting free trade

  • Crimean War

Garibaldi’s “Red Shirts”



  • Garibaldi- nationalist who was an ally of Mazzini

  • Wanted to create an Italian republic

  • Went to take over Sicily and Naples- did so successfully

Challenges Facing the New Nation



  • Italy had no tradition of unity

  • Few Italians felt ties to the new nation

  • Regional differences- north and south

  • Popes saw themselves as prisoners

  • Under Victor Emmanuel- Italy was a constitutional monarchy with a two-house legislature

  • Anarchists and Socialists

Section 4: Nationalism Threatens Old Empires



  • In Eastern and Central Europe- Austrian Hapsburgs and the Ottoman Turks ruled lands that included diverse ethnic groups

  • Hapsburgs were the oldest ruling house in Europe

  • Metternich- “Rule and change nothing”

  • Faced problems of industrial life

  • Multinational Empire

  • Francis Joseph

Formation of the Dual Monarchy



  • Ferenc Deak and Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary

  • Under agreement- Austria and Hungary they were separate states

  • Nationalist unrest increases

The Ottoman Empire Collapses



  • Ottoman Empire stretched to include Eastern Europe, the Balkans, and North Africa

  • Serbia won autonomy in 1830

  • Southern Greece won independence in 1830s

  • Austria-Hungary took control of the provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina- made Serbs mad

  • War in Balkans

Section 5: Russia: Reform and Reaction


Conditions in Russia

  • Russia- largest and most populated nation in Europe

  • Russia had immense natural resources

  • 1800s- tsars saw the need to modernize but resisted reforms that would undermine their absolute rule

Russia’s Social Structure



  • Landowning nobles dominated society and rejected any change

  • Middle class- too small to have influence

  • Most of the population were serfs

Ruling with Absolute Power



  • Tsars had ruled with absolute power

Emancipation and Stirrings of Revolution



  • Alexander II- Crimean War

  • Liberals demanded changes- like freeing the serfs

  • Freedom of the serfs brought problems

  • Zemstvos- made responsible for matters such as road repair, schools, and agriculture

  • Alexander encouraged the growth of industry, still relied heavily on agriculture

  • Many Russians were not satisfied

  • Alexander III- increased the secret police, restored strict censorship, exiled critics to Siberia

  • Russification

  • Persecution and Pogroms- attacks on Jewish people

The Drive to Industrialize



  • Russia finally entered the industrial age under Alexander III and his son Nicholas II

  • Encouraged the building of railroads

  • Factory working conditions were harsh

  • Many turned to Karl Marx

Turning Point: Crisis and Revolution



  • Bloody Sunday

  • Duma

  • Peter Stolypin



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