Creative Thinking: Theory, Techniques, and Assessment Creative Thinking

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Creative Thinking
(A common Quote: "I'm Not Creative!!!")

  1. Creativity Definition: Young (1985): Creativity "is the skill of bringing about something new and valuable…Creative people do more than break away from old patterns. They do more than find alternatives. They diverge from familiar patterns, but then they converge on new solutions. They break laws to remake them. They make hard decisions about what to include and what to eliminate. Creative people innovate. They aim toward newness. This can be considered in several senses:"

b. 10+ Creative Thinking Ideas:

  1. Brainstorming More ideas/wilder the better, no eval, combo to improve

(How to study better? How to raise test scores? What are bet teaching techniques)

  1. Reverse Brainstorming

(How to study worse? How to lower test scores? What are worst teaching techniques)

  1. Creative Writing and Story Telling

(Object obituaries, Tell a tall tale, cartoons, jokes/quips, story starters, wrap arounds, forced responses, newsletters, object talking, etc., Golub, 1994)

  1. Idea-Spurring Questions, Checklists, or Cards (e.g., Osborn's SCAMPER method): How do we: substitute, combine, adapt, modify/max-min put to other uses, elim, rev/rearrange

  2. Six hats (wear different color hats for different types of thinking)

  3. Free Writing/Wet Inking

(write without lifting pen for 3-5 minutes on, e.g., Best teacher ever had)

  1. Checkerboarding, Attribute Listing, Morphological Synthesis

(Analyze or combine 2 key variables/components in grid/matrix; e.g., CT &CR)

  1. Analogies, Metaphorical Thinking, Synectics, or Forced Associations

(This school is like a ____; An good presenter is like a ____? IU hoops is like ____?)

  1. Semantic Webbing/Chaining/Linking/Mapping of Ideas, Free Association Activities

(What is a greenhouse effect? What is a good curric? What is effective teaching?)

  1. Simulations and Role Plays

(Computer sims, act out plays or literature, simulated games or performance)

  1. Other techniques

The Second Best Answer, What else, > 1 Right Answer (What else applies)

Elaboration/Explanation (Another reason is)

Diaries, Personal Journals (When in the field, I want to jot down…)

Just Suppose/What If Exercises (What if we had cooperative exams?)

Creative Dramatics/Improvisation (imagine hearing, seeing, feeling)
25 Creative Thinking Techniques:
Visual Thinking Activities:

1. Perceptual Exercises and Visual Demonstrations

Figure Ground, Hidden Figures, Playful perception

2. Imagery, Guided Visualization, Fantasizing, Daydreaming

Finding muse, insights, overcoming emotional blocks, mental image

3. Metaphoric Thinking, Similes, and Forced Associations

Life like a ____ ? School like a _____ ?

4. Synectics and Analogical Thinking

Figural, Direct, Personal, Fantasy, Compressed Conflict/Oxymorons

5. Breaking Set and Finding New Patterns

Break out of functional fixity, Make familiar strange
Idea Listing Activities:

6. Attribute Listing (problem or product is divided into key attributes addressed separately)

(also referred to as Checkerboarding and Jot Charting)

Modifying  list main attributes of a problem object and think of ways to improve.

Transferring  borrowing attributes or ideas from another place; analogical thinking.

7. Morphological Synthesis (combine two attributes in the form of a grid)

8. The Second Best Answer, > 1 Right Answer, What else, Elaboration/Explication

9. Idea Spurring Checklists and Cards; e.g., Osborn's SCAMPER method:

substitute, combine, adapt, modify/max min, put to other uses, elim, rev/rearrange

10. Just Suppose/What If?/Rearrange Facts/Reorganize Information

Writing Activities:

11. Semantic Webbing/Chaining/Mapping

12. Free Writing/Wet Ink

13. Reflection Writing: Diaries, Personal Journals

14. Creative Writing

Newsletters, Cartoons, Quips, Riddles, Jokes, Humor, Stories, Books, Twisted Fairy

Tales, Object Talking, Telling Lies, Third Eye, Object Obituaries, Telling Tall Tales

15. Sentence Stems/Story Starters/Openers/Warm up (e.g., Another reason is, In contrast to)

Group Interaction Activities:

16. Simulations/Role Plays/Sociodramas/Mock Trials/Show & Tell

17. Creative Dramatics/Improvisation/Pantomime

Movement, imagine, hear, touch, smell, tastes...

Hold up roof, biggest thing, stretching, mirrors, toe tips, people machines, puppets

18. Fish Bowl

19. Six Hats (an example of Lateral Thinking)

20. Nominal Group Process, Brainstorming, Reverse Brainstorming

More ideas/wilder the better, hitchhiking encouraged, no eval, combo to improve
Process Product Oriented Activities:

21. Problem Finding and Defining

22. Future Problem Solving, Odyssey of the Mind, and Science Olympiad

Multistep probs, unknowns, decisions, teams, communicate, self directed, ambiguity

23. Creativity by Design/Problem Based Learning/Make a Creative Product/Inventing

Use design q's, possib/ideas b/4 commitments/details, explore models, think on paper

Good results, easy to use, safe, durable, attractive, comfortable, reasonable cost

24. Creative Problem Solving, Guided Design, AUTA, Incubation Model,

25. Model Building
Young (1985) Creativity (p. .78) "is the skill of bringing about something new and valuable."

p. 82 "Creative people do more than break away from old patterns. They do more than find alternatives. They diverge from familiar patterns, but then they converge on new solutions. They break laws to remake them. They make hard decisions about what to include and what to eliminate. Creative people innovate. They aim toward newness. This can be considered in several senses:"

Six General Principles of Creativity (Perkins, 1984)

1. Involves aesthetic (i.e., original, powerful, fundamental) as much as practical thinking.

2. Depends on attention to purpose (i.e., structure, standards, goals) as much as to results.

3. Depends on mobility (i.e., flexibility, divergency, revision) more than fluency.

4. Depends on working at the edge (i.e., challenge) more than at the center of competence.

5. Depends as much on being subjective as on being objective.

6. Depends on intrinsic, more than extrinsic, motivation.

(Schools shun aesthetics, purpose, mobility/divergency, challenge, multiple viewpoints, internal motivation)

Overview of Perkins Smart Schools (1992) (Chapters 1 6)

1. Inert unconnected knowledge is inferior to classroom emphasizing higher order thinking.

2. Need effort related definition of intelligence not single entity.

3. Cultural and classroom expectations impact on effort.

4. There are multiple theories of learning and multiple ways to teach; pick a good one(s).

5. There are many ways to teach for understanding and to test student understanding.

6. Meta awareness of our understanding is of primary importance in the metacurriculum.

7. There are a # of overlapping trends in education: whole language, concept mapping, etc.

8. Dispositions of good thkg (eg., broad, adventurous, curious, plan, strategic, evel) are impt.

9. Transfer is not automatic; need a good shepard or bridging/scaffolding learning.

10. Good classroom learning results from realizing the distributed nature of intelligence.
Roger von Oech from A Whack In the Side of the Head (1983):

Soft Thinking: metaphor, dream, play, child, hunch, ambiguous, fantasy, approximate, humor.

Hard Thinking: logic, reason, work, adult, analysis, consistency, reality, exact, precision.
Whack in the Head Tips:

1. Challenge the rules and play the revolutionary.

2. #1 has its dangers.

3. Periodically inspect your ideas to see if the help your thinking.

4. Avoid falling in love with ideas.

5. Hold rule inspecting and rule discarding sessions in your organization.

6. Take advantage of ambiguity and think of how else you might use something.

7. Cultivate your personal resources so as to look for more than 1 meaning.

8. Write an ambiguous job description for yourself.

9. If you make an error, use it as a stepping stone to a new idea.

10. Strengthen your risk muscle at least once every 24 hours.
p. 65 "TIP: For more effective thinking, rotate your ideas every 10,000 thoughts. Creativity involves not only generating new ideas, but escaping from obsolete ones as well."
Davis (1992) Principles of Creativity:

1. Creativity is not just for artists, inventors, scientists.

2. Creativity is a way of thinking and living.

3. Creative people are "creatively conscious."

4. Creative people see things from different viewpoints.

5. Creative people do not grab the first idea that comes along.

6. Creative people are willing to take some risks and fail.

7. Creative people are aware of conformity pressure and are not afraid to be different.

8. Creative people play with ideas and act like a child and think up "wild" possibilities.

9. Creativity is not mysterious; it is the modification of an old idea or new combo of old.

10. Creative people use special techniques and talents to find new idea combinations.
I. Rate yourself on 1-10 scale (do #21 if you skipped one):

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

___ 1. censors feels

___ 2. evaluates takes risks

___ 3. reassures & supports takes risks

___ 4. analyzes makes connections

___ 5. is realistic plays

___ 6. looks at consequences speculates

___ 7. is logical is curious

___ 8. alert to danger sees the fun in things

___ 9. avoids surprises likes surprises

___ 10. avoids wrongness open to anything

___ 11. punishes wrongness in touch with total experience

___ 12. is serious does not mind being confused

___ 13. is pessimistic is optimistic

___ 14. is judgmental focus on what is going for the idea

___ 15. argue waste no energy evaluating early

___ 16. inattention/distant listen and interested

___ 17. be noncommittal wholly open to being available

___ 18. correct and precise set up win/wins nobody loses

___ 19. dominant/commands deal with as an equal eliminate rank

___ 20. point out flaws see the value in/assume valuable implic's

___ 21. fearful is impetuous

II. Now rate yourself on the following items on a 1 10 scale

(10 being high and 1 being low).

SCALE: Low Medium High

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
____ 1. self confident

____ 2. risk taking

____ 3. high in energy

____ 4. stubborn

____ 5. curious

____ 6. playful, childlike

____ 7. resists domination

____ 8. enthusiastic

____ 9. wide interests

____ 10. non participation in class activities

____ 11. good sense of humor

____ 12. idealistic

____ 13. reflective

____ 14. uncooperative

____ 15. need privacy, alone time

____ 16. artistic interests

____ 17. capriciousness

____ 18. low interest in details

____ 19. too emotional

____ 20. adventurous

____ 21. aesthetic interests

____ 22. attracted to novelty, complexity, and the mysterious

____ 23. sometimes uncommunicative

____ 24. forgetful, absentmindedness, mind wanders

____ 25. egocentric

____ 26. too demanding

____ 27. autonomous

____ 28. open minded

____ 29. ambitious

____ 30. temperamental

____ 31. sloppiness and disorganization with unimportant matters

____ 32. dresses differently

____ 33. does things different from standard procedures

____ 34. imaginative

____ 35. is full of ideas

____ 36. is a 'What if?" person

____ 37. high verbal, conversational ability

____ 38. not afraid to try something new

____ 39. uses all senses in observing

____ 40. ability to regress and transform items

Idea Squelchers:

"We've never done it before."

"It won't work."

"Too modern" or "Too old fashioned."

"It's not in the budget."

You've gotta be kidding."

"What bubble head thought that up?"

"Let's wait and see."

"That's not our job."

"It's not in the curriculum."

"It's too late."

"Don't rock the boat."

"That's not our department."

"I'll bet some professor suggested that."

The Creativity Case
Lebanon High School has heard enough about the need to increase worker creativity, problem solving, and higher-order thinking skills. After an initial community meeting, it was decided the high school (and entire school district for that matter) needs to address these skills in a master plan.
Assume you have been assigned to (or volunteered for) a committee to embed creative thinking techniques into this high school. Reluctant and supportive teachers (1-4), parents(5-8), principals (9-11), real estate agents (12-13), community leaders (14-17), students (18-19), corporate executives (20-21), professors from IU and Purdue (22-23), and other distinguished guest are in attendance (24-26) at this second planning meeting. You will be assigned one of these roles as well as a thinking role.
As in most initial meetings, these are lots of ideas, limited leadership and direction, and excitement as well as pessimism in the air. However, you should concentrate on the following:

  1. What is your opinion about what need to be done?

  2. What should be done next?

  3. Be sure to coment on the ideas of the others.

  4. Any resolutions????


Later on: Assume this committee is loaded with "Idea Squechlers." You keep hearing: "it'll Never Fly Wilbur!" I want to identify ways to increase creative thinking in this teaching/learning environment. First you must identify the barriers.

  1. What are 4-5 blockers, hinderances, barriers, roadblocks, problems to achieving increasing creative thinking here in Lebanon?

  2. In groups of 3-4 people put 3 roadblocks on 4 x 6 cards (or on paper)

  3. Collect and read comments and problems foreseen.

  4. Redistribute cards and creatively think of ways to solve these.

  5. Report back

Idea spurring--Osborn

1. Put to other uses? Other uses if modified?

2. Adapt? What other ideas does this suggest? What could I copy?

  1. Modify? New twist? Change color, meaning, motion, sound, odor, form?

  2. Magnify? Stronger? Higher? Longer? Thicker? Exaggerate? Multiply?

  3. Minify? What to subtract? Smaller? Miniature? Streamline? Omit?

  4. Substitute? What else instead? Other material? Other place? Approach?

  5. Rearrange? Other pattern? Other layout? Change pace? Change schedule?

  6. Reverse? How about the opposite? Turn it backward? Turn tables?

  7. Combine? Combine units? Combine appeals? Combine ideas?

Attribute listing (Changing an attribute or quality of something)

Attribute modifying.

The problem solver lists main attributes (characteristics, dimensions, parts) of a problem object, then thinks of ways to improve each attributes.

Attribute Transferring.

Using metaphorical thinking to transfer ideas from one context to another (artists, cartoonists, composers, and writers).


To analyze problems with two key variables or components. Interactions among attributes of two variables are investigated for possible problem solution.

Webbing: A process to determine directions of interest in a specific topic or subject, illustrated by a graphic organizer. For example, a semantic webb/map is a diagram to help children see the relatedness of words.
Idea Checklists: A way of forcing relationships and analogies, often used to facilitate the flow of ideas during dry spells, often used to facilitate the flow of ideas during dry spells. For instance, one might ask, "How could making part x become bigger or smaller or possibly come to life help in solving this problem?"
Synectics: Derived from the Greek word "synecticos" meaning the joining together of apparently unrelated elements. Originated by William J. J. Gordon to make strategies that people use unconsciously, better known and teachable. Through connection making, one can bring a strange concept into a familiar context and foster the understanding of new information. Synectics uses "direct analogy" (How have animals and plants solved this problem?); "personal analogy" (If I became a computer, how would I feel?); "fantasy analogy" (How can we get ovens to clean themselves?); "compressed conflict" (two-word phase that sums up the conflicting nature of an object or idea00peaceful conflict, useful dirt, careful collision).
Ten Other Possible Discussion Questions (Pick one or create a new one):

  1. What-if no one studied creativity? No understanding of the processes.

  2. What-if no one assessed creativity? There were no creativity measures or researchers?

  3. Just suppose you were in charge of curriculum? How would you address creativity?

  4. What-if the Indy Creativity Lab created the Indiana Test of Creative Ability?

  5. What-if creative thinking was more prevalent in dogs than human beings?

  6. If people didn’t need to sleep, would we be more creative in morning or at night?

  7. Suppose the Japanese were well known for creativity and creativity assessment?

  8. What-if more creative people lived 20 years longer than non less creative?

  9. What-of in 20 years, creativity became equated with intelligence?

  10. What would teaching creative thinking be like if we lived life in reverse…???

Creative Problem-Solving Methods
Polya Method

Understand the problem (What is unknown? What are the data?)

Devising a plan (find the connection between data and unknown)

Carrying out the plan (check each step for correctness)

Osburn Method

Orientation (picking out problem)

Preoperation (gathering, organizing)

Analysis and Ideation (Seeking possible solutions)

Incubation (time lag for mind to synthesize problem and solution)

Evaluation (verifying, testing)

Parnes Method

Objective Finding (mess finding)

Fact Finding (listing/data finding)

Problem Finding (selecting salient problem)

Idea Finding (brainstorming)

Solution Finding (criteria for evaluation)

Acceptance Finding (implementation)

Oech Method

Explorer (looking for materials for new ideas)

Artist (rearrange things)

Judge (evaluations and decisions)

Warrior (implementation)

Wallas Model


(acquiring knowledge and becoming aware of how problems fit together—evaluate possible problems and strategies)


(sorting out ideas—a period of quiet reflection and then brainstorming suggestions)


(Aha—find possible solution(s))


(empirical testing of plan of acting or solution)

Davis/AUTA Creativity Model

Awareness of the importance of creativity (to self and society)

Understanding of creativity (the creative person/process/theories)

Techniques (exposure to methods and strategies)

Self-Actualization (self motivation and realizing potential)

Torrance’s Stepwise Process of Creativity

Sensing a problem or gap in information

Forming ideas or hypotheses

Communicating the results

Rules for Brainstorming

  1. Criticism is ruled out (deferred judgement)

  2. Freewheeling is welcomed (the wilder the better)

  3. Quantity is wanted (longer lists increase the possibility of solution)

  4. Combination and improvement are sought (hitch-hiking on ideas)

Creativity (Perkins, 1988):

a. Creativity: "a creative result is a result both original and appropriate."

b. Creative Person: "a creative person--a person with creativity  is a person who fairly routinely produces creative results."

Creative Process (Torrance 1988):

"I tried to define creative thinking as a process of (1) sensing difficulties, problems, gaps in information, missing elements, something askew; (2) making guesses and formulating hypotheses about these deficiencies; (3) evaluating and testing these guesses and hypotheses; (4) possibly revising and retesting them; and finally (5) communicating the results."

The three four P's (Davis, 1992):

Creative Person (look for traits; e.g., visionary type)

Creative Process (looking at stages, steps, actions, behaviors)

Creative Product (looking at composition, design, innovation, fitness, worthiness)

Creative Press (look at environment, climate, place)

Personality Characteristics:

1. Willingness to take risks

2. Perseverance, Drive, Commitment to Task

3. Curiosity

4. Openness to Experience, Open Minded

5. Tolerance for Ambiguity

6. Broad Interests

7. Value Originality

8. Intuition and Deep Emotions, Perceptive

(imaginative play, similes, analogies, guesses)

9. Being Internally Occupied, Withdrawn, Needs Privacy Time

10. Awareness of Their Own Creativeness

11. Sense of Humor

12. Attracted by Complexity & Novelty

13. Artistic

Creativity Traits:

1. Products: Fluency, Flexibility, Originality,, Elaboration

2. Attitudes: Curiosity, Imagination, Complexity, Risk Taking

3. Behaviors: Flexible, Imaginative, Nonconforming, Novel Answers

Thinking/Cognitive Characteristics:

1. Metaphoric Thinking (new synthesis, perspective, transformation)

2 Flexibility & Skill in Decision Making

3. Independence in Judgment (not compelled by latest trends)

4. Coping Well with Novelty (What if?, work with ideas)

5. Logical Thinking Skills (evidence, conclusions, if then, cause effect)

6. Visualization (imagery, personal analogies)

7. Escaping Entrenchment (new angle/pattern, break set, unpredictable)

8. Finding Order in Chaos (complexity in thought, asymmetrical images)

9. Problem Finding

10. Evaluation
Negative Creative Traits:

1. Tends to question laws, rules, authority

2. Indifferent to common conventions and courtesies

3. Stubborn, uncooperative, resists domination

4. Argues the rest are out of step

5. May not participate in class

6. Argumentative, cynical, sarcastic, rebellious

7. Demanding, assertive, autocratic

8. Low interest in details

9. Sloppy, careless, disorganized with unimportant matters

10. Self centered, intolerant, tactless

11. Capricious

12. Temperamental, moody

13. Emotional, withdrawn, aloof, uncommunicative

14. Forgetful, absentminded, mind wanders, watches windows

15. Overactive physically or mentally

16. Won't join scouts
Why Measure?

1. Screen

2. Identify Creative and Gifted

3. Strengthen

4. Evaluate important features

5. See potential

6. Support Strengths of Individuals

7. Provides baseline data to diagnose needs

8. Evaluate efforts to enhance creativity

9. Provide a common language to discuss CR

10. Remove creativity from mystery/superstition

How Measure?

1. Self Assessment

2. Peer, Parent, Teacher Rating/Nomination

(e.g., adjective check lists)

3. Observations

4. Products

5. Personality Tests

6. Biographical Sketches

7. Aptitude and Ability Tests

8. Awards

9. Acceleration, Mentorship, Enrichment Programs

10. Problem Finding/Solving

Creativity Assessment Issues:

1. Reliability Inadequate

2. Validity Questionable

3. Authentic Assessment

4. Predictive Validity

5. Self Assess not Honest

6. What exactly is creativity?

7. How many forms?

Creativity Tests:

1. Exercise in Divergent Thinking (CAP Packet)

2. Exercise in Divergent Feeling (CAP Packet)

3. The Williams Scale (CAP Packet)

4. Wallas & Kogan Tests

5. Monitor Tests of Creative Potential

6. How Do You Think (Davis)

7. Structure of the Intellect

(SOI; Guilford Tests: Contents, Operations, Products)

8. Group Inventory for Finding Creative Talent

(i.e., Davis: GIFFI I/11, GIFT, PRIDE)

9. Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT)

10. Adjective Check List

11. Getzels and Jackson Tests

12. Creative Attitude Survey (Schaeffer)

13. Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement (Torrance)

14. Thinking Creativity with Sounds and Words (Torrance)

15. Barron Welsh Art Scale

16. Remote Associates Tests (RAT)

17. The Creative Reasoning Test

(20 items to assess creativity using riddles)

18. Biographical Inventory Creativity

19. Instruments assessing creative products

20. The Creativity Behavior Inventory

21. Khatena Torrance Creative Perception Inventory

  1. What Kind of Person Are You? (WKOPAY) (Five factors: acceptance of authority, self confidence, inquisitiveness, awareness of others, and disciplined imagination)

  2. Something about Myself


Carles E. Schaefer, Ph.D.

Fordham University

Student’s Name ______________________ Age _____ Sex _____ Date _____________

School _____________________________ Class (or Grade ) ______________________

Teacher ____________________________ Rater _______________________________


On the following pages we would like you to tell us how you think and feel about different things. There are no right answers except those that are accurate about yourself.

For each statement we want you to circle the word “Yes” if you AGREE, or the world “No” if you DISAGREE.
Be sure to answer Yes or No to every question, even if it seems hard to decide.

Schaefer (1991). Creative Attitude Survey. Jacksonville, IL: Psychology and Educators, Inc.




I like to play “make believe” games.




I often act on the spur of the moment without stopping to think.




I like social studies better than science *




I think daydreaming is a waste of time.




In art class, I prefer to be told exactly what to do all the time.




I feel that thinking up ideas that are “way out” or “fantastic” is a waste of time.




I feel that the best answers are the ones the teacher thinks re right.




I think that stories about wizards and magicians are silly.




I would rather think up a picture on my own than trace or copy one.




I think it is better for children to keep quest in class than to give ideas that might be wrong.




Some children are naturally born with better imaginations than others and there is nothing that can be done about it.




I’m afraid to express my ideas because they usually no good.




I’ would rather lean strange new games then play games that I know well.




My favorite color is blue.*




Other children have better ideas than I do, and it is best to follow what they do.




Art is one of my favorite subjects in school.




I like to “clown around” and pretend to be other people.




I think that children have a lot of good ideas and that teachers should listen to them more often in class.




If someone gets and idea that is different from everyone else’s, the idea is probably not a very good; otherwise other children would have thought of it too.




I like to take my time and think up a number of ideas before trying to solve a problem.




I feel that I have a good imagination.




I admire artists and writers as much as doctors and lawyers.




I feel that children should never “make a mess” when they draw or paint.




I think it is as important for girls to learn to draw or write as to cook and sew.




I only like to draw pictures of real persons or objects.




If other children laugh at your ideas, you should give the ideas up.




I think children can write good poetry.




I like kids who are quiet and well behaved better than ones who joke and clown around a lot.




I would rather have as a friend someone who is lively and full of ideas than some one who is nice and always wants to do what I want.




I usually try to think up new ways of doing things rather than doing them in the accepted way.




In school I prefer to learn facts rather than talk about ideas and theories that people have about things.




I like drawing No. 1 better than No. 2 (Note: drawing #1 is an abstract line drawing while the other is of a couple tress situated on a hillside).


  1. Critical/Critical thinking

  2. Creative/Creative thinking

  3. Cooperative/Cooperative learning



1. “The _____________ individual has a certain freedom of spirit and unwillingness to be bound by the unwritten cannons of society, characteristics not necessarily found in the highly intelligence individual. Implicit theories of __________________ encompass a dimension of aesthetic taste and imagination that is absent in implicit theories of intelligence, and also encompass aspects of inquisitiveness and intuitiveness that do not seem to enter into implicit theories of intelligence” (Sternberg, 1986).


2. “_____________ thinking calls for a persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of evidence that supports it and the further conclusions to which it tends (Glaser, 1941).


3. “___________ thinking…is a process of evaluation or categorizing in terms of some previously accepted standards. It is a logical examination of data which avoids fantasies and judgements on an emotional basis only (Russell, 1960).”


4. _____________ is the “cognitive abilities that produce original idea combinations in people and generate new knowledge and problem solving techniques” (Gallini, 1983).


5. “an equal partnership in which paired students study together with the mutual goal of mastering academic material” (Larson & Dansereau, 1986, p. 516).


6. _____________ “may be defined, quite simply, as the ability to bring something new into existence” (Barron, 1969).


7. _____________ includes defining a problem, selecting pertinent information, recognizing stated and unstated assumptions, formulating and selecting relevant hypotheses, drawing conclusions, and detecting bias in statements.


8. “_____________ is more than mere spontaneity for it involves deliberation as well. It is more than divergent thinking for it converges on some solution. It not only generates possibilities but also chooses among them. It is as much asking the right question as finding the right answer” (Young, 1985).


9. “_____________ thinking is reflective and reasonable thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do (Ennis, 1985); “…at its’ root, it “is the correct assessment of statements” (Ennis, 1962).


10. The _______________ thinker tries to be well-informed, takes into account the total situation, seeks a clear statement of the thesis or the question, looks for alternatives, deals with components of the problem in an orderly manner, seeks as much precision as the subject matter will allow, asks clarifying questions when confused, and judges conclusion (Presseisen, 1986).

True/False (T/F):

11. _____

Creative thinking aims to produce an assessment of things, beliefs, and courses of action, while critical thinking aims to produce an original product (Perkins, 1987)

12. _____

Perkins and Glaser hold that attitudes or dispositions are the backbones of creative and critical thinking; certain dispositional qualities like an inquiring mind, a need to evaluate information, a willingness to test one’s opinions, and a desire to consider alternate points of view, appear to link these two types of thinking.

13. _____

There is an overlap between the two (i.e., critical and creative thinking) since creative thinking involves innumerable episodes of evaluating solutions and critical thinking depends on inventions and ways of breaking one’s mental set.

14. _____

Creative people do more than break away from old and familiar patterns and listing numerous alternatives; they have goals that they use to assist them in converging on new solutions.

15. _____

As suggested by Isaksen and Parnes (1985), all human intellectual abilities and emotional energies could be united in attacking problems or challenges in a reciprocating pattern between imagination and judgement. They have outlined a six stage problem solving model wherein each stage includes a divergent phase (free flow of thoughts) and a convergent phase (evaluation and selection of thoughts).

16. What is your personal definition of creativity?

17. Write a new witty tile for this Davis’ book.

18. What do creative people do? How can we spot a creative person?

19. Circle creative thinking terms and place a check next to critical thinking terms:

  1. displays curiosity, b. consequences, c. determines relevance and irrelevance of information, d. elaboration, e. visualization, f. seeks support for opinions and hypotheses, g. recognizes appropriate conclusions and implications, h. nonconforming, flexible, j. unpredictable/spontaneous, k. makes comparisons, and contrasts, l. answers and solutions are unique, m. provides justification, n. finds patterns, o. analyses assumptions, p. states and defends ideas, q. identifies alternatives, r. attracted to novelty, s. sees new angles or patterns, t. classifies and categories, u. risk taking, v. distinguishes relationships, w. tolerance for ambiguity, x. makes analogies, y. breaks mental set, z. checks credibility of sources, aa. checks reliability and adequacy of information provided, bb. Imagination, cc. Detects missing parts of an argument, dd. Has a sense of humor, ee. Determines the strength of an argument.

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