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● Ingroup: “US” – ppl w whom we share a common identity
● Outgroup: “them” – ppl perceived as different or not part of the group
● Ingroup bias tendency to favor our own group
● Scapegoat theory prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone else to blame
● Ethnocentrism tendency to see your own group as more important than others
● Just-world phenomenon tendency for ppl to believe that the world is just and therefore ppl get what they deserve
(homeless ppl)
Genetic influence runs in families, can breed for in animals
● Lower serotonin, higher testosterone
Environmental influence social learning theory (BANDURA) – observing violence in others makes us more violent fora time
o Also pollution, crowding, heat, humidity
● Frustration-aggression hypothesis:
frustration creates anger, which leads to aggression
● Mere exposure effect repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
(the more time you spend around something the more you like it)
● Physical attractiveness pretty ppl are thought to be more credible, less likely to do bad things
● Similarity we prefer ppl similar to us
● Passionate Love Early stage of romance intense pos. obsession w another (due to arousal)
● Companionate Love Later stage – deep attachment to someone who your life is intertwined w - best with equality and
self-disclosure (revealing intimate details about self)
Altruism: unselfish regard for the welfare of others Bystander effect the more ppl around the less likely we are to help someone in need (Kitty Genovese)
Social exchange theory social behavior
(helping) is an exchange process – aim is to maximize benefits and minimize cost Reciprocity norm we give so we can get
Social trap conflicting parties pursue their own best interests, which can result in destructive results (prisoners dilemma game theory Approach approach conflict win – win situation conflict is which win you have to choose (you can eat out at ONE of your two favorite restaurants – you can only choose one though Approach avoidance conflict win – lose situation outcome has positive and negative aspects (marriage Avoidance avoidance conflict : lose lose both outcomes are bad but you have to choose one (clean your room or do your homework Multiple approach avoidance conflict:
two (or more) win-lose situations conflict is which to choose (College A is good for your major but no scholarship, College Bis bad for your major but has a scholarship)
SOCIAL SELF Self-concept bias what we consider important in ourselves is what we consider important in others False-consensus effect we overestimate the degree to which everyone else thinks acts the way we dob Self-fulfilling prophecy
a belief that leads to its own fulfillment (I expect you all to pass, you know this, you study fulfilling my prophecy Self-serving bias readiness to perceive ourselves as favorably Spotlight effect (self-objectification) :
tendency of an individual to overestimate the extent to which others are paying attention to them
FRQ TIPS Define then Apply the term. B.S.
what you don’t know!

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