Darius H. Cornejo World History: Module Four, Lesson Six
04.06 Travel Journal Part 1 - Answer the following questions in your own words.
What immediate impact did the Spanish and Portuguese have on Native Americans?
Well, I think that the Spanish had a negative impact on the Native Americans because after they found this new land, others wanted to explore it, too. Pizarro also killed a lot of the Inca because he was greedy for gold and riches. Also, the Spanish brought smallpox to the Native Americans. It doesn’t seem as if the Portuguese did anything wrong. They settled in present-day Brazil and the Native Americans were very friendly and even celebrated with them.
How did the Champlain’s interactions with Native Americans differ from John Smith’s interactions with Native Americans?
Well, they are very alike since they both had peace with the Native Americans and also controlled large lands in North America. But there are some differences. I believe that Champlain interacted with Canada where Smith interacted with present-day United States. And John Smith started the English colony democracy, while Champlain didn’t do that yet, I think.
What was the Columbian Exchange? What were some items that were exchanged? Who benefited the most from the exchange? Include information from the map.
The Colombian Exchange is everything that was exchanged across the Atlantic in the age of exploration: plants, foods, diseases, ideas, etc… Some things that were from Europe and Africa and came to the Americas was measles, wheat, sheep, coffee, and rice. Things that were from the Americas and were brought to Europe and Africa were corn, tobacco, tomato, and potato. So, I am thinking that the people who benefitted from a lot of stuff were the Americas, but financially, Europe and Africa [since they had more to sell/trade].
What impact did smallpox have on the Americas?
Smallpox had a horrid impact on the Americas. Many, almost all of the population of Native Americas were wiped out with this disease. And it’s all the Spaniard fault.
How did the goals of the colonizing nations impact their settlements?
Well, a lot of Native Americans were made slaves, others had to convert to Christianity or Catholicism. There were also diseases spread and people fighting for lands.
Part 2 - Complete the chart with details from the lesson.
The Spanish conquered much of South and Central America. They established colonies and missions throughout their lands. The Spanish did not send over large groups of settlers to colonize the land. Instead they used the Native American population as labor. The Catholic Church was deeply involved in this colonization. The main goal of colonization was to gain gold and silver and to convert native peoples to Christianity. After the conquest, native people were made slaves and forced to labor for the Spanish, even if they had converted to Catholicism. Some sympathetic missionaries reported this to the Catholic Church and the Spanish court. The result was the encomienda system, which was established in 1512. This system was supposed to protect the native people. In it, a Spanish conquistador could demand tribute from the native people. This tribute could be in labor or in goods such as gold. In exchange the Spaniard was supposed to protect the people under his control and educate them in the Catholic faith. In reality, it simply continued the process of exploitation of the native people.
At first the colony of Brazil was controlled entirely by the King of Portugal. The king granted concessions to merchants who harvested timber. Later, the king divided the coastal region of Brazil into a number of different sections. He gave these sections to certain nobles. This had the effect of making these nobles very wealthy. The Church was concerned about these secular powers in Brazil. As it had in the Spanish colonies, the Church fought for control over the native populations in order to convert and 'civilize' them.
The native populations resisted, but in the end they were brought into slavery and under church control. Many died from disease, overwork, and the loss of their traditional way of life.
The English were settlers, and their colonies were not very interested in conversion and trade. Jamestown, founded in 1607, was the first permanent English colony. In 1620, the Pilgrims established the Plymouth Colony in present-day Massachusetts. In 1630, the Puritans joined the Pilgrims and the Massachusetts Bay Colony was established. All of these were examples of colonies founded by joint-stock companies.
There were three types of British colonies: charter colonies, proprietary colonies, and royal colonies. Charter colonies were colonies where groups of settlers were given the right to form a government under the British crown. Proprietary colonies were colonies where an individual was granted the right to establish a colony. Royal colonies were colonies established by the crown and ruled by a governor appointed by the king. All this meant each British colony in North America had its own form of government and economic system.
The English colonies varied in their treatment of the Native Americans, too. There were some periods and regions where friendly relations and trade occurred. However, this never lasted for very long. Most colonial governments followed a policy of driving out the local native people in order to have more security and land for their own people.
The French government established colonies in eastern Canada, in the Caribbean, and in Louisiana. By the late 1700s, France had lost the Canadian colonies to the British. French colonies focused on trade and conversion rather than settlement.
The native groups in French Canada also suffered huge losses from disease. However they were not forced into slavery as the Central and South American native people were.