Criminal Justice (vcrimj)

Legal & Protective Services Occupational Cluster

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Legal & Protective Services Occupational Cluster

Criminal Justice Framework (VCRIMJ)

Strand 1: Safety and Health Knowledge and Skills

  1. Fundamentals of Health and Safety

    1. Describe and apply health and safety regulations.

      1. Identify, describe and apply health and safety regulations that apply to specific tasks and jobs. Students must complete a safety credential program, e.g., Occupational Safety and Health Administration 10, CareerSafe and ServSafe.

      2. Identify, describe and apply Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other environmental protection regulations that apply to specific tasks and jobs in the specific occupational area.

      3. Identify, describe and apply Right-To-Know (Hazard Communication Policy) and other communicative regulations that apply to specific tasks and jobs in the specific occupational area.

      4. Explain procedures for documenting and reporting hazards to appropriate authorities.

      5. Identify and describe potential consequences for non-compliance with appropriate health and safety regulations.

  • 1. A.01 Performance Examples:

    • List and define OSHA Health and Safety Regulations, EPA and other environmental protection regulations to occupational area.

    • List and define Right-to-Know regulations and reporting of hazards and contact information for appropriate health and safety agencies.

    • List the laws and rules of regulatory agencies governing sanitation and safety.

    • Utilize OSHA as well as health and safety websites for purposes of research.

    Identify and list contact information for appropriate health and safety agencies and resources.

    1. Demonstrate appropriate health and safety practices based on the specific occupational area.

      1. Identify, describe and demonstrate the effective use of Safety Data Sheets (SDS).

      2. Read and interpret chemical, product and equipment labels to determine appropriate health and safety considerations.

      3. Identify, describe and demonstrate personal, shop and job site safety practices and procedures.

      4. Demonstrate safe dress and use of relevant safety gear, personal protective equipment (PPE) and ergonomics, e.g., wrist rests, adjustable workspaces, equipment, gloves, proper footwear, earplugs, eye protection and breathing apparatus.

      5. Demonstrate appropriate safe body mechanics, including appropriate lifting techniques and ergonomics.

      6. Locate emergency equipment, first aid kit, SDS information directories and emergency action/response plan/escape routes in your lab, shop and classroom, including labels and signage that follow OSHA Hazard Communication Program (HAZCOM), eyewash stations, shower facilities, sinks, fire extinguishers, fire blankets, telephone, master power switches and emergency exits.

      7. Demonstrate the safe use, storage, and maintenance of every piece of equipment in the lab, shop and classroom, e.g., the OSHA Lockout/Tagout Program (LOTO).

      8. Describe safety practices and procedures to be followed when working with and around electricity, e.g., ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) and frayed wiring.

      9. Handle, store, dispose of and recycle hazardous, flammable and combustible materials, according to EPA, OSHA and product specifications.

  • 1. A.02 Performance Examples:

    • Identify, describe and demonstrate the use of SDS.

    • List and demonstrate shop dress code, safety procedures and location of emergency equipment in labor classroom.

    • Define and demonstrate safe storage and maintenance of equipment and proper disposal or recycling of hazardous, flammable and combustible materials.

    • Identify, describe and demonstrate the Universal Precautions set of guidelines.

    Demonstrate appropriate workspace cleaning, sanitation, disinfection and sterilization procedures required in specific occupational areas, e.g., Workplace Housekeeping OSHA Regulations.

    1. Demonstrate appropriate responses to situations that may threaten health and safety.

      1. Describe First Aid procedures for potential injuries and other health concerns in the specific occupational area.

      2. Describe the importance of emergency preparedness and an emergency action/response plan.

      3. Describe procedures used to handle emergency situations, defensive measures and accidents, including identification, reporting, response, evacuation plans and follow-up procedures.

      4. Identify, describe and demonstrate safety practices in specific occupational areas used to avoid accidents.

      5. Identify and describe fire protection, protection, precautions and response procedures.

      6. Discuss the role of the individual and the company/organization in ensuring workplace safety including transportation to and from school, school activities and the workplace.

      7. Discuss ways to identify, prevent and report school and workplace violence, discrimination, harassment and bullying.

      8. Demonstrate positive and appropriate behavior that contributes to a safe and healthy environment in school and the workplace.

  • 1. A.03 Performance Example:

    • Define first aid procedures and protocols used to handle emergency situations and practices used to avoid accidents.

    • View safety videos and discuss the role of workplace safety.

    • Attend or participate in a human rights alliance organization presentation.

    • Observe and/or demonstrate the appropriate use of a fire extinguisher using the (PASS) technique: Pull, Aim, Squeeze, Sweep.

    • Review and discuss specific policies, procedures and protocols regarding discrimination, harassment and bullying.

    • Discuss and/or role-play proper and respectful behavior that contributes to a positive climate.

    • Discuss and/or demonstrate behavior that contributes to a collaborative/teamwork environment.

Selected Websites

  • Bullying Prevention and Intervention Resources :

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:

  • Environmental Protection Agency :

  • “Lost Youth – Four Stories of Injured Young Workers”– WorkSafeBC:

  • Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. (2011). Career/Vocational Technical Education Safety Guide:

  • Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education:

  • Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency:

  • Massachusetts General Law:

  • Massachusetts Health and Human Services:

  • Massachusetts Right to Know Law Summary:

  • Safety Data Sheet:

  • National Fire Protection Association:

  • Protection of Student Rights: Massachusetts General Law:

  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration:

  • Readiness and Emergency Management for Schools:

  • Safe and Healthy Learning Environments:

Strand 2: Technical Knowledge and Skills

  1. Criminal Justice Health and Safety Skills

    1. Demonstrate physical fitness, health and police safety.

      1. Explain the importance of good health and physical conditioning as it relates to law enforcement.

      2. Prepare and follow a personalized physical fitness regimen, including daily physical training.

      3. Obtain CPR certification

      4. Obtain First Aid certification.

      5. Demonstrate and use defensive safety strategies.

      6. Define the “Proper Use of Force.”

      7. Explain the Firearms Classification System.

      8. Describe the role of the first responder.

      9. Outline the mediation process and the role of the mediator.

2.A.01 Performance Examples:

  • Students will participate in daily physical readiness training and maintain a log of progress toward goals.

  • Students will monitor and record one’s own heart rate during cardiovascular training.

  • Students will lower body fat to muscle ratio measured by a pre/post test

  • Students will increase strength measured by a pre/post test.

  • Students will evaluate levels of physical threat/harm to self and others.

  • Students will participate in defensive tactics training.

  • Students will maintain a daily self assessment journal.

Identify and manage hazards at a crime scene.

  1. The Trial Court System and Constitutional and Criminal Law

    1. Explain the trial court system.

      1. Create a diagram of the tiered Federal trial court system.

      2. Create a diagram of the tiered State trial court system.

      3. Distinguish between Subject Matter Jurisdiction and the jurisdiction of the person.

      4. Apply personal and subject matter jurisdiction to determine if jurisdiction standards have been met.

      5. Describe the duties of the prosecuting and defense attorney.

      6. Describe the duties of the court officer.

      7. Describe the role of a probation officer.

      8. Explain the Restorative Justice model.

      9. Summarize the role of Victim Witness Advocate.

2.B.01 Performance Examples:

  • Students will determine subject matter and personal jurisdiction by case analysis

  • Students will research and report on the different employment opportunities in the trial court system.

  • Students will research in professional journals the compensation rate and benefits package of court employees. Report your findings through a well document paper.

  • Students will diagram the tiered Federal Court System.

  • Students will diagram the tiered State Court System.

  • Students will participate in moot court and prepare a summary of your role.

    1. Describe criminal procedure and trial procedure.

      1. Describe the magistrate’s hearing process.

      2. Identify all components of a summons.

      3. Describe the process of arrest and arraignment.

      4. Describe standards of bail and bail requirements.

      5. Explain the elements of pretrial release.

      6. Explain the elements of a pretrial hearing and a motion hearing.

      7. Describe the role that the judge plays in various stages of the criminal justice process.

      8. Describe the role of a jury.

      9. Compare and contrast the differences between judge and jury trials.

      10. Explain the criminal justice system model.

2.B.02 Performance Examples:

  • Students will participate in all aspects of the Youth Court and will conduct hearings.

  • Students will participate in Moot Court and will present a mock trial.

  • Students will evaluate a criminal case from the summons stage through the jury trial stage.

  • Students will research the structure of a jury and report on the findings.

  • Students will research and compare bail requirements on the state and federal level

  • Students will diagram a criminal case from the complaint through the trial stage.

    1. Explain the fundamentals of constitutional law.

      1. Explain the protections and limitations of the First Amendment of the United States Constitution.

      2. Explain the protections and limitations of the Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution.

      3. Explain the protections and limitations of the Fifth Amendment of the United States Constitution.

      4. Explain the protections and limitations of the Sixth Amendment of the United States Constitution.

      5. Explain the protections and limitations of the Eighth Amendment of the United States Constitution.

      6. Explain the protections and limitations of the Thirteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution.

      7. Explain the protections and limitations of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution.

      8. Explain the protections and limitations of the Fifteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution.

      9. Explain the protections and limitations of the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights Article I.

      10. Explain the protections and limitations of the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights Article II.

      11. Explain the protections and limitations of the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights Article III.

      12. Explain the protections and limitations of the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights Article IV.

      13. Explain the protections and limitations of the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights Article V.

      14. Explain the protections and limitations of the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights Article X.

      15. Explain the protections and limitations of the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights Article XI.

      16. Explain the protections and limitations of the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights Article XII.

      17. Explain the protections and limitations of the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights Article XIII.

      18. Explain the protections and limitations of the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights Article XIV.

      19. Explain the protections and limitations of the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights Article XV.

      20. Explain the protections and limitations of the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights Article XVI.

      21. Explain the protections and limitations of the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights Article XVIII.

      22. Explain the protections and limitations of the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights Article XXIV.

2.B.03 Performance Examples:

Students will research the United States and Massachusetts Constitution and select an amendment:

  • Use case analysis to explain applicable amendment of the United States Constitution.

  • Use case analysis to explain applicable amendment of the Massachusetts Constitution.

  • Apply moot court cases to the United States and Massachusetts Constitution.

Explain the protections and limitations of the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights Article XXVI.

    1. Apply trial procedures.

      1. Describe the Federal Rules of Evidence.

      2. Describe the Massachusetts Rules of Evidence.

      3. Compare and contrast the Federal and Massachusetts Rules of Evidence.

      4. Apply the Federal Rules of Evidence in a trial setting.

      5. Apply the Massachusetts Rules of Evidence in a trial setting.

      6. Explain the role of youth court in the juvenile justice system.

      7. Examine and explain the three approaches to juvenile crime.

      8. Apply the principles of restorative justice to case disposition.

      9. Explain the Restorative Justice model.

      10. Develop and apply the relationship of case investigation and witness interviews.

      11. Apply principles of case investigation and witness interviews.

      12. Apply principles of case analysis.

      13. Explain and demonstrate the trial process.

      14. Explain and demonstrate an opening statement.

      15. Explain and demonstrate a closing statement.

      16. Explain and demonstrate direct and cross examination.

      17. Develop basic skills needed to question witnesses during a hearing.

2.B.04 Performance Examples:

  • Students will research the Federal and the Massachusetts Rules of Evidence and identify evidentiary issues in selected case studies.

  • Students will discuss testimonial evidence as it applies to hearsay and apply rules in a mock trial setting.

  • Students will identify exceptions to the hearsay rule.

  • Students will apply appropriate rules of opinion and expert testimony in a mock trial setting.

  • Students will attend State and Federal Court sessions and discuss testimonial evidence.

  • Students will participate in Youth Court proceedings as a lawyer or court room personnel.

  • Prepare a brief report summarizing your role.

  • Students will prepare and deliver opening and closing statements based on facts of a case.

  • Students will use critical thinking skills to analyze and articulate facts in a courtroom.

  • Students will conduct direct and cross examination of witnesses and clients in a court room setting.

“and write a report on”  “give a presentation to the class”……”

  • Students will review police reports and search warrants to determine appropriate standards for issuance.

    1. Analyze elements of civil infractions and criminal law.

      1. Describe the differences between city ordinances, civil infractions and a criminal law violation.

      2. Explain the differences between felonies and misdemeanor crimes.

      3. Apply elements of a crime to determine if a law has been violated.

  • 2.B.05 Performance Examples:

    • Students will analyze facts to determine what crimes have been committed.

    • Students will identify and explain the Mens Rea and Actus Rea of selected statues..

    Apply Mens Rea and Actus Reus to determine if elements of a crime have been committed.

  1. Investigative and Police Procedures

    1. Demonstrate knowledge of police procedures and write investigative reports.

      1. Produce accurate field notes.

      2. Identify the types of reports.

      3. Define the uses and purposes of reports.

      4. Define the qualities of a good report.

      5. Identify the steps of the report writing process.

      6. Define chronological order.

      7. Identify the appropriate use of first versus third person reporting.

      8. Explain the differences of probable cause and reasonable suspicion.

      9. Explain how evidence is an important part of the judicial system.

      10. Apply specific facts to determine whether probable cause or reasonable suspicion standards have been met.

  • 2.C.01 Performance Examples:

    • Students will create a report using proper format to be used as work sample in the student’s portfolio.

    • Students will create a writing sample using active and passive voice.

    • Students will apply for a mock search warrant which can be used as a work sample.

    Describe the standards and procedures of obtaining a warrant.

    1. Explain and demonstrate procedures used in investigating and processing crime scenes.

      1. Describe the role of a crime scene investigator.

      2. Demonstrate the appropriate protocol when processing a crime scene.

      3. Explain crime scene interpretation.

      4. Document information at a crime scene.

      5. Define crime scene perspective.

      6. Interpret information from a crime scene perspective.

      7. Define three-dimensional documentation in crime scene investigation.

      8. Apply three-dimensional documentation in a crime scene.

      9. List basic equipment needed for a crime scene investigation.

      10. Demonstrate the use of crime scene equipment.

      11. Define the three parts of crime scene response guidelines.

      12. Describe the personal responsibilities and duties of a crime scene responder.

      13. Explain the steps of protecting a crime scene.

      14. Demonstrate the organizational and procedural skills for search operations.

      15. Explain the documentation procedures of a crime scene.

      16. Explain the importance of preserving and destruction of crime scene evidence.

      17. Maintain the integrity of a crime scene.

      18. Demonstrate collection of evidence at a crime scene.

      19. Describe collection of footwear evidence.

      20. Lift latent footwear impressions.

      21. Define the dead body checklist.

      22. Describe the collection and processing of fingerprint evidence left at a crime scene.

      23. Explain DNA collecting techniques.

      24. Accurately tag and label evidence.

      25. Examine and document a crime scene according to current professional standards.

      26. Describe and apply collection standards.

      27. Identify the special considerations for sexual assault evidence.

      28. Identify the special considerations for collecting and preserving blood evidence.

      29. Develop strategies to assist the family of a victim.

2.C.02 Performance Examples:

  • Students will participate in a crime scene scenario using accepted professional protocol.

  • Students will use crime scene equipment to document evidence found at a crime scene.

  • Students will tag and process evidence in accordance with safety rules and chain of custody requirements.

  • Students will work as a team to evaluate a crime scene scenario.

  • Students will diagram a crime scene scenario.

  • Students will create a crime scene notebook to be used in the student’s portfolio.

    1. Identify and explain ethics and diversity issues as they pertain to the law and community policing.

      1. Identify and describe ethical issues pertaining to the law.

      2. Identify and avoid conflict of interest issues.

      3. Identify shared identities through cultures, beliefs, values, arts and behaviors.

      4. Identify shared identities through language, communications, dress and appearance.

      5. Identify the roots of community policing.

      6. Explain the history of community policing.

      7. Identify the values of community policing.

2.C.03 Performance Examples:

  • Students will develop apply critical thinking skills to make ethical decisions.

  • Students will use hypothetical cases to describe personal actions and moral decision making.

  • Students will demonstrate the ability to make responsible decisions, define culture and recognize cultural impact on the community.

  • Students will apply the SARA Model (scan, analyze, respond and assess) to various scenarios.

Describe the implications of community policing.

    1. Perform interviewing and other communication techniques.

      1. Conduct one-on-one interviews.

      2. Describe and apply the T funnel interview style.

      3. Conduct interviews using open and closed ended questions.

2.C.04 Performance Examples:

  • Students will develop interview witnesses and clients using the T funnel method.

  • Students will use both open and closed questions to gather information in an investigation.

  • Students will prepare notes while interviewing witnesses and clients.

  • Students will demonstrate active listening skills.

Identify signs of non-verbal body communication.

    1. Describe police field procedures.

      1. Describe the process of a Motor Vehicle Stop.

      2. Describe and explain the “Plain View Doctrine.”

      3. Describe the theory of inventory search.

      4. Identify furtive gestures.

2.C.05 Performance Examples:

  • Students will research motor vehicle loss to determine course of action in motor vehicle stop scenarios.

  • Students will apply applicable law to case scenarios to determine course of action in motor vehicle stops.

  • Students will use critical thinking skills to analyze safety/risk assessments during motor vehicle stop scenarios.

Distinguish between probable cause and reasonable suspicion.

    1. Use military time and phonetic alphabet.

      1. Read and interpret the phonetic alphabet.

2.C.06 Performance Examples:

  • Students will use military time on logs and reports.

  • Students will use the police scanner to decode the usage of phonetic communications.

  • Students will read license plates using the phonetic alphabet.

Read and interpret military time.

    1. Demonstrate private investigation techniques.

      1. Describe the role of a private investigator.

      2. List the minimum requirements to obtain a Private Investigators license.

      3. Describe the working relationship between the private investigator and his/her client.

      4. Explain the best ways to gather information.

      5. Gather information by applying the public records law.

      6. Perform a mock interview with an acting witness.

      7. Explain the various types of investigations required by a client.

      8. Write an investigation report.

      9. Describe procedures used to release information documents with clients.

      10. Use a public records request to gather information needed for an investigation.

      11. Describe how public records are used in the court system.

      12. Describe how public records are found at the registry of deeds.

2.C.07 Performance Examples:

  • Students will participate in and summarize a discussion with a private investigator.

  • Students will research minimum requirements of obtaining a private investigators license.

  • Students will research and list sources where public records can be found.

  • Students will draft releases and requests to obtain information both public and private.

  • Students will visit the registry of deeds to research documents.

Describe how public records are found at city and town halls.

  1. Electronic Communications Issues

    1. Explain the legal considerations of electronic communications.

      1. Explain the importance of protecting personal information to avoid identity theft.

      2. Identify the characteristics of a cyber predator.

      3. Develop and list strategies to protect against cyber predators.

      4. Apply strategies to protect against cyber predators.

      5. Identify the characteristics of a cyber bully.

      6. Develop and list strategies to protect against Internet bullying.

2.D.01 Performance Examples:

  • Students will participate in peer to peer educational meetings to promote safe technology use.

  • Students will write lesson plans, skits and public service announcements to promote safe technology use.

  • Students will obtain Internet Safety Mentor certification.

Apply strategies to protect against Internet bullying.

Strand 3: Embedded Academics

Strand 3: Embedded Academics, a critical piece of a Vocational Technical Education Framework, are presented as Crosswalks between the Massachusetts Vocational Technical Education Frameworks and the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks. These Crosswalks are located in the Appendix of this Framework.

Academic Crosswalks

Appendix A: English Language Arts

Appendix B: Mathematics

Appendix C: Science and Technology/Engineering

Earth and Space Science

Life Science (Biology)

Physical Science (Chemistry and Physics)


Strand 4: Employability and Career Readiness

  1. Career Exploration and Navigation

    1. Develop a career plan and portfolio.

      1. Develop and revise career plan annually based on workplace awareness and skill attainment.

      2. Assess personal strengths and interest areas to determine potential careers, career pathways and career ladders.

      3. Examine potential career field(s)/discipline(s) and identify criteria to select, secure and keep employment in chosen field(s).

      4. Research and evaluate a variety of careers utilizing multiple sources of information and resources to determine potential career(s) and alternatives.

      5. Identify training and education requirements that lead to employment in chosen field(s) and demonstrate skills related to evaluating employment opportunities.

      6. Explore and evaluate postsecondary educational opportunities including degrees and certifications available, traditional and nontraditional postsecondary pathways, technical school and apprenticeships, cost of education, financing methods including scholarships and loans and the cost of loan repayment.

      7. Create a portfolio showcasing academic and career growth including a career plan, safety credential, resume and a competency profile demonstrating the acquisition of the knowledge and skills associated with at least two years of full-time study in the Chapter 74 program.

    1. Demonstrate job search skills.

      1. Conduct a job search and complete written and electronic job applications, resumes, cover letters and related correspondence for a chosen career path.

      2. Explore and evaluate postsecondary job opportunities and career pathways specific to career technical areas.

      3. Identify role and use of social media and networking for staying current with career and employment trends as well as networking, job seeking and career development opportunities.

      4. Demonstrate ability to use social media and networking to develop useful occupational contacts, job seeking and career development opportunities.

    1. Demonstrate all phases of the job interview process.

      1. Gather relevant information about potential employer(s) from multiple print and digital sources, assessing the credibility and accuracy of each source.

      2. Identify employment eligibility criteria, such as drug/alcohol free status, clean driving record, etc.

      3. Practice effective interviewing skills: appearance, inquiry and dialogue with interviewer, positive attitude and evidence of work ethic and skills.

  • 4. A Performance Examples:

    • Conduct research to analyze and present on specific careers within a cluster.

    • Conduct web-based job search using sites such as,,,, and others.

    • Create profile on social media/networking site such as LinkedIn and/or LinkedIn University for postsecondary research and employment opportunities.

    • Complete online job application.

    • Conduct and videotape practice interviews for instructor and student analysis.

    • Provide students with sample employment and benefit packages for evaluation.

    Explore and evaluate employment benefit packages including wages, vacation, health care, union dues, cafeteria plans, tuition reimbursement, retirement and 401K.

  1. Communication in the Workplace

    1. Demonstrate appropriate oral and written communication skills in the workplace.

      1. Communicate effectively using the language and vocabulary appropriate to a variety of audiences within the workplace including coworkers, supervisors and customers.

      2. Read technical and work-related documents and demonstrate understanding in oral discussion and written exercise.

      3. Demonstrate professional writing skills in work-related materials and communications (e.g., letters, memoranda, instructions and directions, reports, summaries, notes and/or outlines).

      4. Use a variety of writing/publishing/presentation applications to create and present information in the workplace.

      5. Identify, locate, evaluate and use print and electronic resources to resolve issues or problems in the workplace.

      6. Use a variety of financial and data analysis tools to analyze and interpret information in the workplace.

      7. Orally present technical and work-related information to a variety of audiences.

      8. Identify and demonstrate professional non-verbal communication.

    1. Demonstrate active listening skills.

      1. Listen attentively and respectfully to others.

      2. Focus attentively, make eye contact or other affirming gestures, confirm understanding and follow directions.

      3. Show initiative in improving communication skills by asking follow-up questions of speaker in order to confirm understanding.

  • 4. B Performance Examples:

    • Read and analyze technical instructions to learn what makes them effective.

    • Read and analyze technical instructions to follow directions and/or solve a problem.

    • Examine a technical document and use it to write a set of instructions for another student to follow and evaluate.

    • Analyze websites for effective technical writing and design.

    • Create brochures and presentations using software and/or Web 2.0 tools to convey technical information.

    • Conduct research using the Internet, print documents, observations and interviews to create a technical guide.

  1. Work Ethic and Professionalism

    1. Demonstrate attendance and punctuality.

      1. Identify and practice professional time-management and attendance behaviors including punctuality, reliability, planning and flexibility.

    1. Demonstrate proper workplace appearance.

      1. Identify and practice professional appearance specific to the workplace.

      2. Identify and practice personal hygiene appropriate for duties specific to the workplace.

      3. Identify and wear required safety gear specific to the workplace.

    1. Accepts direction and constructive criticism.

      1. Demonstrate ability (both verbally and non-verbally) to accept direction and constructive criticism and to implement solutions to change behaviors.

      2. Ask appropriate questions to clarify understanding of feedback.

      3. Analyze own learning style and seek instructions in a preferred format that works best for their understanding (such as oral, written or visual instruction).

    1. Demonstrate motivation and initiative.

      1. Evaluate assigned tasks for time to completion and prioritization.

      2. Demonstrate motivation through enthusiasm, engagement, accurate completion of tasks and activities.

      3. Demonstrate initiative by requesting new assignments and challenges.

      4. Explain proposed solutions to challenges observed in the workplace.

      5. Demonstrate the ability to evaluate multiple solutions to problems and challenges using critical reasoning and workplace/industry knowledge and select the best solution to the problem.

      6. Implement solution(s) to challenges and/or problem(s) observed in the workplace.

      7. See projects through completion and check work for quality and accuracy.

    1. Demonstrate awareness of workplace culture and policy.

      1. Display ethical behavior in use of time, resources, computers and information.

      2. Identify the mission of the organization and/or department.

      3. Explain the benefits of a diverse workplace.

      4. Demonstrate a respect for diversity and its benefit to the workplace.

    1. Interact appropriately with coworkers.

      1. Work productively with individuals and in teams.

      2. Develop positive mentoring and collaborative relationships within work environment.

      3. Show respect and collegiality, both formally and informally.

      4. Explain and follow workplace policy on the use of cell phones and other forms of social media.

      5. Maintain focus on tasks and avoid negative topics or excessive personal conversations in the workplace.

  • 4. C Performance Examples:

    • Complete a learning style analysis tool.

    • Develop a rubric to assess work ethic and professionalism as detailed in the standards above.

    Negotiate solutions to interpersonal and workplace conflicts.

Student Organizations

Business Professionals of America

Selected Websites

  • 5 Ways to Ace a Job Interview:

  • America’s Career Resource Network:

  • Career Cruiser – Florida Department of Education:

  • Career Development Guide and Glossary:

  • Career One Stop:

  • Career Plan:

  • Career Plan Model:

  • Checklist:

  • Career Tech:

  • Ethics Resource Center:

  • Interaction in the Workplace:

  • Individual Learning Plans: How-to Guide: “Promoting Quality Individualized Learning Plans: A How to Guide on the High School Years”

  • ILP Fact Sheet:

  • ILP Policy Brief:

  • ILP Resources Home Page:

  • Interview Skills Lesson Plans:

  • Labor and Workforce Development:

  • Maine Community College System – Center for Career Development:

  • Massachusetts Work-Based Learning:

  • North Dakota Association of Agriculture Educators:

  • NY CTE Learning Standards—Career Development and Occupational Studies (CDOS) Resource Guide with Core Curriculum:

  • Occupational Outlook Handbook:

  • Purdue OWL Job Search Resources (for writing resumes, applications, and letters):

  • Soft Skills to Pay the Bills — Mastering Soft Skills for Workplace Success:

  • US Department of Labor:

  • Workplace Communication:

  • Your Plan For the Future:

Strand 5: Management and Entrepreneurship Knowledge and Skills

  1. Starting a Business

    1. Demonstrate an understanding of the practices required to start a business.

      1. Define entrepreneurship and be able to recognize and describe the characteristics of an entrepreneur.

      2. Compare and contrast types of business ownership (i.e., sole proprietorships, franchises, partnerships, corporations).

      3. Identify and explain the purpose and contents of a business plan.

  • 5. A Performance Examples:

    • Develop a presentation pertaining to an entrepreneur and their business.

    • Communicate with a business owner and discuss the pros and cons of starting and owning a business. Summarize the main points of the discussion.

    • Choose a product or service and describe the process leading to distribution.

    • Write a business plan for a business in your community.

    Demonstrate an understanding of the principles and concepts of a business’s supply chain (i.e., suppliers, producers and consumers.

  1. Managing a Business

    1. Demonstrate an understanding of managing a business.

      1. Formulate short- and long-term business goals.

      2. Demonstrate effective verbal, written and visual communication skills.

      3. Utilize a decision-making process to make effective business decisions.

      4. Identify a business’s chain of command and define its organizational structure.

      5. Identify and apply effective customer service skills and practices.

  • 5. B Performance Examples:

    • Working as a team, role-play situations that an entrepreneur might face in dealing with customers or employees.

    • Contact a relevant professional organization and request information about its benefits, membership requirements and costs.

    • Plan and conduct a business meeting.

    • Identify companies that are known for customer service and list the practices that help differentiate themselves from all others in their industry.

    Identify, interpret and develop written operating procedures and policies.

      1. Track inventory, productivity and labor cost.

      2. Demonstrate business meeting skills.

      3. Identify professional organizations and explore their benefits.

  1. Marketing a Business

    1. Demonstrate an understanding of marketing and promoting a business.

      1. Explain the role of business in the economy.

      2. Describe the relationship between business and community.

      3. Describe methods of market research and identifying target markets.

      4. Describe and apply the concepts of a marketing mix (the 4Ps of marketing: product, price, place and promotion).

      5. Compare and contrast the promotional tools and techniques used to sell products, services, images and ideas.

      6. Describe the impact of supply and demand on a product or business.

      7. Identify direct and indirect competition on a business.

      8. Identify and use sales techniques to meet client needs and wants.

      9. Discuss strategies to acquire and retain a customer base.

  • 5. C Performance Examples:

    • Research reliable sources to identify marketing and industry data related to a business.

    • Conduct market research by developing a survey and presenting the results.

    • Create a promotional campaign using a variety of media.

    • Write a marketing plan for a product.

  1. Financial Concepts and Applications in Business

    1. Demonstrate an understanding of financial concepts and applications.

      1. Identify essential financial reports and understand their purpose (i.e., budget, balance sheet and income statement).

      2. Describe payroll practices (i.e., deductions – federal, FICA and state taxes and insurances).

      3. Identify the importance of maintaining accurate records.

      4. Apply practices related to pricing, purchasing and billing.

      5. Maintain and reconcile a checking account.

  • 5. D Performance Examples:

    • Given an employee time card and rate of pay, calculate gross pay, taxes, deductions and net pay.

    • Develop a budget for a simulated business or project.

    • Analyze and discuss financial documents from a company.

    • Research various methods of funding a business.

    Identify the options for funding a business.

  1. Legal/Ethical/Social Responsibilities

    1. Demonstrate an understanding of legal, ethical and social responsibility for businesses.

      1. Identify state and federal laws and regulations related to managing a business.

      2. Describe and identify ethical business practices.

      3. Demonstrate an understanding of business contracts.

      4. Explain the role of diversity in the workplace.

      5. Explain the role of labor organizations.

      6. Identify practices that support clean energy technologies and encourage environmental sustainability.

      7. Demonstrate an understanding of how technology advancements impact business practices.

  • 5.E Performance Example:

    • Read and interpret a contract.

    • Complete an application for a license, permit or certificate.

    • Research federal, state and local regulations and laws required for a business.

    • Participate in and summarize a discussion with a member of a labor or civil rights organization.

Selected Websites

  • CVTE Strand 1, 4, and 5 Resources:

  • Entrepreneur:

  • Inc. Magazine:

  • Junior Achievement “Be Entrepreneurial Program”:

  • Kahn Academy Interviews with Entrepreneurs:

  • Kauffman Founders School:

  • National Federation of Independent Business:

  • National Foundation for Teaching Entrepreneurship (NFTE):

  • SBA Loans:

  • SkillsUSA Professional Development Program Competency List:

  • Small Business Administration:




Balance sheet

 A statement of the assets, liabilities and capital of a business at a particular point in time.


An estimate of income and expenditure for a set period of time.

Business Ownership

Types of business ownership refer to the legal structure of an organization. Legal structures include: Sole Proprietorship, Partnerships, Corporations and Limited Liability Companies.

Business Plan

A written document that describes in detail your business goals and how you are going to achieve them from a marketing, operational and financial point of view.

Chain of Command and Organizational Structure blank organizational chart

Refers to the management structure of an organization. It identifies lines of authority, lines of communication, and reporting relationships. Organizational structure determines how the roles, power and responsibilities are assigned and coordinated and how information flows between the different levels of management. (A visual representation of this structure is called an org chart).


Federal Insurance Contributions Act requires taxes deducted from pay for supporting Social Security.

Income Statement

A financial statement providing operating results for a specific time period showing a business’s revenues, expenses and profit or loss.

Market Research

  • Primary: Surveys, Focus Groups, Observation

  • Secondary: Websites, Internet

Marketing Mix

A set of controlled variables that formulate the strategic position of a product or service in the marketplace. These variables are known as the 4 P’s of marketing and include product, place, price and promotion.

Methods to Track Inventory, Productivity and Labor Cost

Refers to the processes a business uses to account for: 1) the inflows and outflows of inventory and materials related to inventory; 2) the efficiency of operations and 3) the cost of labor including salary and benefits.

Promotional Tools and Techniques

The six elements of a promotional mix are: advertising, visual merchandising, public relations, publicity, personal selling and sales promotion.

Supply Chain

The supply chain, or channel of distribution, describes how the product is handled and/or distributed from suppliers with materials, to the manufacturer, wholesaler or retailer and finally to the consumer.

Target Market

Those who are most likely to buy your product or service.

Strand 6: Technology Literacy Knowledge and Skills

  1. Technology Literacy Knowledge and Skills (Grades 9 through 12)

    1. Demonstrate proficiency in the use of computers and applications, as well as an understanding of the concepts underlying hardware, software, and connectivity.

      1. Use online help and other support to learn about features of hardware and software, as well as to assess and resolve problems.

      2. Install and uninstall software; compress and expand files (if the district allows it).

      3. Explain effective backup and recovery strategies.

      4. Apply advanced formatting and page layout features when appropriate (e.g., columns, templates, and styles) to improve the appearance of documents and materials.

      5. Use editing features appropriately (e.g., track changes, insert comments).

      6. Identify the use of word processing and desktop publishing skills in various careers.

      7. Identify the use of database skills in various careers.

      8. Define and use functions of a spreadsheet application (e.g., sort, filter, find).

      9. Explain how various formatting options are used to convey information in charts or graphs.

      10. Identify the use of spreadsheet skills in various careers.

      11. Use search engines and online directories.

      12. Explain the differences among various search engines and how they rank results.

      13. Explain and demonstrate effective search strategies for locating and retrieving electronic information (e.g., using syntax and Boolean logic operators).

      14. Describe good practices for password protection and authentication.

    2. Demonstrate the responsible use of technology and an understanding of ethics and safety issues in using electronic media at home, in school, and in society.

      1. Demonstrate compliance with the school’s Acceptable Use Policy.

      2. Explain issues related to the responsible use of technology (e.g., privacy, security).

      3. Explain laws restricting the use of copyrighted materials.

      4. Identify examples of plagiarism, and discuss the possible consequences of plagiarizing the work of others.

    3. Design and implement a personal learning plan that includes the use of technology to support lifelong learning goals.

      1. Evaluate the authenticity, accuracy, appropriateness, and bias of electronic resources, including Web sites.

      2. Analyze the values and points of view that are presented in media messages.

      3. Describe devices, applications, and operating system features that offer accessibility for people with disabilities.

      4. Evaluate school and work environments in terms of ergonomic practices.

      5. Describe and use safe and appropriate practices when participating in online communities (e.g., discussion groups, blogs, social networking sites).

      6. Explain and use practices to protect one's personal safety online (e.g., not sharing personal information with strangers, being alert for online predators, reporting suspicious activities).

      7. Explain ways individuals can protect their technology systems and information from unethical users.

    4. Demonstrate the ability to use technology for research, critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, communication, collaboration, creativity, and innovation.

      1. Devise and demonstrate strategies for efficiently collecting and organizing information from electronic sources.

      2. Compare, evaluate, and select appropriate electronic resources to locate specific information.

      3. Select the most appropriate search engines and directories for specific research tasks.

      4. Use a variety of media to present information for specific purposes (e.g., reports, research papers, presentations, newsletters, Web sites, podcasts, blogs), citing sources.

      5. Demonstrate how the use of various techniques and effects (e.g., editing, music, color, rhetorical devices) can be used to convey meaning in media.

      6. Use online communication tools to collaborate with peers, community members, and field experts as appropriate (e.g., bulletin boards, discussion forums, listservs, Web conferencing).

      7. Plan and implement a collaborative project with students in other classrooms and schools using telecommunications tools (e.g., e-mail, discussion forums, groupware, interactive Web sites, video conferencing).


The framework teams created an “Appendix” listing potential industry recognized credentials attainable by secondary students; lists of professional, student, and relevant government organizations; and useful resources and websites.  * It is important to note that although most Framework Teams provided information for the “Appendix”, not all teams did.  Therefore, sub-headings within the “Appendix” without information have been deleted.  

Disclaimer: Reference in the Appendices Section to any specific commercial products, processes, or services, or the use of any trade, firm or corporation name is for the information and convenience of the public, and does not constitute endorsement or recommendation by the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education.

Embedded Academic Crosswalks

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