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History and Approaches
(2-4%)
● Psychology is derived from physiology
(biology) and philosophy
EARLY APPROACHES
o Structuralism – used
INTROSPECTION
(act of looking inward to examine mental experience) to determine the underlying STRUCTURES of the mind oi bFunctionalism
– need to analyze the
PURPOSE of behavior
● APPROACHES KEYWORDS bo Psychoanalytic/dynamic – unconscious,
childhood oi bBehavioral
– learned, reinforced oi bHumanistic
– freewill, choice, ideal,
actualization oi bCognitive – Perceptions, thoughts oi bEvolutionary – Genes oi bBiological – Brain, NTs oi bSociocultural – society oi bBiopsychosocial – combo of above
● PEOPLE:
o Mary Calkins: First Fem. Pres. of APA
o Charles Darwin Natural selection evolution oi bDorothea Dix Reformed mental institutions in U.S.
o Stanley Hall 1
st pres. of APA1
st journal oi bWilliam James Father of American
Psychology – functionalist oi bWilhem Wundt: Father of Modern
Psychology – structuralist oi bMargaret Floy Washburn–1st fem. PhD
o Christine Ladd Franklin – st fem RANDOM TERMS
o Basic research – purpose is to increase knowledge (rats)
o Applied research – purpose is to help people oi bPsychologist – research or counseling MS or PhD
o Psychiatrist – prescribe medications and diagnose – M.D.
Research Methods EXPERIMENT : Adv researcher controls variables to establish cause and

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