Currents of Change in the Old Northwest

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Study Guide 3

Nash, chapters 8-10

Currents of Change in the Old Northwest (The Market Revolution)

  1. Natural resources

  1. Increasing population

  1. Domestic and European capital

  1. Immigration, e.g., the “famine” Irish

  1. Tariff rate

  1. Market infrastructure (increased speed, lowered expense)

  1. western settlements (squatting, mutuality, infrastructure accelerates pace)

  1. John O’Sullivan

  1. Railroads and regional specialization

  1. Entrepreneurial ethos & technological innovation

  1. Second Great Awakening

    1. Religious underpinning to personal self-improvement

    1. Democracy and American Christianity

    1. Revivalist preachers and transportation infrastructure

    1. Charles Grandison Finney

  1. Horace Mann

  1. Habits of discipline

  1. Education as counter to unsettling effects of economic change(?)

  1. The American system of manufactures

  1. First industry shaped by large factory system

  1. Francis Cabot Lowell mill system

  1. Women of Lowell

  1. Lowell strike 1834

  1. Undermining woman labor at Lowell

  1. “Wages slavery” (e.g., Cincinnati)

  1. New York urban growth (trade entrepot)

  1. Concentration of wealth and power

  1. Steady rise of “middle class” (non-manual labor)

  1. Role of the ideal woman

  1. Domesticity and “female morality” (separate spheres)

  1. Female job mobility and opportunity

  1. Race & class tensions in Philadelphia riots 1834

  1. Ethnic and cultural disunity of workers

  1. Jim Crow, Northern style

  1. Richard Allen & Bethel A.M.E.

  1. Old Northwest

  1. The South (most important export crop?)

  1. The Northeast

  1. Business cycle

  1. Mechanization of agriculture

  1. Steady displacement of small farmer

  1. Urbanization rates

Chapter 9 Slavery and the Old South

  1. Recent interpretations of slavery

  1. Frederick Douglass --- Frederick Douglass ---- In his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, he recalled his first childhood thoughts about his condition: Why am I a slave? Why are some people slaves, and others masters? Was there ever a time when this was not so? How did the relation commence? Once, however, engaged in the inquiry, I was not very long in finding out the true solution of the matter. It was not color, but crime, not God, but man, that afforded the true explanation of the existence of slavery; nor was I long in finding out another important truth, viz: what man can make, man can unmake . . . I distinctly remember being, even then, most strongly impressed with the idea of being a free man some clay. This cheering assurance was an inborn dream of my human nature-a constant menace to slavery-and one which all the powers of slavery were unable to silence or extinguish.

  1. Patterns of slave ownership

  1. Small slave owners

  1. Impact of the cotton gin

  1. “King Cotton”

  1. Factors leading to cotton boom

  1. Southern push southwestward

  1. Slave labor (main areas of production)

  1. Slave holding and social class

  1. Ideology of social mobility (white solidarity deflects class antagonisms)

  1. Watchdog class (white yeomanry)

  1. Rich whites (e.g., Robert Francis Allston)

  1. Poor whites

  1. Poor whites and slaves --- “The instances where poor whites helped slaves were not frequent, but sufficient to show the need for setting one group against the other. [Historian Eugene]Genovese says: ‘The slaveholders ... suspected that non-slaveholders would encourage slave disobedience and even rebellion, not so much out of sympathy for the blacks as out of hatred for the rich planters and resentment of their own poverty. White men sometimes were linked to slave insurrectionary plots, and each such incident rekindled fears.’ This helps explain the stern police measures against whites who fraternized with blacks.”

  1. Mary Boykin Chesnut and the “sore spot”

  1. Defense of slavery (e.g., George Fitzhugh as apologist --- positive good defense)

  1. Abolitionism (especially women)

  1. Underground Railroad

  1. Harriet Tubman --- “born into slavery, her head injured by an overseer when she was fifteen, made her way to freedom alone as a young woman, then became the most famous conductor on the Underground Railroad. She made nineteen dangerous trips back and forth, often disguised, escorting more than three hundred slaves to freedom, always carrying a pistol, telling the fugitives, "You'll be free or the." She expressed her philosophy: "There was one of two things I had a right to, liberty or death; if I could not have one, I would have the other; for no man should take me alive...."

  1. David Walker --- “son of a slave, but horn free in North Carolina, moved to Boston, where he sold old clothes. The pamphlet he wrote and printed, Walker's Appeal, became widely known. It infuriated southern slaveholders; Georgia offered a reward of $10,000 to anyone who would deliver Walker alive, and $1,000 to anyone who would kill him. It is not hard to understand why when you read his Appeal.” ----- Let our enemies go on with their butcheries, and at once fill up their cup. Never make an attempt to gain our freedom or natural right from under our cruel oppressors and murderers, until you see your way clear-when that hour arrives and you move, be not afraid or dismayed. . .. God has been pleased to give us two eyes, two hands, two feet, and some sense in our heads as well as they. They have no more right to hold us in slavery than we have to hold them... . Our sufferings will come to an end, in spite of all the Americans this side of eternity. Then we will want all the learning and talents among ourselves, and perhaps more, to govern ourselves.-"Every dog must have its day," the American's is coming to an end.

  1. Free black population ---- “While southern slaves held on, free blacks in the North (there were about 130,000 in 1830, about 200,000 in 1850) agitated for the abolition of slavery.”

  1. Black abolitionism

  1. William Lloyd Garrison

  1. Slave resistance --- “Resistance included stealing property, sabotage and slowness, killing overseers and masters, burning down plantation buildings, running away. Even the accommodation "breathed a critical spirit and disguised subversive actions." Most of this resistance . . . fell short of organized insurrection, but its significance for masters and slaves was enormous --- Running away was much more realistic than armed insurrection. During the 1850s about a thousand slaves a year escaped into the North, Canada, and Mexico. Thousands ran away for short periods. And this despite the terror facing the runaway. The dogs used in tracking fugitives "bit, tore, mutilated, and if not pulled off in time, killed their prey"

    1. Nat Turner --- “Nat Turner's rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia, in the summer of 1831, threw the slaveholding South into a panic, and then into a determined effort to bolster the security of the slave system. Turner, claiming religious visions, gathered about seventy slaves, who went on a rampage from plantation to plantation, murdering at least fifty-five men, women, and children. They gathered supporters, but were captured as their ammunition ran out. Turner and perhaps eighteen others were hanged.”

    1. Southern society before the Turner rebellion --- “In 1831, Virginia was an armed and garrisoned state... . With a total population of 1,211,405, the State of Virginia was able to field a militia force of 101,488 men, including cavalry, artillery, grenadiers, riflemen, and light infantry! It is true that this was a "paper army" in some ways, in that the county regiments were not fully armed and equipped, but it is still an astonishing commentary on the state of the public mind of the time. During a period when neither the State nor the nation faced any sort of exterior threat, we find that Virginia felt the need to maintain a security force roughly ten percent of the total number of its inhabitants: black and white, male and female, slave and free!”

  1. Slave masters and Christianity

  1. Slave Christianity ---- “As for black preachers, as Genovese puts it, "they had to speak a language defiant enough to hold the high-spirited among their flock but neither so inflammatory as to rouse them to battles they could not win nor so ominous as to arouse the ire of ruling powers." Practicality decided: "The slave communities, embedded as they were among numerically preponderant and militarily powerful whites, counseled a strategy of patience, of acceptance of what could not be helped, of a dogged effort to keep the black community alive and healthy-a strategy of survival that, like its African prototype, above all said yes to life in this world."

  1. Slave spirituals --- “Spirituals often had double meanings. The song "O Canaan, sweet Canaan, I am bound for the land of Canaan" often meant that slaves meant to get to the North, their Canaan. During the Civil War, slaves began to make up new spirituals with bolder messages: "Before I'd be a slave, I'd be buried in my grave, and go home to my Lord and be saved." And the spiritual "Many Thousand Go":

  1. Slave folk tales

  1. Slave population (1808-1860)

  1. Slave family ---

  1. Break-up of slave families

Chapter 10 - Shaping America in the Antebellum Age

  1. Economic uncertainty

  1. Market revolution and northern power

  1. Southerners on the tariff

  1. John C. Calhoun

  1. Labor militancy

  1. Reform impulse

  1. Panaceas

  1. utopian communities/communitarians

  1. Temperance

  1. Second Great Awakening

  1. William Miller

  1. Ralph Waldo Emerson:

  1. Henry David Thoreau

  1. Herman Melville

  1. Dorothea Dix

  1. Abolitionism

    1. American Colonizationist Society:

    1. The American Anti-Slavery Society:

    1. Lane Seminary & the Lane Rebels

    1. Angelina Grimke:

    1. Elijah Lovejoy - Anti-abolitionists and mob violence/ public opinion

  1. Seneca Falls Convention, 1848

  1. Election of Andrew Jackson, 1828

  1. White democracy: majority rule

  1. Nullification crisis of 1832

  1. Gag Rule 1836-1844

  1. Fate of the Cherokee: hardship and removal

  1. Divergent systems and the impending crisis

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