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o Pathway of vision light



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o Pathway of vision light
cornea
pupil/iris
lens
retina
rods/cones
bipolar cells
ganglion
cells
optic nerve
optic chiasm
occipital lobe
o Cornea – protects the eye ob Pupiliris –
controls amount of light entering eye ob Lens –
focuses light on retina

ob Foveabarea of best vision(cones here)
o Rods – black/white, dim light o
C
o
n
e
s
color, bright light
(
red
,
green
,
blue
)
o Bipolar cells – connect rods/cones and ganglion cells ob Ganglion cells – opponent-processing occurs here ob Blind spot – occurs where the optic nerve leaves the eye ob Feature detectors – specialized cells that see motion, shapes, lines, etc.
located in occipital lobe (experiments by
Hubel & Weisel)
THEORIES OF COLOR VISION:
o Trichromatic – three cones for receiving color (blue, red, green)
Explains colorblindness- they are missing a cone type
o Opponent Process – complementary colors are processed in ganglion cells explains why we see an after image
Visual Capture Visual system overwhelms all others (nauseous in an
IMAX theater – vision trumps vestibular)
Constancies: recognize that objects do not physically change despite changes in sensory input (size, shape, brightness)
Phi Phenomenon adjacent lights blink on/off in succession – looks like movement (traffic signs with arrows)
Stroboscopic movement motion produced by a rapid succession of slightly varying images (animations)
MONOCULAR CUES (how we form a
3D image from a D image)
o Interposition: overlapping images appear closer
o Relative Size 2 objects that are usually similar in size, the smaller one is further away
o Relative Clarity hazy objects appear further away
o Texture Gradient coarser objects are closer
o Relative Height things higher in our field of vision look further away
o Linear Perspective parallel lines converge with distance (think railroad tracks)
BINOCULAR CUES: (how both eyes makeup a D image)
Retinal Disparity Image is cast slightly different on each retina, location of image helps us determine depth
Convergence: Eyes strain more (looking inward) as objects draw nearer
TOP-DOWN PROCESSING Whole smaller parts
BOTTOM-UP PROCESSING Smaller
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