Culture and Currents of Thought in Quebec today



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Culture and Currents of Thought

Culture and currents of thought in Quebec today


a. Currents of thought in Quebec today

  • Aboriginalism

  • Feminism

  • nationalism

b. Characteristics of Quebec's cultural identity

  • French language

  • Values of freedom and equality

c. Examples of means used to disseminate culture

  • Literature

  • Theatre

  • Music

  • Media


A. First occupants - around 1500


1. Spirituality

  1. Main players embodying spirituality among Native peoples

  • Shamans,

  • Elders

  1. Forms of cultural expression associated with spirituality among Native peoples

  • communication with spirits

  • interpretation of dreams

  • performance of hunting and healing rituals

2. Relationship with nature

  1. Relationship maintained by Native peoples with nature

  • an attitude of respect toward nature, with which human beings form a circle of life

  1. Key Players

  • Hunters

  • Gatherers

  • Women

  1. Forms of cultural expression associated with the relationship maintained by Native peoples with nature

  • ceremonies at changes of season

  • association of animal totems with clans

3. Communication and trade

  • One element common to all communication and trade among the Native peoples

  • the reciprocal relationship based on the gift and the counter-gift

  • Key Players

  • Chiefs

  • council of Elders

  • Forms of cultural expression associated with communication and trade among the Native peoples

  • performance of ritual dances

  • use of drums


B. French regime: 1608 – 1760


1. Divine right of kings

a. Characteristics of the divine right of kings

b. Players who embody the divine right of kings

  • the king

  • the governor

c. Forms of cultural expression associated with the divine right of kings

  • the appointment of the bishop by the monarch

  • the royal coat of arms with the fleur-de-lys

2. Catholicism

  1. Characteristics of Catholicism

  • Christian religion

  • recognition of the authority of the pope

  1. Players who embody Catholicism

    • Bishops

    • Clergy

    • religious orders (Jesuits & Recollets)

    • missionaries

  1. Forms of cultural expression associated with Catholicism

    • written documents such as the Conversion des Sauvages by Marc Lescarbot

    • the Jesuit Relations (book recounting experiences of Jesuits)

    • the Catechisme du diocese de Quebec

    • religious buildings

    • religious art

    • regulation of daily life by the religious calendar

3. Independent spirit and adaptability of the Canadiens

      1. Players who embody the independent spirit and adaptability of the Canadiens from the state and the Church

  • coureurs de bois

  • habitants

  • merchants

      1. Forms of cultural expression associated with the independence of the Canadiens from the state and the Church

  • fur trading without a permit

  • living in Amerindian territory

  • resistance to authority such as that related in Histoire et description de la Nouvelle-France by Father Charlevoix

  • Kalm's Travels in North America

      1. Forms of cultural expression associated with the adaptability of the Canadiens

  • construction of houses adapted to the climate

  • use of birchbark canoes

  • snowshoes and fur clothing

C. British rule 1760 - 1867


1. Imperialism

      1. Characteristics of imperialism

  • imposition of political structures by a state on other territories

  • policy of assimilation and acculturation

  • control of the economy

      1. Players who embody imperialism

  • the king

  • the governor

      1. Forms of cultural expression associated with imperialism

  • The Quebec Gazette / La Gazette de Quebec

  • the monument Nelson's Column in Montreal

  • Victoria Square

2. Liberalism

      1. Characteristics of liberalism

  • individual freedom

  • freedom of expression

  • freedom of the press

  • participation in the exercise of political power

      1. Players who embody liberalism

  • some British merchants

  • Louis-Joseph Papineau

  • the French-Canadian professional bourgeoisie

  • the Patriotes

      1. Forms of cultural expression associated with liberalism

  • opinion journals such as Le Canadien and The Vindicator,

  • the flag of the Patriotes

  • the Theater Royal in Montreal

  • the Societe Saint-Jean-Baptiste

3. Ultramontanism

      1. Characteristics of ultramontanism

  • assertion of the primacy of the Church over the state

  • rejection of modernism

  • recognition of the absolute power of the pope

      1. Players who embody ultramontanism

  • Monseigneur Bourget

  • Monseigneur Lafleche

  • the clergy

      1. Forms of cultural expression associated with ultramontanism

  • establishment of the Oeuvre des bons livres by the Sulpicians

  • Saint-Jacques-le-Majeur church (Cathedrale Marie-Reine-du-Monde)

4. Anticlericalism

      1. Characteristics of anticlericalism

  • opposition to the influence of the church on the state

  • rejection of clerical intervention in civil society

  • challenging of traditionalism

      1. Players who embody anticlericalism

  • the Parti rouge

  • the Institut canadien de Montreal

      1. Forms of cultural expression associates with anticlericalism

  • the library of the Institut canadien de Montreal

  • publication of the opinion journal L'Avenir

  • Lettres sur le Canada by Arthur Buies

D. Conetemporary period 1867 to the present


1. Imperialism

      1. Characteristics of imperialism

  • imposition of political institutions

  • imposition of one's culture and values on the territories in one's possession

      1. Players who embody British imperialism

  • Lord Dufferin

  • the Orangists

  • the Imperial Federation League

      1. Forms of cultural expression associated with British imperialism

  • the statue of Queen Victoria in Victoria Square

  • First World War recruitment posters

  • visit of George VI to Quebec

2. Capitalism

      1. Characteristics of capitalism

  • private ownership of means of production

  • focus on profit

      1. Players who embody capitalism

  • the Montreal Curb Market

  • banks

  • John Redpath

      1. Forms of cultural expression associated with capitalism

  • the Sun Life building

  • the Dominion Corset building

  • Saint-Henri neighbourhood in Montreal

3. Socialism

      1. Characteristics of socialism

  • collective ownership of the means of production

  • primacy of collective interests over individual interests

      1. Players who embody socialism

  • the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation

  • Albert Saint-Martin

      1. Forms of cultural expression associated with socialism

4. Agriculturism

      1. Characteristics of agriculturism

  • promotion of rural life

  • primacy of tradition values such as the French language and the Catholic religion

  • rejection of the industrial world

      1. Players who embody agriculturism

  • Curé Labelle

  • Mercier

      1. Forms of cultural expression associated with agriculturism

  • Un homme et son peche by Claude-Henri Grignon

  • the Agricultural Merit award

5. Nationalisms

Nationalism: an ideology that claims that a community with shared characteristics forms a nation



5.1 Canadian nationalism

a. Characteristics of Canadian nationalism

  • pride in membership in the British Empire

  • financial and military support for the British Empire

b. Players who embody Canadian nationalism

  • Laurier

  • the Canada First movement

c. Forms of cultural expression associated with Canadian nationalism

  • the Canadian Red Ensign

  • the creation of the Canadian navy

  • Wilfrid Laurier's prediction that the 20th century would belong to Canada

5.2 French Canadian nationalism

a. Characteristics of French Canadian nationalism

b. Players who embody French Canadian nationalism

  • Henri Bourassa

  • Lionel Groulx

  • the Bloc populaire

c. Forms of cultural expression associated with French Canadian

nationalism

  • the speech given by Honore Mercier at the Champ de Mars

  • L'appel de la race by Lionel Groulx

  • the newspaper Le Nationaliste and the magazine L'Action nationale

5.3 Quebec nationalism

a. Characteristics of Quebec nationalism



  • safeguarding of the French language

  • respect for areas of provincial jurisdiction

  • affirmation of the distinct character of Quebec society

b. Players who embody Quebec nationalism

  • Rene Levesque

  • Jean Lesage

  • Parti Quebecois

c. Forms of cultural expression associated with Quebec nationalism

  • the publication Egalite ou independance by Daniel Johnson

  • the manifesto Option Quebec by Rene Levesque

6. Secularism

a. Characteristics of secularism

b. Players who embody secularism

  • Paul-Emile Borduas

  • the Ecole sociale populaire

c. Forms of cultural expression associated with secularism

  • Les demis-civilises by Jean-Charles Harvey

  • the Manifeste du Refus global, Cite libre

7. Cooperatism

a. Characteristics of cooperatism

  • sharing of resources

  • division of any surplus between the members

b. Players who embody cooperatism

  • Alphonse and Dorimene Desjardins

  • the Union catholique des cultivateurs

c. Forms of cultural expression associated with cooperatism

  • the Cooperative Syndicates Act (1906)

  • the Ligue ouvriere catholique

8. Fascism

a. Characteristics of fascism

  • cult of the leader

  • single party

  • ethnic nationalism

b. Players who embody fascism

  • the Parti national social chretien

  • Adrien Arcand

c. Forms of cultural expression associated with fascism

  • the fresco by Guido Nincheri in Notre-Dame-de-la-Defense church in Montreal

  • anti-Semitic posters

  • La Cle du mystere by Adrien Arcand

9. Feminism

a. Characteristics of feminism

  • demands for recognition of women's rights

  • sexual equality

b. Players who embody feminism

  • Nellie McClung

  • the Conseil du statut de la femme

c. Forms of cultural expression associated with feminism

  • the Montreal Local Council of Women

  • the magazine La Vie en rose

10. Americanism

a. Characteristics of Americanism

  • fascination with the American way of life

  • admiration for freedom

  • individualism and economic success

b. Players who embody Americanism

  • large corporations

  • Ed Sullivan

  • Oscar Peterson

c. Forms of cultural expression connected with Americanism

  • advertising

  • fast food

  • Hollywood movies

  • jazz

11. Neoliberalism

a. Characteristics of neoliberalism

  • free markets

  • individual responsibility

  • reduction in state intervention in areas of public life

b. Players who embody neoliberalism

  • multinationals

  • financial circles

  • political parties

c. Movements that oppose neoliberalism

12. Aboriginalism

a. Characteristics of Aboriginalism

  • preservation of Native culture

  • protection for Native languages

b. Players who embody Aboriginalism

  • Samian (rapper)

  • Elisapie Isaac

c. Forms of cultural expression associated with Aboriginalism

  • the Innu Nikamu festival

  • the First Peoples festival

  • Inuit throat singing

Protection of the cultural heritage and cultural homogenization in Quebec today



  1. Cultural heritage:

  • the shared heritage of a community that is transmitted from one generation to the next, including language, values, social norms, buildings with a historical or artistic interest, artifacts

  1. Elements of culture in Quebec society that constitute a heritage from the past

  • forms of cultural expression associated with the spirituality of the Native peoples

  • institutions such as the Catholic church

  • parishes

  • the French language

  • The Gazette

  • Cathedral of the Holy Trinity in Quebec City

  1. Means used by the state to preserve Quebec's cultural heritage

  • pass legislation

  • grant subsidies

  • classify or recognize historical monuments

  1. Effects of economic globalization on national cultures

  • broader access to cultural diversity

  • the homogenization of cultures and lifestyles


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