Contents Introduction 2 Learning focus 3 Victorian Essential Learning Standards 4 Teaching and learning activities 6



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Victorian Essential Learning Standards
LOTE Unit Plans

The Great Wall of China
Level 6 (Pathway 2):

Chinese, Interpersonal Development, Thinking, Communication



Contents


Introduction 2

Learning focus 3

Victorian Essential Learning Standards 4

Teaching and learning activities 6

Cluster 1: Activities engaging word ontelligence 7

Cluster 2: Activities engaging logic and mathematical intelligence 9

Cluster 3: Activities engaging space and vision intelligence 10

Cluster 4: Activities engaging body intelligence 11

Assessment 12

Unit resources 14

List of resources 14

Student materials 15

Glossary of Vocabulary 16

Oh, I Know I Know! 18

My Secret Messages 18

My Calligraphy 19

Published by the Department of Education


March 2007
© State of Victoria 2007



Introduction
In The Great Wall of China unit, students explore Chinese ancient civilisation and its impact on their life in the 21st century. Students use individual and cooperative learning tasks to complete an in-depth study of the language related to specific knowledge; they look at the core communication skills of listening, reading and viewing, speaking and writing in Chinese; and they obtain cross-cultural and intercultural understandings that are all defined as the key elements of communicative competence.
Students work individually as well as cooperatively in teams to develop, analyse and implement: group tactics; presentation skills using various presentation forms for a range of purposes and audiences; and thinking skills of reflection, evaluation and metacognition.
This unit provides opportunities for students to demonstrate achievement against the standards in Chinese (LOTE), Interpersonal Development, Communication and Thinking.

Learning focus
This unit addresses learning focus statements from all three strands at Level 6:
Physical, Personal and Social Learning
Interpersonal Development

  • work in teams to assign and take leadership roles, gain confidence in revealing own views, allocate tasks, determine action plans, monitor and evaluate task achievement

  • assess own contribution to the team and provide useful feedback to peers

  • reflect on the success of team management and learning in achieving agreed goals.


Discipline-based Learning
LOTE (Chinese – Pathway 2)

  • learn to communicate in Chinese in relation to the tasks defined

  • interact and communicate to exchange information and opinions on topic-specific issues

  • discuss the general concept of culture associated with the topic, identify general cultural patterns.


Interdisciplinary Learning
Communication

  • organise ideas into a coherent structure and make appropriate adjustments of ideas and mode of presentations in response to feedback to suit an audience

  • experiment with communicating complex ideas in a variety of ways

  • increasingly use metaphors and symbols to communicate

  • use agreed criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of these presentations.

Thinking



  • develop and modify questions and elicit information from a variety of sources

  • analyse the relationships between ideas to connect existing knowledge and new information and synthesize them to form coherent bodies of knowledge

  • recognise gaps in their understanding

  • identify assumptions that may underpin a particular line of reasoning

  • put effort into sustained thinking in order to construct deep comprehension of key concepts.

Victorian Essential Learning Standards

The Great Wall of China can be used to assess a range of Victorian Essential Learning Standards.
The table below is an example of how this unit might be used to assess some Level 6 standards.


Strand

Domain

Dimension


Key elements of standards



Physical,

Personal and

Social Learning


Interpersonal

Development




Working in teams


Students:

... engage all team members in group processes...

…use strategies when creating ideas and solving problems…

…use strategies for motivating group members and working towards task completion…

…able to evaluate group task performance.


Discipline-based Learning

LOTE

(pathway 2)



Communicating in a LOTE

... recall the main points from the spoken texts through oral responses to questions…

... order and present information in a given format (diagram, graph or chart)…

... participation in oral interaction on factual topics using recycled or modelled language and appropriate pronunciation, tone and intonation…

…comprehend key points of information when reading short modified texts…

…aware of context-sensitive language use through appropriate register, body language and gestures.


Intercultural knowledge and language awareness

...identify general cultural patterns that flow across specific settings…

…understand some cultural influences on the ways people behave and use language…

…contributes to discussions about the general concept of culture and the relation of cultures to each other…

…demonstrates an awareness of difference and similarity between languages…

…awareness of language rules applied to and patterns found in speech and writing in familiar situations.


Interdisciplinary Learning

Communication

Presentation

…experiment with different presentation content and form (the use of humour, audio, etc)…

…skill in identify specific aspects of their own and others’ work (expressive, technical or aesthetic qualities)…

…commentary on the effectiveness of strategies used by others in developing their presentations, and suggestions for alternatives…

…choice of appropriate domain-specific vocab and conventions for particular tasks.



Thinking

Reasoning, Processing & Inquiry

…conduct information search from varied sources…

…discriminate the way they use a variety of sources…

…validate existing knowledge, build ideas, make connections and create new knowledge.


Reflection, Evaluation & Metacognition

…analyse alternative perspectives and perceptions…

…make informed decisions based on their analysis.






Teaching and learning activities

Refer to Unit resources (see page 11) for materials required throughout the unit, and for other student and teacher support materials.

To comply with both Principle 3 and 4 of the PoLT, all learning activities in this unit are organised into clusters of learning tasks reflecting the concepts of Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence and Bloom’s Taxonomy (see Teaching and learning resources). To complete this unit of work, each and every student in your class should complete a minimal of two or three clusters of tasks (at your discretion) with the cluster of word intelligence tasks as the compulsory one for all. Please feel free to adapt the workload and activities in this unit to suit your own situation.

Teachers should also be mindful that assessment practices are always an inseparable part of teaching and learning (PoLT: Principle 5). Teachers should at all times attempt at engaging students in the assessment process (assessment as) and inform their own teaching using the assessment results (assessment for). Please refer to Teaching and learning resources and PoLT for details.

Interpersonal skills and thinking skills are both an integral part of this unit of work. Students may discuss and learn about the work of these skills (see Teaching and learning resources) in separate arrangements prior and during the course of this unit. Opportunities should be allowed for students to apply these skills in the completion of tasks chosen, as well as to be assessed for reporting.

Teachers introduce this unit of work by showing students the BBC documentary Mysteries of Asia Secrets of The Great Wall and possibly one of the films (The Emperor And His Shadow, The Emperor And The Assassin, Fight And Love With A Terracotta Warrior, Hero) related to the content of the topic.

For the non topic specific linguistic elements (vocabulary and grammar) appropriate to this unit, teachers may refer to the CSFII web page for details (http://csf.vcaa.vic.edu.au/home.htm). Teachers should be mindful about the difference of CSF and VELS levels. For the topic specific vocabularies, teachers may engage their students and work out the specific list in a joint effort. Alternatively, they may refer to the list provided in the sample history unit which is published together with this unit under the same topic of The Great Wall of China. A Chinese glossary, though, is also provided as a teacher resource in this unit.
Cluster 1: Activities engaging word ontelligence
1. Facts file

Students research the following issues and conduct a PowerPoint presentation



  • when was the Great Wall initially built?

  • how and why was the Great Wall built?

  • why was the Emperor Qin Shi Huang so important in Chinese history?

  • what were the strategies the Emperor Qin Shi Huang employed to strengthen his rule after he unified the country?

  • why was the Silk Road so important in Chinese history?

This activity engages comprehension, application, analysis and evaluation in Bloom’s Taxonomy.


2. A to Z

With reference to all resources (internet, books, dictionaries, class notes, peers, etc), students play A to Z with words (Pinyin and Chinese characters) around the vocabulary in Chinese associated with the Great Wall, the Silk Road and the Emperor Qin Shi Huang. The whole class will work together to create a list of the 20 most important words. Refer to Student Material (see page 14).


This activity engages remembering in Bloom’s Taxonomy.
3. Picture dictionaries

Students of different language abilities work cooperatively in groups of two to learn the meanings, spellings and pronunciations of the list of key vocabularies identified in the previous activity with teacher assistance. They then design and create their own picture dictionary accordingly.


This activity engages remembering, understanding and analysing in Bloom’s Taxonomy.
4. Sound discriminations

Students develop a set of sound discrimination exercises base on the chosen vocabularies and use that with the rest of the class under teacher supervision. Refer to Student Material (see page 15).


This activity engages remembering, understanding, applying, analysing and creating in Bloom’s Taxonomy.
5. Sentencing

Students, working in groups of three, create as well as practise saying their own secret messages (minimum of three) using their LOTE knowledge of both previous and present learning. Each group will then take turns to read out their messages and the group which gets most of the correct translations wins an award. Refer to Student Material (see page 16).


This activity engages understanding, analysing and creating in Bloom’s Taxonomy.
6. Descriptors

Students, working in groups of three, chose two from a list of ten topics identified by you as a teacher in relation to the key persons, historical events, legends and policies associated with the Great Wall and the Emperor and write a description of eight sentences (minimum) about each topic using either Pinyin or characters. All topics should be covered. Peer assessment of the completed works should be organised amongst groups upon completion.


This activity engages analysing, evaluating and creating in Bloom’s Taxonomy.
7. Conference speakers (advocate)

In groups of two, prepare a conference speech. Students should put together a logical, rational argument for the propositions that:



  • the Great Wall was effective/ineffective in defending the nomadic invasions

  • the Emperor Qin Shi Huang was/was not a cruel man at heart.

This activity engages understanding, analysing, evaluating and creating in Bloom’s Taxonomy.

Cluster 2: Activities engaging logic and mathematical intelligence

1. Timelines

In groups of two, students develop timeline charts (in Chinese) including:



  • all the major battles won/lost by the solder of Qin under the rule of Emperor Qin Shi Huang prior to him unifying the whole country

  • the Qin, Han, Tang, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties.


2. Abacus

Learn to use the abacus and practise adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing with it. Learn all the key words in Chinese.


3. Calculator

Research the measurements (e.g. the width, height, length) of the Great Wall at different periods of Chinese history (Qin, Han and Ming dynasties) and calculate the total number of cubic meters of earth each used in the construction of the Great Wall. Learn all the key words in Chinese.


4. Venn diagram

Use a Venn diagram to compare the similarities and differences between the way China was ruled under the Emperor Qin Shi Huang and the way Australia is run by the current three tiers of government.


5. Rankings and ratings

Consider and rank all the measures taken by Emperor Qin Shi Huang to establish a central ruling system for the first time in Chinese history. Justify your rankings.


6. Six Thinking Hats

Use deBono’s Six Thinking Hats to analyse one of the following topics:



  • the Emperor’s strategies to develop his own warring state so that there would be ample supply of foods and materials in the wars he launched later against all other states

  • the Emperor’s decision to order so many terracotta warriors to be made to safeguard him after his death.


Cluster 3: Activities engaging space and vision intelligence
1. Map drawing

Draw the map of China including all seven warring states around 250BCE. Students should manage to clearly identify the locations of all sections of the Great Wall and the route of the Silk Road on the map. Students should learn all the key words in Chinese


2. Draw what you know

Draw:


  • the portrait of the Emperor Qin Shi Huang base on your understanding about him

  • the portraits of a terracotta warrior in different poses

  • the sketch map of the royal palace constructed for the Emperor Qin Shi Huang

  • the weapons used by the Emperor’s army.


3. Slide shows

Use PowerPoint to create slide shows for one or two of the following:



  • a story of the Emperor’s childhood

  • the construction process of the Great Wall

  • the trading activities that occurred along the Silk Road

  • the procedure used to make a terracotta warrior.


4. Designer

Based on their knowledge of related areas, students design each of the following to represent the Kingdom of Qin:



  • a flag

  • a badge

  • a logo, or a T-shirt.


5. 2D/3D Modeling

Students create replicas of some works of art based on those made during the Chinese Qin, Han, Tang or Ming dynasty. It must be accompanied by a written note including the following information:



  • the time it was first created

  • what was the function of it

  • approximate area of origin

  • how it was made (e.g. materials, tools, etc).

Examples: painting, calligraphy, pottery, ceramic painting, mask-making, toy-making, model of ancient architecture, etc.


Cluster 4: Activities engaging body intelligence

1. Body sculpture

Recall two or three scenes from the visual resources. As a group, students act out the scenes.


2. Chinese calligraphy

In groups of three, students to use Chinese brushes and ink and draw the chosen Chinese characters (e.g. ‘the Great Wall’) using different colours to create a rainbow effect on a piece of paper (see page 17). All group members must be engaged in the activity.


3. Performer

In groups, plan, rehearse and act out their understanding of two of the scenes for 60 seconds.



  • the Emperor Qin Shi Huang and his warrior

  • the officers and labourers at the construction site of the Great Wall

  • the child Emperor and his teacher.


4. Puppeteer

In groups, put together and rehearse a short silent puppet show using finger puppets or paddle pop stick puppets, about an argument between the emperor and his assassin.


5. Sculptor

Make a model of three people of significance using clay, plasticine, pipe cleaners or other materials.

Assessment
The Victorian Essential Learning Standards supports a combination of assessment practices:


  • assessment of learning (summative)

  • assessment for learning (formative)

  • assessment as learning (ongoing)




Domains/Dimensions


Assessment Focus

(Outline specific knowledge, skills and behaviours that each assessment task will focus on)



Assessment Tasks

(C: Cluster



A: Activity)

LOTE

  • communication in Chinese



  • intercultural knowledge and language awareness

Ability to

  • recall the main points from the spoken texts through oral responses to questions

  • order and present information in a given format (diagram, graph or chart)

  • participation in oral interaction on factual topics using recycled or modelled language and appropriate pronunciation, tone and intonation

  • comprehend key points of information when reading short modified texts

  • aware of context-sensitive language use through appropriate register, body language and gestures.




  • identify general cultural patterns that flow across specific settings

  • understand some cultural influences on the ways people behave and use language

  • contributes to discussions about the general concept of culture and the relation of cultures to each other

  • demonstrates an awareness of difference and similarity between languages.






  • C1A5



  • C1A2, C1A3, C1A4, C1A6

  • C2A1,




  • C4A3-4



  • C1A6



  • C1A6, C1A7



  • C1A1




  • C1A2-7, C2A1, C4A3-4,



  • C2A5


  • C1A2-7, C2A1, C4A3-4,



Interpersonal Learning

  • working in teams

Ability to

  • engage all team members in group processes

  • use strategies when creating ideas and solving problems

  • use strategies for motivating group members and working towards task completion

  • able to evaluate group task performance.




  • C1A2 – A7, C2A1, C2A3




  • C2A4, C2A6, C4A1-6




  • C1A3, C1A4,



  • all group tasks

Thinking Process

  • reasoning, processing & inquiry



  • reflection, evaluation & metacognition

Ability to

  • conduct information search from varied sources

  • discriminate the way they use a variety of sources

  • validate existing knowledge, build ideas, make connections and create new knowledge.




  • analyse alternative perspectives and perceptions

  • make informed decisions based on their analysis.







  • C1A1, C2A1




  • C1A2




  • C1A7, C2A3,


  • C2A4, C2A5, C3A2,




  • C2A4, C2A6,

Communication

  • presentation

Ability to

  • experiment with different presentation content and form (the use of humour, audio, etc)

  • skill in identify specific aspects of their own and others’ work (expressive, technical or aesthetic qualities)

  • commentary on the effectiveness of strategies used by others in developing their presentations, and suggestions for alternatives

  • choice of appropriate domain-specific vocab and conventions for particular tasks.




  • C1A3, C1A6-7, C3A2-6, C4A1-6



  • C1A3, C1A6-7, C3A2-6, C4A1-6


  • C1A3, C1A6-7, C3A2-6, C4A1-6



  • C1A3, C1A6-7, C3A2-6, C4A1-6



Key Features/Evidence

(State what key features of student performance teachers expect to see.)
At this chosen level, students are in year 9 and 10. Their progress should match the related progression points 5 to 6 at the end of each semester. If a student’s performance matches a progression point either higher or lower than the designated progression point, this student in particular is either performing above or below the level required.


Below the Level

At the Level

Above the Level

refer to progression points below 5 of the related domains


refer to progression points 5 to 6 of the related domains

refer to progression points 5.5 and above of the related domains


Unit resources

List of resources



DVD

Mysteries of Asia - Secrets of The Great Wall and possible one of the films


The Emperor And His Shadow



The Emperor And The Assassin,
Fight And Love With A Terracotta Warrior,

Hero



Books

Tim McNeese The Great Wall of China


, Lucent Books, 1997.
Eleanor J. Hall Ancient Chinese Dynasties
, Lucent Books, 2000.
Software

Microsoft Word

PowerPoint

Flash


Movie Maker
Websites

At the time of publication the URLs (website addresses) cited were checked for accuracy and appropriateness of content. However, due to the transient nature of material placed on the Internet, Their continuing accuracy cannot be verified. Teachers are strongly advised to prepare their own indexes of sites that are suitable and applicable to this unit of work, and to check these addresses prior to allowing student access.
Chinese Cultural Studies

http://acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~phalsall/images.html#Archaeology
The Great Wall: A Virtual Tour

http://www.chinavista.com/travel/greatwall/greatwall.html
Asia For Educators

http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/


Melbourne Museum

http:/melbourne.museum.vic.gov.au


Victorian Essential Learning Standard

For information regarding Level 6 standards

http://vels.vcaa.vic.edu.au
Principles of Learning and Teaching

http://www.sofweb.vic.edu.au/pedagogy/plt/index.htm
VCAA CSFII

http://csf.vcaa.vic.edu.au/home.htm

Teacher materials
Teaching and learning resource

This document provides information about teaching and learning strategies referred to in the unit. It is available at http://vels.vcaa.vic.edu.au/support/teaching.html.


Assessment resource

This document provides information about assessment strategies referred to in the unit. It is available at http://vels.vcaa.vic.edu.au/support/assessment_resource.html.


Student materials

A to Z (page 17)


Oh, I Know, I Know! (page 18)
My Secrete Messages (page 19)
My Calligraphy (page 20)
Using the student materials

The student and teacher support materials provided are designed to assist teachers in guiding the learning process. These are available to download and modify.

Glossary of Vocabulary



  1. the Great Wall: 长 城 cháng chéng




  1. Qin Dynasty: 秦 朝 qín cháo




  1. Han Dynasty: 汉 朝 hàn cháo




  1. emperor: 皇 帝 huáng dì




  1. nomadic tribe: 游牧 部落 yóu mù bùluò




  1. mile: 英里 yīnglĭ




  1. to protect: 保卫 băowèi




  1. the Silk Road: 丝绸之路 sī chóu zhī lù




  1. to unify: 统一 tŏng yī




  1. cruel: 残酷 cán kù




  1. why: 为什么 wèi shén me




  1. how: 怎样 zĕn yang




  1. terracotta warrior 兵马俑 bīng mă yŏng




  1. assassin: 刺客 cì kè




  1. army: 军队 jūn duì




  1. weapon: 武器 wǔ qì




  1. abacus: 算盘 suàn pán




  1. strategy: 决策 jué cè




  1. great: 伟大 wĕi dà

A To Z



Complete this task as per requirement set out in Cluster 1, Activity 2. Circle 20 of the most important ones using coloured pens.







The Great Wall

The Silk Road

The Emperor Qin

A










B










C










D










E










F










G










H










I










J










K










L










M










N










O










P










Q










R










S










T










U










V










W










X










Y










Z










Oh, I Know I Know!









A

B

C




A

B

C




A

B

C




A

B

C




A

B

C




A

B

C




A

B

C




A

B

C




A

B

C




A

B

C




A

B

C




A

B

C



My Secret Messages


1.




2.




3.




4.




5.





The Messages of Other Groups

1.




2.




3.




4.




5.









My Calligraphy












* This is a sample only. Teacher may wish to choose their own characters. This template can be made by following the procedures below in Microsoft Word:



  • create your own form with appropriate number of squares

  • add shade of light grey to the form by highlighting it first and then chose borders and shade

  • write the characters in the squares, and change the character colour to white.








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