cession (from ceded - to be taken): something that is taken
Confederate States of America (CSA, Confederacy): The Southern states which seceded from the Union led by South Carolina – wore Grey, were called “Johnny Reb”
The Union: the Northern states that remained a part of the United States, were called “Yankees” or “Yanks”
Lincolns Inaugural Address (Presidential Address)
Lincoln was inaugurated in March of 1861 and made an address (speech) discussing the issues between the states: slaver and secession
What promise about the issue of Slavery did Lincoln make?
He said he would not interfere with the issue of slavery in states that have slavery. However, he later has to defend territory and fight against states who left the union
Did Southerners believe him?
What action had some southern states taken?
South Carolina had seceded (left) from the Union and other Southern States followed them.
What promise had Lincoln made about Federal property?
Federal property (US government property) will be defended from attack.
Confederate troops attacked Fort Sumter on April 18th, 1861 – it was the beginning of Civil War
CSA attacked Fort Sumter to prevent re-supply of the fort by The Union
The Confederacy (CSA) was worried that Fort Sumter blocked the port of Charleston in South Carolina. Lincoln said he would defend Federal land (Fort Sumter) and waited for the Confederacy to attack. The attack begins the war, and the Confederacy looks like they started the War Between the States (Civil War).
Lincoln declares an insurrection (rebellion), calls up 75,000 militia men from loyal states
What Advantages did the different sides have at the beginning of the Civil War?
Each side, North – Union and South – CSA, had different advantages and disadvantages at the beginning of the War
#1 Home field advantage: Most of the War was fought in Virginia and the Southern states, so the Southerners had “home field” advantage – most of the war was fought on Southern lands
#2 Standing Army: 16,000 Union (federal soldiers) versus 0 Confederate soldiers. The Confederates were mostly militia and soldiers that left the standing army of the federal government
#3 Trained Officers: 2,000 in the North versus 1,000 in the South
#4 Population: 22 million in the North versus 9 million in the South
#5 Politics: Two Party versus the No Party: The losing Party lost and quit, but the Democratic Party still existed in the North
#6 Developed System of Banking: The Federal Government / North had better systems in place for getting money through taxes, the most of the industry, and the most money saved
#7 Railroads: North has 2/3, and South only 1/3. North is more industrial (more factories)
#8 Telegraph Lines: Some in the North, but none in the south. Meant better communication in the North
#9 Established Industry: North had 90% vs. 10% in the South. Industrial factories allow the North to build materials (guns, ammunition) faster and more efficiently
#10 Victory Conditions: The Union has to conquer the South to win, the CSA only needs to defend itself on its own land. It costs more to conquer (play offense) than to defend – The South has the advantage
#11 Morale/Cause: States’ rights vs. permanence of the Union, also the issue of slavery drives people to fight as Union soldiers.
General Winfield Scott Plan (Union General)
Anaconda Plan: Blockade the southern coastline, capture the Mississippi River, then wait for Southern Unionists to seize control of the CSA. By blocking the coast, it will force the South to lose trade and money, but this will take too long.
Strategically a Union victory because Lee left battlefield
The Defense of Slavery becomes a “wild card” the Civil War: the outcome of the war will be determined by the issue of slavery, and the emancipation (freedom) of the slaves.
This document announces the freedom of slaves where?
Would a slave in South Carolina be free?
Would a slave in Pennsylvania be free?
What might some of the immediate effects be of this Proclamation?
African-Americans served in the Union armed forces to the extent of approximately 200,000 volunteers by the war's end. These soldiers were segregated into African-American units and largely led by white officers, nonetheless their contributions were significant.
By reframing the conflict as a war against slavery Lincoln also neutralized the participation of England and France as potential allies of the South. Most French and English people were philosophically opposed to slavery, making support of the South politically unfeasible.