CW42: The Making of Modern China, c1900–2000 The political, social and economic transformation of China in the twentieth century and the factors influential in this process China in the early twentieth century



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CW42: The Making of Modern China, c1900–2000

The political, social and economic transformation of China in the twentieth century and the factors influential in this process
China in the early twentieth century

Society

Economy

Government

Causes of change

  • Tension over foreign influence
    Impact of missionaries, Boxer Rising




  • Reform
    Degree system, Western universities




  • Dominant ideas
    Mandate of Heaven, Confucian code, nationalism,




  • Structural economic problems
    Population pressure, smaller family holdings, increasing famine, slipping in relation to the West




  • Link with the West
    Treaty of Nanjing




  • Economic crises
    Addiction to opium, out-flow of silver




  • Economic strengths
    High literacy standards, science and medicine, manufacturing

  • Imperial government
    Corruption, limited constitutional reform, military weaknesses, lack of control of the provinces




  • Foreign influence
    Russia, Germany, France




  • Rebellion
    Taiping Rebellion, Wuchang Uprising

  • Impact of the West
    Opium War, Second Anglo-Chinese War, missionaries




  • Loss of the tributary states
    Vietnam, Korea; Treaty of Shimoneseki, Confucian scholars demand reform




  • Weakness of China
    Boxer Rising, Li Hongzhang




  • Nationalism
    Influence of Japan, Zou Rong, boycott of American goods, Lu Xun




  • Rebellion against Qing authority
    Population pressure, governmental financial weakness, corruption




  • Lack of whole-hearted response to the need for reform
    Coup of 1898, probationary period of constitutional reforms, National Consultative Council




  • 1911–12 Revolution
    Emperor Puyi, economic grievances, Wuchang Uprising, Sun Yat-sen


Reasons for the Nationalists’ initial triumph and later overthrow

Society

Economy

Government

Causes of change

  • Unification of Chinese society
    Popularised the standard Mandarin language, increased communication




  • Retention of warlords’ influence
    Feng Yuxiang, Yan Xishan, Central Plains War




  • Values of Nationalist China
    New Life Movement, Confucian Code

  • Economic stability
    Stabilise prices, reform banking and currency systems, increase industrial and agricultural production

  • Imperialist government in China
    Yuan Shikai’s presidency, assassination of Song Jiaoren, sympathy from the West, Twenty-One Demands, failed restoration of Puyi




  • Warlordism
    Huge variation, wars of 1920–26, economic hardship




  • Nationalist government in China
    Consolidation of power, dominance of Chiang Kai-shek, relationship to capitalism, economic achievements, conflict with the CCP, war with Japan, Civil War

  • Causes of Nationalists’ initial triumph

Political success – December 1912 elections, creation of the Guomindang, support from the growing CCP

Growth of nationalist ideas – China’s New Youth, 4th May demonstration, recognition from Moscow

Reorganisation triumph of the GMD – Borodin, Central Committee, Three Principles of the People

Military strength – Whampoa Military Academy, Nationalist Army, the Northern Expedition

Ending the United Front – Chiang Kai-shek’s realism, Shanghai Massacre, Autumn Harvest uprising


  • Causes of Nationalists’ overthrow

Communist Party changes its strategy – Focus on the countryside, influence of Mao, Zhu-Mao Army, Jiangxi Base Area

The Long March – Chiang Kai-shek’s lack of control over China, crossing of the Dadu river, myth of the March

War with Japan – Lack of involvement of Communists in conflict in Shanghai, blowing the dykes of the Yellow River, Communist guerrilla groups, propaganda value of Chiang Kai-shek’s attack on the new 4th Army

Mao Zedong – Rectification campaign, Mao’s ideas, personality cult, popular policies

Strength of the CCP – Removal of ‘Left closed doorism’, growth of the army, new policies
including rent reduction and restraint of the army, increased party membership

Military victory over the Guomindang – People’s Liberation Army, guerilla attacks, lack of morale for GMD forces, Chiang Kai-shek’s poor leadership and tactics, Kang Sheng, Lin Biao

Mistakes from Chiang Kai-shek – Rejection of the Democratic League, failure to use the influence of the Young Marshal, mishandling of the Chinese economy, corruption in the Army

Foreign influences – aid from Moscow, US refusal to grant any further economic assistance or to defend Taiwan

China under Mao

Society

Economy

Government

Causes of change

  • Control from Beijing
    Danwei, mass participation, Marriage Law, land reform, planned economy, propaganda



  • Influence of Mao
    Little Red Book, Lei Feng, education, culture




  • Repression
    Executions of counter-revolutionaries, Special Labour camps, harsh treatment of foreigners, Three Antis Campaign, Five Antis Campaign, suppression policies, The Anti-Rightist campaign, Cultural Revolution




  • Party state
    Trade union subjection to the Party, Communist Youth League, purge of Gao Gang and Rao Shushi, Great Leap Forward







  • Freedom
    Hundred Flowers Campaign, Great Leap Forward

  • Foreign influence
    Contempt for foreign business, aid and expertise from the Soviet Union, trade embargo on China, US involvement in development of Chinese oil production




  • Agriculture
    Land reform, initial resistance of collectivisation, communes, some reversion to private farming




  • Industry
    Five-Year Plans, disaster of the Great Leap Forward, emphasis on light industry

  • Communist Party involvement in the People’s Republic of China
    Mao, Liu Shaoqi




  • Government of the People’s Republic of China
    Zhou Enlai, removal of Peng Duhai




  • Army of the People’s Republic of China
    Lin Biao, Peng Duhai




  • Power struggle
    Early Ten Points, Deng Xiaoping, Liu Shaoqi, support from Lin Biao, Chen Boda’s arrest, death of Lin Biao, Anti-Confucius Campaign, Gang of Four, Hua Guafeng

  • Intention to develop as a modern industrial state
    Importance of resources and objectives; the Great Leap Forward




  • Mao
    Similarities with the Qin emperor, control over policy, lack of understanding of economics, emphasis on the peasantry as a revolutionary force rather than the urban working class, belief in mass mobilisation as the solution, Cultural Revolution, political cunning




  • Need for control and order
    Social disintegration, crime, supporters of the GMD regime, power struggles




  • Foreign events
    Deteriorating relationship with the Soviet Union, reconciliation with the West

The extent of change in China’s society and economy since 1976

Society

Economy

Government

Causes of change

  • 1976–1989
    Creation of an urban middle class, higher standard of living, Tiananmen Square protests




  • 1990s–present day
    Unemployment, SARS, concern about human rights record




  • Deng Xiaoping’s economic reforms
    Four Modernisations, de-collectivisation of the countryside, decentralisation of government controls in industry, urbanisation, opening up markets




  • 1990s–present day
    Technological and scientific advancement, Three Gorges Dam; Asian Financial Crisis, World Trade Organisation

  • Government in modern China
    Gang of Four, ruling triumvirate, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, Hu Jinto

  • Entry into the diplomatic community
    Canadian-Chinese negotiations, United Nations Security Council, Nixon’s visit, Deng Xiaoping’s visit to President Carter




  • Influence of Deng Xiaoping
    Not afraid to pursue policies which would have been opposed by Mao, more pragmatic rather than ideological approach, desire to increase labour productivity




  • Influence of East Asian Tigers
    International financial centres (Hong Kong, Singapore), Information Technology (South Korea, Taiwan)

Sources

Jung Chang, Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China, 1991

Jung Chang and J. Halliday, Mao: The Untold Story, 2005

R. Dawson, The Chinese Experience, 1978

R. Evans, Deng Xiaoping and the Making of Modern China, 1991

J. Fenby, Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-Shek and the China He Lost, 2003

B. Gascoigne, The Dynasties of China, 1973

B. Hooks, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of China, 1991

W. Jenner, The Tyranny of History: The Roots of China’s Crisis, 1992

R. Mitter, A Bitter Revolution: China’s Struggle with the Modern World, 2004

Cheng Nien, Life and Death in Shanghai, 1986

J. Roberts, A History of China, 1999

R. K. Schoppa, The Columbia Guide to Modern Chinese History, 2000

S. Schram, Mao Tse Tsung, 1966

P. Short, Mao: A Life, 1999

J. D. Spence, The Search for Modern China, 1999

R. Terrill, China in Our Time, 1992

F. C. Tewies and W. Sun, The Tragedy of Lin Biao, 1996

D. Twitchett and J. K. Fairbank (eds), The Cambridge History of China, vols 10–15, 1999

Gao Yuan, Born Red: A Chronicle of the Cultural Revolution, 1987

Xiangliang Zhang, Grass Soup, 1994



Li Zhisui, The Private Life of Chairman Mao, 1994

Factors (Part A)

Society

Economy

Government

Causes of change

Assess the short-term impact of the values of the Nationalists in causing social transformation in China.

What was the short-term significance of the Five-Year Plans in the economic transformation of China?

Assess the short-term impact of the rise of the Gang of Four on government in twentieth century China.

What was the short-term impact of the USSR in the transformation of China?

The role of individuals (Part A)

Society

Economy

Government

Causes of change

Assess the short-term impact of Chairman Mao in causing social transformation in China.

What was the short-term significance of Deng Xiaoping on the economic transformation in China?

Assess the short-term impact of Liu Shaoqi on government in twentieth century China.

What was the short-term significance of Sun Yat-sen?

Key events (Part A)

Society

Economy

Government

Causes of change

Assess the short-term impact of the introduction of the Little Red Book on social transformation in China.

What was the short-term significance of the Treaty of Nanjing?

Assess the short-term impact of the Wuchang Uprising on government in twentieth century China?

What was the short-term significance of the proclamation of the PRC in 1949?

Factors (Part B)

Society

Economy

Government

Causes of change

Assess the significance of social change in China’s transformation in the twentieth century.

To what extent would you agree that the most significant influence on economic change in China in the twentieth century was the Great Leap Forward?

Assess the significance of regime change in China’s transformation in the twentieth century.

To what extent would you agree that the most significant influence on transformation in China in the twentieth century was the interference of foreign powers?

The role of individuals (Part B)

Society

Economy

Government

Causes of change

Assess the significance of individual leadership and personality in hastening and or hindering change in China throughout the twentieth century.

Assess the significance of individual leadership and personality in hastening and or hindering change in China throughout the twentieth century.

Assess the significance of individual leadership and personality in hastening and or hindering change in China throughout the twentieth century.

Assess the significance of individual leadership and personality in hastening and or hindering change in China throughout the twentieth century.

Key events (Part B)

Society

Economy

Government

Causes of change

In considering the process of social change in twentieth century China, how far can the Hundred Flowers’ Campaign be seen as a turning point?

In considering the process of economic change in twentieth century China, how far can the death of Mao Zedong be seen as a turning point?

In considering the process of governmental change in twentieth century China, how far can the death of Lin Biao be seen as a turning point?

In considering the process of the transformation of China in the twentieth century, how far can the violent break between the KMD and the Communists be seen as a key turning point?



© Pearson Education Ltd 2009 1



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