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(
CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL
CAUSATION)
o Positive Correlation – variables increase & decrease together oi bNegative Correlation –
as one variable increases the other decreases oi bThe stronger the # the stronger the

relationship REGARDLESS of the
pos/neg sign
3
rd
variable problem (lurking
variable)– diff. variable is responsible for relationship (breast implants & suicide Illusory correlation – belief of correlation that doesn’t exist (old man predicts rain from arthritis CASE STUDY: Adv. Studies ONE
person (usually) in great detail – lots of info Disadv: No cause and effect DESCRIPTIVE STATS:shape of the data ob Measures of Central Tendency:

Mean: Average (use in normal distribution Median: Middle # (use in skewed distribution Mode: occurs most often INFERENTIAL STATISTICS:
establishes significance (meaningfulness STATISTICAL SIGNIFANCE = results not due to chance ETHICAL GUIDELINES (APA)
o Confidentiality names kept secret o Informed Consent must agree to be part of study o Debriefing must be told the true purpose of the study (done after for deception)
o Deception must be warranted o No harm mental/physical
Biological Basis NEURON: Basic cell of the NS
o Dendrites: Receive incoming signal oi bSoma:
Cell body (includes nucleus)
o Axon: AP travels down this oi bMyelin Sheath
speeds up signal down axon, protects axon

oi bTerminals: release NTs – send signal onto next neuron oi bVesicles: sacs inside terminal contain
NTs oi bSynapse: gap b/w neurons Action Potential: movement of sodium and potassium ions across a membrane sends an electrical charge down the axon oi bAll or none law: stimulus must trigger the AP past its threshold, but does not increase the intensity of the response
(flush the toilet)
o Refractory period: neuron must rest and reset before it can send another
AP (toilet resets)


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