"Self-interest drives people to action and the Invisible Hand of competition acts as an automatic regulator so that the market will generate wealth for the nation."
1. The author of this passage would have agreed with which of the following statements?
a. Government regulation of the market helps to promote a healthy economy.
b. People will produce according to their abilities and be compensated according to their needs.
c. Individual self-interest, however enlightened, will destroy the market.
d. Government must not interfere with the market mechanism if it is to perform properly.
e. Wealth will be divided equally by the market mechanism.
2. The ideas expressed in the passage above are fundamental to the economic theories of:
3. "Sincerely influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment, this monarch abolished capital punishment, established equality before the law, freed the serfs, created a system of primary education, established religious toleration, and tightened the control of the state over the established church." The enlightened despot described above was:
a. Catherine the Great of Russia
b. Joseph II of Austria
c. Maria Theresa of Austria
d. Frederick the Great of Prussia
e. Charles III of Spain
4. All of the following statements about Europe's population in the eighteenth century can be inferred from the graph above EXCEPT:
a. For most of the century, France had the largest population of any European power.
b. The population of Eastern Europe outstripped that of Western Europe in size.
c. Russia experienced the largest increase in rate of population growth.
d. The population of the British Isles grew throughout the century.
e. Rates of population growth increased after 1750.
5. Eighteenth-century popularizers of the seventeenth-century scientific revolution would have most likely agreed with which of the following statements?
a. God intervenes actively in the universe's operation.
b. Understanding the natural order is beyond human comprehension.
c. Humans are imperfect and wicked by nature.
d. Underlying natural laws govern society.
e. Respect for tradition ensures human progress.
6. Enlightened monarchs of the eighteenth century supported all of the following EXCEPT:
a. religious toleration
b. increased economic productivity
c. pacifist foreign policy
d. administrative reform
e. secular and technical education
7. Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding religious life in the eighteenth century?
a. John Wesley's Methodist movement demonstrates a religious revival among the lower classes.
b. The Enlightened monarchs extended toleration to religious minorities, including Jews.
c. In both Catholic and Protestant nations, states gained more power over churches.
d. Popular religious devotion in Catholic nations declined dramatically.
e. The philsophes demonstrated an indifferent if not hostile attitude toward organized religion.
8. Which of the following was a cause of the other three?
a. development of children's games and literature
b. rise in the prevalence of breast-feeding
c. the educational views of Locke and Rousseau
d. a decline in the use of corporal punishment
9. In his On Crimes and Punishments, Cesare Beccaria:
a. criticized physical punishments and advocated legal reform
b. championed the cause of barristers in the courts
c. argued for a unified Italian legal code
d. noted the importance of the common people in the making of laws
e. suggested the building of maximum security prisons
10. In the eighteenth century, elite and popular cultures:
e. were patronized by the philosophes 11. Which is NOT a reason that European population rose significantly in the eighteenth century?
a. improved diet and nutrition
b. new medical breakthroughs
c. the Agricultural Revolution
d. a decline in the death rate
e. end of the bubonic plague
12. Literacy rates in eighteenth century Europe:
a. were about equal for men and women
b. were distributed evenly across class lines
c. were closely related to primary education
d. actually declined from the seventeenth century
e. were higher in Catholic nations
13. Which of the following was invented in the eighteenth century?
a. jigsaw puzzle
14. Which of the following is true of women during the Enlightenment?
a. the vast majority of philosophes accepted the equality of women
b. Mary Wollstonecraft's attack on women's domestic role led to a decline in the marriage rate
c. though several prominent women participated in salons, most women were unaffected
d. enlightened monarchs established universities specifically designed for women's education
e. women contributed significant intellectual breakthroughs in the area of philosophy
15. "The law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have a right to concur either personally or by their representatives in its formation. The law should be the same for all, whether it protects of whether it punishes." The quotation above is a formulation of the ideas of:
a. Frederick the Great
b. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
c. Adam Smith
16. "The pasturing stock is allowed in peace to eat up the food on pastures to its utmost limits, thus the stock returns more ample profit to the farmer. In managing arable lands, the farmer derives other solid advantages, such as security against trespass and adoption of correct crop rotation." The eighteenth-century British quotation above is a justification for which of the following?
17. Which of the following ideas is NOT associated with the ideas of Rousseau?
a. inequality results from property
b. the "noble savage"
c. the Cult of Sentiment
d. women are men's intellectual equals
e. education should be based on experiences not rote
18. The Rococo artistic style of the eighteenth century was:
a. highly formal and geometric
b. known for its light-hearted subject matter in painting
c. heavily influenced by the French Academy of Art
d. banned by the French kings
e. a conspiracy to undermine good taste
19. The Agricultural Revolution of the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries in England and the Netherlands involved all of the following EXCEPT:
a. draining wetlands
b. enclosure of common fields
c. introduction of new crops
d. selective breeding of livestock
e. use of heavy machinery 20. All of the following were common characteristics of the Old Regime in eighteenth-century Europe EXCEPT:
a. aristocratic elites
b. state religions
d. feudal dues
e. large factories 21. Laws should be relative to the climate of each country, to the quality of its soil, to the principal occupation of its natives. Laws should have a relation to the degree of liberty which the constitution will bear, to the religion of the inhabitants, to their manner and customs. Who is the author?
a. Louis XIV
e. Thomas Paine
22. This design of an English nobleman’s house from 1760 embodies what qualities that the English aristocracy admired?
a. American rusticity, grace, and freshness
b. Prussian discipline, frugality, and militarism
c. Islamic geometry and abstraction
d. Roman strength, order, and balance
e. Egyptian elaboration and polychromatism
23. All of the following were developments admired by the philosophes EXCEPT:
e. military service
30. The most common cause of urban riots in the eighteenth century was:
a. bread shortages
b. foreign policy issues
c. partisan politics
d. class warfare
e. guild rivalries
31. All of the following were common characteristics of the ancien regime in eighteenth-century Europe EXCEPT:
a. aristocratic elites
b. state religions
d. feudal dues
e. large factories 32. All of the following factors contributed to the expansion of population in eighteenth-century Europe EXCEPT:
a. fewer epidemics
b. new drugs
c. improved sanitation
d. changes in food supply
e. climatic changes
33. “Laws should be relative to the climate of each country, to the quality of its soil, to the principal occupation of its natives. Laws should have a relation to the degree of liberty which the constitution will bear, to the religion of the inhabitants, to their manner and customs.” Who is the author?
a. Louis XIV
e. Thomas Paine
34. The Social Contract, published in 1762, was written by:
e. Rousseau 35. Emperor Joseph II of Austria failed in his attempts to reform his country because he
a. lacked ruthlessness
b. failed win the support of the peasantry
c. was unwilling to dissolve monasteries
d. failed to abolish the robot
e. agreed with his mothers opinions
36. Deism was supposed to be all of the following EXCEPT:
a. based on reason
b. lead to moral behavior
c. did not restrict freedom of thought
d. deduced form empirical evidence
e. based on the supernatural 37. All of the following were developments admired by the philosophes EXCEPT:
a. increased religious toleration
b. the use of reason
c. the idea of progress
d. secularization of society
e. mercantilism 38. “Generally speaking, there is no one who knows what is for your interest so well as yourself--no one who is disposed with so much ardor and constancy to pursue it.” The author of the above passage would support which of the following?
a. laissez faire
b. selection taxation to promote industry
c. navigation acts
d. government price supports
e. high tariffs
39. Which of the following had the largest population in 1763?
40. Adam Smith maintained that:
a. workers’ real wages decrease in the long run
b. population always tends to outstrip food supplies
c. monopolies benefit the state
d. competition is socially beneficial
e. social revolution is inevitable
41. The eighteenth-century philosophes believed that society could best achieve progress through:
a. prayer and contemplation
c. hard work and self-denial
d. scientific empiricism
e. analysis of Greek and Latin texts
42. “The salon was a weekly gathering held in the home of one of the dominant ladies of the society, at which dinner was usually served, cards usually played, but conversation led by the hostess predominated. A few salons were known as having the ideal mixture of leading intellectuals, open-minded nobles, and clever, elegant women.” The passage above describes and important aspect of social life in which of the following?
a. Geneva during the Reformation
b. Florence during the Renaissance
c. London during the Glorious Revolution
d. Paris during the Enlightenment
e. Moscow in the time of Peter the Great
43. Which of the following best expresses Voltaire’s views concerning religion?
a. Catholics should obediently follow the dictates of the pope.
b. Protestants should be excluded from French government service.
c. Religious unity is fundamental to enlightened monarchies.
d. Organized religion perpetuates superstition and ignorance.
e. Criticism of religious doctrines and authorities should be condemned.
44. “I will allow that bodily strength seems to give man a natural superiority over woman; and this is the only solid basis on which the superiority of men over women can be built.” The passage above reflects the argument of: