Course Focus and Content



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Grade 8 Social Studies

(United States History 1800-1900)
Social Studies

Curriculum Framework

Revised 2014
Grade 8 Social Studies


Course Focus and Content


In Grades K-7, students receive a strong foundation in social studies and United States history prior to its founding through the 18th century. Grade 8 Social Studies has an emphasis on United States history from 1801 expansion and reform to 1900 industrial America. The desired outcome of this course is for students to develop an understanding of the cause-and-effect relationship between events, recognize patterns of interactions, and understand the impact of events in the United States within an interconnected world. The history of the United States during the nineteenth century includes the integration of social, political, economic, and geographic components. The history strand in Grade 8 is organized chronologically using the eras and time periods from The National Center for History in the Schools. Civics/government, economics, and geography should be embedded into instructional units that correlate with the historic eras under study.

Skills and Application


Throughout the course, students will develop and apply disciplinary literacy skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. As students seek answers to compelling and supporting questions, they will examine a variety of primary and secondary sources and communicate responses in multiple ways, including oral, visual, and written forms. Students must be able to select and evaluate sources of information, draw and build upon ideas, explore issues, examine data, and analyze events from the full range of human experience to develop critical thinking skills essential for productive citizens. Grade 8 Social Studies is required by the Standards for Accreditation.
The acquisition of content knowledge and skills is paramount in a robust social studies program rooted in inquiry. The chart below summarizes social studies practices in Dimensions 1, 3, and 4 of The College, Career, & Civic Life C3 Framework for Social Studies State Standards. These practices should be addressed throughout grades K-12, building as students acquire the skills. Dimension 2 sets forth the conceptual content, and the alignment to this dimension is embedded in the student learning expectations (SLEs).


Dimension 1 – Questions

Dimension 3 – Sources and Evidence

Dimension 4 – Communicating Ideas

1. Construct compelling questions that promote inquiry around key ideas and issues

4. Gather relevant information from multiple perspectives and a variety of sources; evaluate the credibility of the source by determining its relevance and intended use

6. Construct arguments and explanations that convey ideas and perspectives to appropriate audiences using print, oral, and digital technologies

2. Develop supporting questions that contribute to inquiry: identifying facts, concepts, and interpretations


5. Use evidence from multiple sources to answer compelling and supporting questions by developing arguments with claims and counterclaims and providing explanations

7. Critique the credibility, relevance, and use of evidence in arguments and explanations proposed by self and others

3. Answer compelling and supporting questions using appropriate and available sources that consider multiple points of view




8. Use disciplinary lenses within the social sciences to understand local, regional, and global problems, proposing solutions or assessing strategies and options for action while applying deliberative processes

Engage in disciplinary thinking across the social sciences in Grades K-12




Strand

Content Standard

Era 4: Expansion and Reform 1801-1861







  1. Students will analyze the period of expansion and reform in the United States.

Era 5: Civil War and Reconstruction 1850-1877







  1. Students will analyze the American Civil War and Reconstruction and their effects on the social, economic, and political development of America.




Era 6: Development of the Industrial United States 1870-1900







  1. Students will analyze the development of the industrial United States and the economic and cultural transformation that led to modern America.

Notes:


  1. Words that appear in italics within this document are defined in the glossary.

  2. The examples given (e.g.,) are suggestions to guide the instructor.

  3. Common Core State Standards (CCSS ELA-Literacy alignment) key, CCRA.R.1 = College and Career Ready Anchor Standard.Reading.1

  4. College, Career, & Civic Life C3 Framework for Social Studies State Standards (C3 alignment) key, D2.His.1.6-8 = Dimension 2.History.1st K-12 Pathway.Grades 6-8

  5. The course strands, content standards, and the SLEs are not meant to be taught in chronological order or in isolation.

  6. The Arkansas Department of Education course curriculum framework is intended to assist in district curriculum development, unit design, and to provide a uniform, comprehensive guide for instruction. It is not intended to be a state-mandated curriculum for how and when content is taught; these decisions are left to local districts.

Strand: Era 4: Expansion and Reform 1801-1861

Content Standard 1: Students will analyze the period of expansion and reform in the United States.







CCSS ELA-Literacy Alignment

C3 Alignment

Era4.1.8.1

Analyze multiple factors that affected territorial expansion and influenced the perspectives of people

(e.g., Manifest Destiny, mining, War of 1812, Louisiana Purchase)





CCRA.R.1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.W. 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.SL.1, 2, 4


D2.Civ.10, 11.6-8

D2.Geo.1, 4, 6, 7.6-8

D2.His.1, 2, 5, 14.6-8


Era4.1.8.2

Analyze the development of regional tensions prior to the Civil War using a variety of primary and secondary sources

(e.g., Industrial Revolution, expansion of slavery, immigration, westward movement)



CCRA.R.1, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.W. 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.SL.1, 2, 4


D2.Geo.2, 4, 6.6-8

D2.His.1, 10, 11, 14, 16.6-8




Era4.1.8.3

Examine economic, political, and geographic causes and effects of territorial expansion


CCRA.R.1, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.W. 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.SL.1, 2, 4


D2.Eco.1.6-8

D2.Geo.2, 5, 7.6-8

D2.His.14, 15.6-8


Era4.1.8.4

Analyze purposes, implementation, and effects of public policies

(e.g., currency and banking, Indian Removal, disenfranchisement, economic growth, Manifest Destiny)





CCRA.R.1, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.W. 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.SL.1, 2, 4


D2.Civ.1, 5, 10, 11, 13.6-8

D2.Eco.1, 2.6-8

D2.Geo.5.6-8

D2.His.1, 4.6-8



Era4.1.8.5

Evaluate actual and proposed laws as a means of addressing the issue of slavery prior to the Civil War

(e.g., Fugitive Slave Act, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850)




CCRA.R.1, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.W.1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.SL.1, 2, 4


D2.Civ.2, 5, 10, 12, 13.6-8

D2.Geo.5.6-8

D2.His.1.6-8


Era4.1.8.6

Evaluate the historical significance of individuals, groups, and events

CCRA.R.1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.W.1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.SL.1, 2, 4


D2.His.3, 11, 17.6-8

Strand: Era 5: Civil War and Reconstruction 1850-1877

Content Standard 2: Students will analyze the American Civil War and Reconstruction and their effects on the social, economic, and political development of America.







CCSS ELA-Literacy Alignment

C3 Alignment

Era5.2.8.1

Develop historical arguments and explanations of causes of the Civil War using a variety of sources from multiple perspectives

(e.g., federal government vs. state’s rights, sectionalism, cultural differences between the North and South, abolitionism)




CCRA.R.1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.W.1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.SL.1, 2, 3, 4


D2.Civ.4, 8, 10, 11.6-8

Era5.2.8.2

Explain ways economic decisions affected individuals, businesses, and society during the course of the Civil War and over time

CCRA.R.1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.W. 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.SL.1, 2, 3, 4


D2.Eco.1.6-8

D2.Geo.5, 8.6-8



Era5.2.8.3

Analyze social and economic effects of the Civil War on America


CCRA.R.1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.W. 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.SL.1, 2, 3, 4


D2.Eco.1.6-8

D2.His.4.6-8



Era5.2.8.4

Analyze the historical significance of selected Civil War battles, events, and people

CCRA.R.1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.W. 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.SL.1, 2, 3, 4


D2.His.14, 15.6-8

Era5.2.8.5

Evaluate the legacy of the Civil War on the nation

CCRA.R.1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.W. 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.SL.1, 2, 3, 4


D2.Civ.8.6-8

D2.His.5.6-8



Era5.2.8.6

Evaluate successes and failures of Reconstruction

(e.g., Reconstruction Plans, Freedman’s Bureau, Civil War Amendments, African-American economic positions, sharecropping, crop liens, public education, African-American role in government)




CCRA.R.1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.W. 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.SL.1, 2, 3, 4


D2.Civ.12.6-8

D2.Eco.1.6-8


Strand: Era 6: Development of the Industrial United States 1870-1900

Content Standard 3: Students will analyze the development of the industrial United States and the economic and cultural transformation that led to modern America.







CCSS ELA-Literacy Alignment

C3 Alignment

Era6.3.8.1

Analyze economic, geographic, and technological growth associated with the Second Industrial Revolution and its impact on American society

CCRA.R.1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA W. 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.SL.1, 2, 3, 4


D2.Civ.6.6-8

D2.Eco.1.6-8

D2.His.1.6-8


Era6.3.8.2

Examine the effects of immigration after 1870

(e.g., social patterns, national unity, cultural diversity, conflicts)





CCRA.R.1, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.W. 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.SL.1, 2, 4


D1.5.6-8

D2.Geo.6, 8, 9, 10.6-8

D2.His.14.6-8

D3.1.6-8


Era6.3.8.3

Analyze the historical significance of individuals, groups, and events


CCRA.R.1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.W. 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.SL.1, 2, 4


D2.His.3, 4, 15.6-8

Era6.3.8.4

Examine government policies and laws that addressed the escalating labor conflicts and the rise of labor unions using primary and secondary sources


CCRA.R.1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.W. 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.SL.1, 2, 4


D1.5.6-8

D2.Civ.12, 13.6-8

D2.Eco.9.6-8

D4.2.6-8


Era6.3.8.5

Analyze responses to social, economic, and political issues prior to 1900

(e.g., successes and failures of Populism, economic depressions, civil service reform, Tammany Hall, business regulations)




CCRA.R.1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.W. 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.SL.1, 2, 4


D2.Civ.10.6-8

D2.Eco.1.6-8

D2.His.1.6-8

D3.1.6-8


D4.5.6-8

Era6.3.8.6

Evaluate federal Indian policy, westward expansion, and the resulting struggles from a variety of perspectives using multiple sources


CCRA.R.1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.W. 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.SL.1, 2, 3, 4


D1.2, 5.6-8

D2.Civ.6, 13.6-8

D2.His.4, 5, 14.6-8


Era6.3.8.7

Explain the origins and development of American expansionism

(e.g., acquisition of new territories, Spanish-American War, expansionist foreign policy, Filipino insurrection)




CCRA.R.1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.W. 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

CCRA.SL.1, 2, 4


D2.His.1, 2, 3.6-8

D4.2.6-8

Glossary for Grade 8 Social Studies


Crop lien

High-interest loan against future crops that made sharecroppers dependent on local merchants

Disenfranchisement

Refers to the use of legal means to bar individuals or groups from voting

Primary source

First-hand account, document, or physical object that was written or created during the time under study

(e.g., speeches, pamphlets, government documents, memoirs, letters, artifacts, pieces of art, data results or analyses)



Public policy

Attempt by a government to address a public issue by instituting laws, regulations, decisions, or actions relevant to the issue or problem

Secondary source

Interpretation, analysis, critique, or restructuring of data contained in primary sources that may contain pictures, quotes or graphics from primary sources

(e.g., newspaper articles, magazine articles, reviews of books, reference materials, biographies)



Second Industrial Revolution

Phase of the larger Industrial Revolution beginning with the introduction of Bessemer steel in the 1860s and continuing until World War I

Contributors


The following people contributed to the development of this document:


Lacey Alkire – Fayetteville School District

Debbie Kamps – Highland School District

Laura Beth Arnold – Little Rock School District

Bennie Lard – Hope School District

Nathan Andrew Bagley – Phillips County Community College, Helena

Jan Loyd – Cabot School District

Cindy Beckman – Conway School District

Dr. Kristen Dutcher-Mann – University of Arkansas at Little Rock

Kris Bertelsen – Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, Little Rock Branch

Marsha Masters – Economics Arkansas

Dr. Kay Bland – Butler Center for Arkansas Studies

Lisa McGriff – Star City School District

Ruth Brown – Marvel School District

Toney McMurray – Alma School District

Lisa Byrum – Pulaski County Special School District

Shannon Neumeier – North Little Rock School District

Kelli Castleberry – Camden Fairview School District

Kari Nichols Henard – Bryant School District

Barbara Clements – Marion School District

Martha Pelley – Cedar Ridge School District

Napoleon Cross – Lafayette County School District

Lindsey Phillips – Rogers School District

Teddy Davis – Arkansas State University, Beebe

Carmen Walker-Pierce – Little Rock School District

Debra Ewing-Hight – Bentonville School District

Judy Pierce – Benton School District

Georgia Fletcher – Russellville School District

Don Porter – Little Rock School District

David Freligh – Forrest City School District

Sarah Pugh – Bentonville School District

Lantha Garmrath – Paragould School District

Steven Quoss – Warren School District

Sue Geery – Norfork School District

Julie Roark – Nettleton School District

Angie Goodding – Monticello School District

Jason Sanders – El Dorado School District

Ron Graham – Drew Central School District

Joy Spivey – Deer/Mt. Judea School District

Willie Gulley – Dollarway School District

Linda Thrasher – Mountain Home School District

Bailey Hendricks – Searcy School District

John Traband – Hampton School District

Schula Holley – Little Rock School District

Karen Trusty – Paris School District

Nancy Hull – Fountain Lake School District

Cathy Tucker – Lake Hamilton School District

Dr. Margie Hunter – West Memphis School District

Shelina Warren – Pine Bluff School District

Anthony Jackson – Fordyce School District

James Washington – Arkansas Consolidated School District

Ashley Jackson – Dumas School District

Barry Watkins – Bay School District

Carmen Jones – Malvern School District

Vickie Yates – Virtual Arkansas

Dr. Cherisse Jones-Branch – Arkansas State University, Jonesboro








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