Cultural Revolutions: Everyday Life and Politics in England, Colonial America, and France History 29503 01/39503 01 gs29503 01/39503 01 History of Culture 39503 01 Winter, 2005 Wednesdays, 9: 30-12: 30 Rosenwald Hall Room 011



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Cultural Revolutions: Everyday Life and Politics in England,

Colonial America, and France
History 29503 01/39503 01

GS29503 01/39503 01

History of Culture 39503 01
Winter, 2005

Wednesdays, 9:30-12:30

Rosenwald Hall Room 011
Leora Auslander

Office: Social Sciences 222; tel. 2-7940 (please do not leave messages on this phone

-I will get email messages faster)

Email: lausland@midway.uchicago.edu



Office Hours (please sign up outside of SS222): Tuesdays 10:30-12:00
This course will examine the place of material culture, ritual, and everyday life during the three revolutionary moments that ushered in the modern political era. In each case revolutionaries thought that while reasoned argument could make republican minds, democratic goods, habits, and rituals were needed to make republican hearts. From the banning of dancing and tobacco in Cromwell’s England, to the Boston Tea Party in colonial Boston, to the new calendar and systems of weights and measures in revolutionary France, people altered their daily habits and tastes – or found them altered for them – in the interests of political transformation. Through a combination of lectures and discussion, this course will examine likenesses, differences, and interactions across these three moments of radical change. Readings will be drawn from the historiography on these questions, but one of the writing assignments and additional materials will also draw on primary sources such as political treatises, material culture, architectural plans, music, plays, and fiction.
Structure:
Each three-hour class session will be divided into two parts:

  1. Discussion of the day’s reading (1 - 1½ hours)

10 minute break

  1. Lecture on the topic for the following week (1+ hour)


Writing Assignments:
Please note:

--Assignments two and three are identical for undergraduate and graduate students, assignment one has two variants.

--More specific information concerning technical requirements and expectations for these papers will be posted to the Chalk site and discussed in class.

--Those planning to take the class are required to email me topics for assignments one and two by Friday, January 7 (please see below). If I do note receive two emails from you by Friday, I will drop you from the chalk site.
1)Undergraduates: You will be asked to choose from a list of the sub-topics treated during the quarter: i.e. Tobacco in the English Civil War; Puritan attitudes towards clothing; the use of ritual and material culture to enact royal power; the forging of an American identity before the nation; the role of boycott in the American Revolution; consumer culture in 18th century France; using clothing to “read” the French Revolution… I will then provide you with a bibliography of three articles and two books. You will write a review essay from that short bibliography (and the works assigned for class on that topic). These papers should be a maximum of 10 double-spaced pages long and will be due by the Tuesday following the class discussion of the topic by 11 pm.
First and second choices for these papers should also be emailed to me by Friday January 7. Please let me know if you have a reading knowledge of any language other than English in that email.
Finally, it is expected that you will intervene in class that day on the basis of the expertise you have acquired researching this paper.
1) Graduate Students: You will be asked to choose from a list of the sub-topics treated during the quarter: i.e. Tobacco in the English Civil War; Puritan attitudes towards clothing; the use of ritual and material culture to enact royal power; the forging of an American identity before the nation; the role of boycott in the American Revolution; consumer culture in 18th century France; using clothing to “read” the French Revolution… You will then be asked to establish an extensive (although not exhaustive) secondary bibliography on that topic which you will subsequently narrow to the five articles and three books you consider the most important. You will then write a review essay from that short bibliography (and the works assigned for class on that topic). Included in that essay should be a defense of your selections. These papers should be a maximum of 13 double-spaced pages long and will be due by the Tuesday following the class discussion of the topic by 11 pm.
First and second choices for these papers should also be emailed to me by Friday January 7. Please let me know if you have a reading knowledge of any language other than English in that email.
Finally, it is expected that you will intervene in class that day on the basis of the expertise you have acquired researching this paper.
2) Each student will write an analysis of a primary text, ritual, object, work of art, or piece of music relevant to one session’s topic (weeks 3-10) once during the quarter. You will be asked to submit a first and second choice of session and general ideas for an object by Friday of first week (January 7). I will respond with a definitive date and suggestions for an object (or where you should look), as well as a suggested appointment time two weeks before your paper will be due. Papers should be submitted via email and will be due the Friday (at 11pm) following the session to which they pertain. The page limit is 5 double-spaced pages. It is expected that you will intervene in class that day on the basis of the expertise you have acquired researching this paper.
NOTE: Assignments one and two may NOT be written on the same historical event. That is, for example, if you choose a primary source from the American Revolution, then your historiographic paper must be on either the French or English cases.
3) A thought-piece, 10 double-spaced pages in length, on the concept “cultural revolution.” What are the possible definitions of the term? How useful is it? Does it have a stable meaning across time and space? These papers will be due by 5pm on Monday of exam week. No late papers will be accepted.
Class Participation:
It is assumed that you will come to all classes and that you will be prepared to participate actively in discussion. I will be particularly attentive to your participation the weeks you have written one of your papers, but I consider participation in all class sessions vital. Attendance and participation will be noted and be considered in your grade.
Texts and Images:
Readings and images will be posted on the course’s chalksite under appropriate weeks. The exception is T.H. Breen’s The Marketplace of Revolution which will be available for purchase in the Seminary.
Note: There may be some minor alterations to the readings as the term progresses. Please check the Chalk site for changes, although I will also note changes in an email..
January 5. Introduction: Cultural Revolution: Things, Rituals, and Political Change in the Atlantic World
An introductory lecture this week address the following themes:


  1. Theoretical discussion of words, things, and rituals and the constitution of meaning.

  2. Historical discussion of the same.

  3. Political and cultural revolutions.

  4. Cultural and consumer revolutions.

  5. Definition of consumer, consumerism and consumer society, including a discussion of the problem of specificity of genre/cultural field and of consumer goods. No necessary synchronicity across cultural fields nor among commodities.

  6. English, American and French Revolutions as “Consumer revolutions”?

  7. The Atlantic World in the Age of Revolution: Interaction? Comparison? Juxtaposition?

January 12. Theoretical Framework: Words, Practices, and Things
Marcel Mauss, “Techniques of the Body” in Jonathan Crary and S. Kwinter (eds). Incorporations. Zone 6, (New York: Urzone, Inc/MIT Press), 455-477.
Roland Barthes,”Introduction,” in his Elements of Semiology trans. Annette Lavers and Colin (New York, 1967).
Roland Fletcher, “The Messages of Material Behaviour: A Preliminary discussion of non-verbal meaning,”in Ian Hodder, ed. The Meaning of Things: Material culture and symblic expression (London, 1989), pp. 33-40.
Pierre Bourdieu, ch. 2 in his Outline of a Theory of Practice trans. Richard Nice (Cambridge, 1977)
Ann Jones and Peter Stallybrass, Renaissance Clothing and the Materials of Memory Cambridge: CUP, 2000), pp. 1-11.
Jules David Prown, “Mind in Matter: An Introduction to Material Culture Theory and Method,”in Material Life in America 1600-1800 ed. Robert Blair St. George (Boston, 1988), pp. 17-37.
January 19. Maintaining Monarchical Power and Shaping the Body Politic: Markets and Courts in Early Modern England


  1. Monarchical strategies for maintaining power

    1. Courtly ritual

    2. Sumptuary Legislation

    3. Patronage networks

  2. Markets

a. Development of “consumer society”

b. State encouragement and regulation of the market

3) Complex boundaries among regulation, protectionism and sumptuary law
The Court
David Harley, "The Beginnings of the Tobacco Controversy: Puritanism, James I, and the Royal Physicians," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 67/1 (Spring 1993): 28-50
J. Newman, “Inigo Jones and the Politics of Architecture,” Culture and Politics in Early Stuart England eds. Kevin Sharpe and Peter Lake (Stanford, 1993), pp. 229-257.
David Lindley, “Courtly Play: The Politics of Chapman’s The Memorable Masque,” in Culture and Politics in Early Stuart England eds. Kevin Sharpe and Peter Lake (Stanford, 1993), pp. 42-58.
R. Malcolm Smuts, “Art and the Material Culture of Majesty in Early Stuart England,” in The Stuart Court and Europe, ed. R. Malcolm Smuts, (Cambridge,1996), pp. 86-112.
Linda Levy Peck, “The Language of Patronage: A Discourse of Connection,” ch 1. in her Court Patronage and Corruption in Early Stuart England (London, 1990), pp. 12-29.
Markets and the State
Carole Shammas, “Changes in English and Anglo-American consumption from 1550 to 1800” in Consumption and the World of Goods, John Brewer and Roy Porter, eds. (London, 1993), pp. 177-205.
Joan Thirsk, Economic Policy and Projects: The Development of a Consumer Society in Early Modern England (Oxford, 1978), ch. 5.
N.B. Harte, "State Control of Dress and Social Change in Pre-Industrial England," in Trade, Government, and Economy in Pre-Industrial England eds. D.C. Coleman and A.H. John (London, 1976), pp. 132-165.
January 26. Cultural Revolution in 17th century England?
Was there a Cultural Revolution in 17th century England? Was it Republican?

Puritan? In what domains of life did it occur, if any? If it existed, did it endure beyond the Restoration?
Roy Sherwood, “The Protectoral Palaces,” “The Nature of Court Life,” and “Conclusion” chs. 1, 7 and Conclusion in his The Court of Oliver Cromwell, (London, 1977), pp. 15-32, 135-167.
Sean Kelsey, “Spectacle” and “Icons” in Inventing a Republic: The Political culture of the English Commonwealth, 1649-1653 (Stanford, 1997), chs. 2 and 3 (pp. 25-118)
Ann Jones and Peter Stallybrass, “Yellow Starch: Fabrications of the Jacobean Court,” ch. 3 in their Renaissance Clothing and the Materials of Memory Cambridge, 2000), pp. 59-85.
Timothy Mowl and Brian Earnshaw, “Architects of a New Style,” in Architecture without Kings: The Rise of Puritan Classicism under Cromwell, (Manchester, 1995), pp. 25-99.
Kevin Sharpe, “’An Image Doting Rabble:’ The Failure of Republican Culture in Seventeenth-Century England,” in Refiguring Revolutions (Berkeley, 1998), pp. 25-56.
February 5. The Colonial Case: How English were the American Colonies on the

eve of Revolution?


  1. Demographics: Who were the American colonists? And, does it matter?

  2. Provincial/Colonial English culture? Synchretisms? Creoles?Regionalisms?

  3. Did an “American” identity predate the Revolution?

T.H. Breen, The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence (New York, 2004), Introduction and part I.


Neil D. Kamil, "Hidden in Plain Sight: Disappearance and Material Life in Colonial New York," in American Furniture 1995 ed. Luke Becherdite and William Hosley (Chipstone Foundation/University Press of New England, 1995), 191-249.

John Vlach, “Architecture,” ch. 8 in his The AfroAmerican Tradition in Decorative Design (Athens,GA, 1990), pp. 122-138.


Billy G. Smith, “The Material Lives of Laboring Philadelphians, 1750-1800,” in Material Life in America 1600-1800 ed. Robert Blair St. George (Boston, 1988), pp. 233-260.
Melvin Wade, “’Shining in Borrowed Plumage’: Affirmation of Community in the Black Coronation Festivals of New England, ca. 1750-1850,” in Material Life in America 1600-1800 ed. Robert Blair St. George (Boston, 1988), pp. 171-184.
Robert Blair St. George, “Artifacts of Regional Consciousness in the Connecticut River Valley, 1700-1780,” in Material Life in America 1600-1800 ed. Robert Blair St. George (Boston, 1988), pp. 335-356.
February 12. The American Revolution/War of Independence as a Consumer

Revolution or Cultural Revolution?
1) Was the American Revolution a Consumer Revolution?

2) Was the American Revolution a War of Independence based on pre-existing

American identity? Or did it produce Americans?

3) Did the American Revolution bring about a cultural revolution?
T.H. Breen, The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence (New York, 2004), part II.
Michael N. Shute, "Furniture, the American Revolution and the Modern Antique," in Edith Mayo, ed. American Material Culture: The Shape of things around Us (Bowling Green, 1984): 182-207.
Ann Fairfax Withington, "Manufacturing and Selling the American Revolution," in Catherine Hutchins, ed. Everyday Life in the Early Republic (Winterthur, Del., 1994), pp. 285-315.
David Waldstreicher, In the Midst of Perpetual Fetes: The Making of American Nationalism, 1776-1820 (Chapel Hill, 1997), ch. 1, pp. 17-52.
February 19. The monarchical regime in eighteenth-century France and its

Challengers
1) Was 18th century French Society a Consumer Society or a Court Society?

2) What was the role of Monarch and Court in the Market?

3) Was the French Revolution a bourgeois Revolution based on pre-existing

bourgeois identity?
Courtly culture and Monarchical responsibility:
Norbert Elias, “Characteristics of the court-aristocratic figuration,” and “Etiquette and Ceremony: Conduct and Sentiment of Human Beings as Functions of the Power Structure of their Society,” chs 4 and 5 in his The Court Society, trans. Edmund Jephcott (Oxford, 1983), pp. 66-116.
Leora Auslander Taste and Power: Furnishing Modern France (Berkeley, 1996), Part I.
Steven L. Kaplan, Introduction and chapters one and two,”The Police of Provisioning” and “The Regulations and the Regulators” in vol 1 of his Bread, Politics and Political Economy in the Reign of Louis XV (The Hague, 1976) 2 vols.
New Cultural Forms:
Paul Friedland, “Parallel Stages: Theatrical and Political Representation in Early Modern and Revolutionary France,” in The age of cultural revolutions : Britain and France, 1750-1820 Colin Jones and Dror Wahrman, Eds. (Berkeley,, 2002), pp. 218-250.
Susan Leigh Foster, “Dancing the Body Politic: Manner and Mimesis in Eighteenth-Century Ballet,” in Sara E. Melzer and Kathryn Norberg, From the Royal to the Republican Body: Incorporating the Political in Seventeenth and Eighteenth-century France (Berkeley, 1998), pp. 162-181.
The Market
Colin Jones, "Bourgeois Revolution Revivified: 1789 and Social Change," in Re-writing the French Revolution, ed. Colin Lucas (Oxford, 1991), pp. 69-118.
Dena Goodman, “Furnishing Discourses: Readings of a Writing Desk in Eighteenth-Century France,” in Luxury in the Eighteenth Century (London, 2003), pp. 71-88.
Cissie Fairchilds, "The production and marketing of populuxe goods in eighteenth-century Paris," in Consumption and the World of Goods, ed. John Brewer and Roy Porter (London,1993), pp. 228-248.
Daniel Roche, The People of Paris, tr. Marie Evans (Berkeley, 1987), pp. 127-194.


February 26. French Revolutionary Culture


  1. How did genre matter in French revolutionary culture?

  2. Division of labor between the material and nonmaterial

  3. The problem of reception.

Lynn Hunt, "Symbolic Forms of Political Practice," in her Politics, Culture and Class in the French Revolution (Berkeley, 1984), pp. 52-86.


Dorinda Outram, “The Problem of the Body in Political Culture,” ch. 1 in her

The Body and the French Revolution: Sex, Class and Political Culture (New Haven, 1988), pp. 1-5.
Udolpho van de Sandt, “ Painting  competition of L'an II: A dream if ever there were one, “in Culture and revolution : cultural ramifications of the French Revolution, George Levitine ed. ( College Park: Dept of Art History, 1989)
     

Hans-Jürgen Lüsebrink and Rolf Reichardt, ”The Patriotic Cult of Relics: The Staging of the Bastille Stones in Paris and in the French Provinces,” in their The Bastille: A Hostory of a Symbol of Despotism and Freedom (Durham, 1997), pp. 131-146.


James H. Johnson, Listening In Paris: A Cultural History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), Part III (Chs 6, 7, 8, and Epilogue), pp. 103-167.
Jennifer Harris, "The Red Cap of Liberty: A Study of Dress Worn by French Revolutionary Partisans, 1789-95" Eighteenth-Century French Studies vol. 14, no. 3 (Spring, 1981): 283-312.
Mona Ozouf, “The Future of the Festival: Festival and Pedagogy,” and “Popular Life and the Revolutionary Festival,” chs. 8 and 9 in her Festivals and the French Revolution, trans. Alan Sheridan, (Cambridge, 1988), pp.196-261.
March 2. Complicating the Story: Were the Aesthetics in the French Revolution

Enlightened or Revolutionary?


  1. Was there a “revolutionary” aesthetic? A new culture born of the revolution?

  2. Boundaries between re-use and re-inscription

  3. Relation between structure and surface

Rémi Clignet, “Political versus Aesthetic Revolutions: The 1780-1800 Period as a Case Study,” in Culture and revolution : cultural ramifications of the French Revolution, George Levitine ed. ( College Park, 1989), pp. 98-108.

Elizabeth Barlow Rogers, “Sense and Sensibility: Landscapes of the Age of Reason, Romanticism, and Revolution,” in her Landscape Design (New York, 2001)

Michelle Biget, “Political revolution and musical revolution: coincidences and contradictions,” in Culture and revolution : cultural ramifications of the French Revolution, George Levitine ed ( College Park, 1989).



James Leith. Space and Revolution: Projects for Monuments, Squares, and Public Buildings in France, 1789-1799 (Montreal: McGill-Queen's Press, 1991), chapters 2, 3 and 4.
March 9. Post-Revolutionary/Early National Culture in North America
Michael Zakim, “Introduction: Sartorial Politics,” “A Homespun Ideology,” and “A Fashion Regime,” Introduction, and chs. 1 and 7 in his Ready-made Democracy: A History of Dress in the Early American Republic, 1760-1860 (Chicago, 2003).
Neil Harris, "The Perils of Vision: Art, Luxury and Republicanism," ch 2. in his The Artist in American Society: The Formative Years, 1790-1860 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966), pp. 28-53.
Patrick L. Stewart, "The American Empire Style: Its Historical Background," American Art Journal 10:2 (1978): 97-105.
J. Meredith Neil, “Democratic Definitions,” and “The Arts and Civilization”, chs. 1 and 2 in her Toward a National Taste: America’s Quest for Aesthetic Independence (Honolulu: Univ. Press of Hawaii, 1975), pp. 1-50.






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