Land Based Wind is quicker to install than offshore solutions and is the only way to quickly solve warming and increase jobs
Ailworth, Writer for the Boston Globe, 12
(Erin, Boston Globe, “While Cape Wind is debated, land-based development of wind power takes off”, 7/2/2012, http://www.boston.com/business/news/2012/07/09/while-cape-wind-debated-land-based-development-wind-power-takes-off/K2XRBrIBXQSGWGV006WN0H/story.html, Accessed 7/7/14, ESB)
One company alone, First Wind Holdings LLC of Boston, has installed enough turbines in the Northeast over the past few years to generate nearly as much power as the long-awaited offshore wind farm. Other companies, too, have developed wind projects in New England states.¶ Driving this growth are technological advances reducing the cost of wind turbines and increasing their efficiency, making wind power more competitive with traditional power sources — particularly in the Northeast, where electricity costs can run as much as 60 percent above the national average.¶ Turbine prices have dropped about 30 percent over the past few years, and new turbines are able to generate electricity at lower wind speeds.¶ Meanwhile, average electricity prices in the Northeast can top 15 cents per kilowatt hour, compared with a US average of 9.52 cents. New wind technology can generate power at an average cost of about 10 cents per kilowatt hour, excluding subsidies, according to the US Energy Department.¶ “Some of the states in the Northeast have been some of the fastest-growing markets,” said Elizabeth Salerno, director of industry data and analysis at the American Wind Energy Association, a trade group in Washington. “Power prices are relatively high [there], so by delivering wind projects, you can develop a pretty affordable source of generation.”¶ First Wind has built wind farms in eight locations in Maine, Vermont, and upstate New York. With the 34 megawatts that will be added when the company completes its wind farm near Eastbrook, Maine, First Wind’s projects will have the capacity to generate nearly 420 megawatts of electricity, compared with Cape Wind’s 468 megawatts.¶ In addition, Quincy-based Patriot Renewable operates two wind farms in Maine and one in Buzzards Bay, with a total generating capacity of about 25 megawatts. The Berkshire Wind Power Cooperative Corp., a consortium of 14 municipal utilities and the Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Co., owns a 15-megawatt wind farm in Hancock that went online last year.¶ A megawatt of wind-generated electricity can power about 300 homes.¶ Despite the growth of land-based projects, the discussion about developing the region’s wind resources has often focused on offshore projects such as Cape Wind and a proposed “wind energy area” that would encompass nearly 165,000 acres of federal waters off the coasts of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Last week, US officials completed an environmental review of the wind energy area, an important step in opening the area to development.¶ Still, it could be years before any turbines are built offshore, meaning that more land-based projects will be needed to achieve renewable energy goals set by several states seeking alternatives to fossil fuels, such as oil, coal, and natural gas. In Massachusetts, for example, the state has set a goal of installing 2,000 megawatts of wind-energy capacity in the state by 2020 and has required utilities to get 15 percent of their power from wind, solar, and other renewable sources in that same time frame.¶ Today, there are 61 megawatts of installed wind power capacity in the state.¶ This has created opportunities for companies like First Wind. Founded a decade ago, the company had its first project up and running in Hawaii in 2006, and its second operating in Maine in 2007.¶ Today, First Wind has 16 projects — totaling 980 megawatts of generating capacity — operating or under construction in the United States. Four went online in 2011, and another followed this year.¶ The latest project in the region, Bull Hill wind farm near Eastbrook, Maine, will produce power for NStar, one of the largest utilities in Massachusetts. The company’s other New England customers include ISO New England, the region’s grid operator, and Harvard University.¶ “Massachusetts is way ahead of everybody [with its clean energy goals] so, from a practical point of view, the demand is being created by Massachusetts,” said First Wind chief executive Paul Gaynor. That’s because wind power generated in other states is being bought by Massachusetts utilities and others to help meet the state’s renewable energy goals.¶ Although offshore wind is stronger and therefore an abundant and steady source of power, it has proved much harder to site projects in the ocean for a variety of environmental and technical reasons, including how to connect offshore turbines to the onshore power grid.¶ That’s not to to say land-based wind projects have not faced opposition — Gaynor said all of his company’s projects have — but it generally has not been as vehement and vociferous as in the Cape Wind controversy. That’s partly because First Wind’s projects tend to be in remote areas visible to few people. They also bring jobs to rural areas that desperately need them.¶
Onshore Aquaculture - Solvency
Land based Aquaculture has many benefits:
Gray, writer for the Canadian Geographic ‘04
(Mitchell, “Is there a future for salmon farms in Canada? Raising a fish out of water: A look at Canada’s only land-based salmon farm that’s taking small fry to full-sized” Canadian Geographic http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/so04/ indepth/portrait.asp, Accessed 7/7/14, ESB)
Eight large cement tanks on the shore of Vancouver Island may play an important role in determining the next steps in the contentious evolution of salmon farming in Canada. The tanks are part of a facility under lease by AgriMarine Industries for use in exploring land-based salmon farming. Operators of the farm, located in Cedar, B.C., just south of Nanaimo, are working to find ways to make this type of aquaculture both more profitable and more environmentally friendly¶ Farming salmon on land during the early, freshwater, stage of life is not uncommon; there are 23 farms across Canada that do it. But the AgriMarine system starts where the others leave off — with smolt — and raises them through the saltwater stage to market size. This is rare for a land-based operation. “We haven’t found any other farms growing salmon in seawater on land in North America,” says Rob Walker, director of operations and marketing for AgriMarine.¶ WASTE NOT¶ The AgriMarine farm uses a form of closed-containment system that many critics would like to see replace net farms in the marine environment. Closed systems address some of the issues related to salmon farming, such as the problem of farmed fish escaping into the wild and contaminating the gene pool. But AgriMarine’s system doesn’t fully address another environmental concern: the transfer of concentrated waste from the fish pools into the natural environment. It uses a filterless, flow-through process that pumps water from nearby Stuart Channel into the tanks and then back out to the channel. A waterfall at the end of the effluent path helps break down the waste — but doesn’t contain it.
Onshore Aquaculture – Disease NB
Land Based Aquaculture prevents: disease spread, feces contamination, antibiotic use, and escapes
Atlantic Salmon Federation ‘14
(“Reasons for Land-based Closed-containment” http://www.asf.ca/reasons-for-land-based-closed-containment.html#sthash.yMLS7c58.dpuf, Accessed 7/7/14, ESB)
Land-based closed-containment salmon aquaculture offers many benefits as opposed to the marine netpen operations. Among them:
- Production of Atlantic salmon without the need for antibiotics or harsh, environmentally harmful chemicals to control disease and parasites
- Faster growth of the product - typically six months ahead of netpen operations
- No feces contaminating sea floor or waters. Indeed, the land-based operations "harvest" the effluent chemicals, and they are a valuable byproduct
- No disease spread through miles of ocean from the concentrated populations of netpen operations
- Greater flexibility in location of growout facilities. With closed-containment recirculation units there is no need to be near a stream or river - much less the ocean.
Disease spread from Fish in Water Fisheries can destroy local populations of fish and kill off the entire farm
Dean New York Times Science Writer and Nuwer Writer for the Smithsonian, ‘11
(Cornelia and Rachel, October 17th 2011, New York Times Science, “Salmon-Killing Virus Seen for First Time in the Wild on the Pacific Coast,” http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/18/science /18salmon.html?_r=2&src=tp&, Accessed 7/9/14, ESB)
A lethal and highly contagious marine virus has been detected for the first time in wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest, researchers in British Columbia said on Monday, stirring concern that it could spread there, as it has in Chile, Scotland and elsewhere. Farms hit by the virus, infectious salmon anemia, have lost 70 percent or more of their fish in recent decades. But until now, the virus, which does not affect humans, had never been confirmed on the West Coast of North America. The researchers, from Simon Fraser University and elsewhere, said at a news conference in Vancouver that the virus had been found in 2 of 48 juvenile fish collected as part of a study of sockeye salmon in Rivers Inlet, on the central coast of British Columbia. The study was undertaken after scientists observed a decline in the number of young sockeye.¶ ¶ Richard Routledge, an environmental scientist at the university who leads the sockeye study, suggested that the virus had spread from the province’s aquaculture industry, which has imported millions of Atlantic salmon eggs over the last 25 years, primarily from Iceland and Scandinavia. He acknowledged that no direct evidence of that link existed, but noted that the two fish had tested positive for the European strain of infectious salmon anemia.¶ ¶ The virus could have “a devastating impact” not just on the region’s farmed and wild salmon but on the many species that depend on them in the food web, like grizzly bears, killer whales and wolves, Dr. Routledge said. “No country has ever gotten rid of it once it arrives,” he said in a statement.¶ ¶ The only barrier between the salmon farms and wild fish is a net, he noted at the news conference, opening the way for “pathogens sweeping in and out.” No treatment exists for infectious salmon anemia. Gary Marty, the fish pathologist for the province’s Ministry of Agriculture, said the Canadian Food Inspection Agency would seek fish samples from the researchers and run its own tests.¶ The British Columbia Salmon Farmers Association, an industry group, said fish health departments had regularly tested for the virus on the farms “and have never found a positive case.” Dr. Marty confirmed that no cases had been found in that testing.¶ Still, “if these results are valid, this could be a threat to our business and the communities that rely on our productive industry,” said Stewart Hawthorn, the managing director for Grieg Seafood, an association member.¶ At the news conference, the Simon Fraser researchers said Fred Kibenge, a researcher at Atlantic Veterinary College at the University of Prince Edward Island, the global center for tests detecting the virus, had confirmed its presence in the two fish. They called for widespread testing to determine where the virus exists in the region and in what fish.¶ Alexandra Morton, a researcher and activist who collected the sockeye samples and is an outspoken critic of salmon farming practices in British Columbia, called the virus “a cataclysmic threat” to both salmon and herring, which can also contract it.¶ “If we test five million fish and found two sick, O.K.,” she said. “But 48 in the middle of nowhere?” The inlet where the samples were taken is 60 miles from the nearest salmon farm, the researchers said.¶ Fishery experts with no connection to the study agreed that the threat was serious. James Winton, who leads the fish health research group at the Western Fisheries Research Center in Seattle, an arm of the United States Geological Survey, called it a “disease emergency” and urged that research begin at once to determine on how far the virus had spread.¶ According to the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, infectious salmon anemia virus morphed from a benign form in nature into a “novel virulent strain” when salmon stocks entered Norway’s densely packed salmon farms. Rather than getting picked off by a predator, a sick fish would undergo a slow death in a crowded pen, shedding virus particles.
(1/9/2013, “The Political Economics of United States Marine Aquaculture” http://www.panoramaacuicola.com/interviews_and_articles/2013/01/09/the_political_economics_of_united_states_marine_aquaculture.html#sthash.WaZiT5mj.dpuf, Accessed 7/9/14, ESB)
Marine fish and waters are traditionally public resources. The concept of private ownership of land is fully accepted in American law and culture. Many Americans oppose land-based resource development such as mining or logging or industrial agriculture, but they don’t generally base their opposition on the principle that land or resources shouldn’t be privately owned.
In contrast, there is no tradition of private ownership of marine fish or waters in America. Many Americans oppose allowing private exclusive use of or rights to marine coastlines, water or fish. The tradition that marine fish and waters are public resources imposes an extra political and regulatory hurdle for the development of aquaculture, especially for finfish farming. Before any kind of marine aquaculture can begin, new mechanisms need to be created to allow for exclusive use of marine waters. Efforts to implement rights-based management regimes for wild fisheries, such as individual fishing quotas, face similar strong philosophical resistance from many Americans. However, as these new management regimes are implemented, public attitudes are likely to shift as the economic logic and advantages of exclusive use rights become more apparent. The same process will likely occur with marine aquaculture — but it will take time.