-marriage rate rose sharply -- in part due to predatory men marrying rich orphans and widows.
-birth rate rose, though recurrences of the plague kept population levels reduced.
-notable increases in violence and debauchery.
-Upward mobility took place on a small scale.
-Many cities lost more than 40% of their residents, Paris lost half, and Venice, Hamburg and Bremen are estimated to have lost at least 60% of their populations
- Church lost many people, but the institution became richer through bequests. also grew richer by charging more money for its services, such as saying mass for the dead.
-Less-educated priests were shuffled into jobs where more learned men had died.
-failure of the clergy to help the suffering during the plague, combined with its obvious wealth and the incompetence of its priests, caused resentment among the people. Critics grew vocal, and the seeds of the Reformation were sown.
-persistence of plague and the horrors it wreaked had long-term effects on the medieval psyche both subtle and severe.
-Heavy taxation *
-Physical destruction by armies, mobs …France had been severely damaged